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Full text of "Chtenīi︠a︡ po istorīi Zapadnoĭ Rossīi"

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Kott TOHKH 3ptHi§ M09KH0 npaBHJibHie oi^tHH^aTB npomeAmee h HacToan^ee 
sanaxHoft Poccm?— 4. Gbabh aanaAHoft Poccm cb BocTO^Hoft, h o6in,iQ ipy- 
AH vb CTpooHiH pyccKaro rocjAapcTBa. — 6. IIojrBCKoe BJiiflHie ea ncTopH- 
HecRjK) 2EH8HB sauaAHofi PoccIh h nenajiBHUfl noojiiACTBifl aioro BJiiflHia.— 
T.IIojiBCKoe JiaxEHCTBO, mjiflxeTCTBo. — 8. CpaBHeme BOCTO^HO-pyccKoft shshh 
H nojiBCKoft. — 12. yacHeHie saAani Haomx'B HTenift. — 12. SaMinaHia o jra- 
TepaTjpi^, o(h>acHaK>ii(6ft HCTopin sanaAHoft Poccm, — jraiepaiypa nojiBCRaa, 
pyccKaa Boo^n^e, M'i^CTHaa sanaAHo-pyccKaa 1 — 22. 

MreHie If. 22. BTHorpa^H^ecKia h CTaTncxEHecKia cB^A^Hia o sanaAHOfl 
PocciH. — 26. PyccRie: iiajiopocciftCEoe h OijiopyccKoe njiexa. UojiosceHie exb 
cipaHH. BuTOBua oco66hhocth. — 84. UjieMeHHaa h HCTopsHecKaa CBasB xes- 
Ay HHMH. $H8HHecRia yAo6cTBa H npenaiCTBia kb aTOny.— 35. JlnTOBCKift 
HapoAB. Ero M'&CToacHTejiBCTBo, oco6eHHocTH^ oTHomema ki sanaAHO-pyccKO- 
xy HapoAy. — 39. ^haobckob Hacejieme. Ero M^^CTOsaiejoLBCTBO, oTHomema 
K^ HapoAy sanaAHO-pyccKOHy, a TaKse b% H^Mi^aHi, noJUKaMB h Kb boctoh- 
Hoft Pocciz. — 42. Oco6eHHOCTH sHAOBCTBa, H^^maBii^ia SHAam A'i^'SaTBCa 
pyccRHMH rpaacAaaaMH. — 45. IIojiaKn, hxb cocjiOBHoe noaioaceme, oTHomeme 
EB HapoAy. — 48. O^n^ift BsrjtaAB na nojuoseaie sanaAHott Poccm. 22 — 49. 

HreHie III. 49. Hciopia sanaAHoft Poccis ao xaTapcRaro Era. — 53. Go- 
cpeAOTOHenie pyccKo-cjiaBaHCKoft sebhe y Jtainpa. — 54. JlB-fe ECTopBHe- 
CKia saAaHE pyccKaro napoAa: aa boctok^^ — 6opB($a cb asiaiCREHB HipoMi, 
na sanaA^ — OTHomeaie pyccRaro aapoAa Kb sanaAHUHB cjiaBaaaicB e h^h- 
uaiTB. PpoiiaAHHa xpyAHocTE diEXi saAaHB pasieAHnanTB o6i noJOBEHu 
pyccRaro aapoAa. — 59. IlonuTRE nojioi^RErB e rajmip^EX^B RHaseft o^paso- 
BaTB rocyAapcTBeHHue nyiRTu bb Bi^jiopyccifl e b% ^epBoaaoft PycE. Bee- 
cjiaBE^E nojioipcie. IlaAeHie nojioipcaro RHaasecTBa. — 64. PociECJiaBSHE ra- 
jiEARie. UpeRpaii^eHie exb poAa.— 66. KaasBa npE-npEneTcsie. IlaAeHie exi. 



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KHflSBJi BOJomcKie. — 67. OdieAHHeHie Bojihhh h FajiHi^iH. IIoMepacKa co 
CTopoHU CHOJieHCRHX'b EHaseft. TaiapcRoe HamecTBie paspymaeTi saAaiKH 
HOBofi BOJOiHCKO-rajmiQEoft H CKOJieHCKoft rocyxapcTBeHHOCTH . . . 49—68. 

HTeHie IV. 69. Oiepxi cocToanifl sanaAHott Poccm nocii TaTapcRaro pas- 
rpoxa. — 70.Bo8CTaHOBaeHie rocjAapcTBeHHOCTH BiraJOUQLo-BOjniHCKoirb khji- 
secTBib AamHJioirb PoManoBHHeii'b. G^JHaseHie ero cb sanaAOMi. — 71. Heo6- 
xoAHHOCTb noA^HHHTi»cfl BaTuv. HoBoe c6jmseHie ci sanaxoxi. GjiaBa Ja- 
HiHjia. — 74. Taiapu paspymavT'b Morjn^ecTBo rajiHiQco-BOjniHCEaro KHsse- 
CTBa. UoJETHHecRafl Teopifl laTapi. Pasopesie rajiHiuco-BOjniHCKHX'b Kpino- 
CTOfi. BofiHa ci» coDBHHKaHH rajraiqcHxi KHsseft h Tpe^OBaaie rajiHi9caro Boft- 
CKE. BucTpoe ocia($ieHie raiHiuco-BOJOiHCRaro KHaaKecTBa. Pa8Apo6jieHie ero. 
IloAHHHeHie OAHot HacTH ero UojihBvbf coeAHHeme ociaji&Hofl ci ihtobckhxi 
KHJiseeTBOHi. — 75. Onepsi HCTopin JiHTOBcsaro KHflsecxBa. IIpHHHHu 6h- 
CTparo BOSHHKHOBeHifl JiHTOBCKaro BHflsecTBa. BepxHaa JlHTsa. Bucipoe 
c6sBxeine ea ci Pjcbio. Erxehsl JlHiBa hjih Hhjai*- OdcioflxejibCTBa, bh- 
SBaBink ee HanonpHn^e HciopHHecKoft a^atojibhocth. — 77. TeBTOHCsift h 
juBOHCRift opAena. Hxi nocejieHie no cocbACTBj ci JIhtboA. — 77. HcTopia 
9THXI opAenoB'b. IIpHHitHnu jsn* HCTopinecEoft A^flTenHOcra, pejrariosHufl 
H HaiQOHajiBHHfl. A&BJi^Hie Ha HHSHDi) JEhibj. — 80. ABHsenie dToft no- 
ejiiAHeft Ha kfo-boctok^, bi pjccKia o6jiacTH. OdpasoBanie iHTOBCKo-pyc- 
CKaro rocjAapcTBa. — 80. SaitiHaTejibH^flHiie ehabbh joiTOBCEie ao FeAHXHHa. 
Bxb nojniTHEa. JIjHmift hcxoab hsi TpjAHaro nojoseHifl, — cj^JiHseme Cb 
pyceKHKH 69—83. 

HreHie V. 83. OnepKi BHyTpeHHHTo, flsunecKaro 6uTa JIhtbu. — 85. JIh- 
TOBCBaa MHeojorifl. JlHTOBCRia 6osecTBa. KanHn^a. — 87. AsHHecEaa jihtob- 
CKaH iepapxifl, KpHBd-spHBeftTa, spHBeftTu, BaftAOJioTu h BafiAeioTKH. JIh- 
TOBCKie npasAHHBH. BasHoe SHa^eHie BaftAOJioTOBi. — 89. Tpjahoctl pas- 
pjmHTB BupadoTaHHjn jihtobcrji) CHCTeiiy pejiHrioBHjn j^aHaTEHecRHiiH wb- 
paxH. BjiaronpisTHoe OTHomoHie vb stohi cjiynat ri jiHTBHHaM'b pjccRHXi. 
IIpBnHHii, coA^^flcTBOBaBmifl c^jmseHix) jehtbhrobi ci pjccrhmh: xapaRiepi 
npasocjiaBui, totobhoctb pjecRHxi hoahehhtbch jraTOBCRoft rocjAapcTBeHHO- 
CTH, HCTopHHecRaa 6jm80CTB RB jiHTBHHaMB ({^JiopyccoBB, nojHTHHecRifl no- 
tfyaRAOHifl jmTOBCRHXB RHflseft yAajiHTBCH ebb ^MyAH Ha nro-BOCTORB, rb 
sanaAHofi Poccin. SLcbuq h nojiHue cji^ah pyccRaro cRjaAa »h3hh bb^ JIht- 
bu. nojiHTHHecRiH nocji^ACTBia dToro — pyccRoe HanpaBJieeie jraTOBCRoft hc- 
Topin. ApoBHie npHsnaRn aioro — o($pyc^Hie ApoBHiftmsxB jihtobcrhxb rhh- 
aRecRHXB poAOBB. — 92. OjiBrepA'B — npeACTaBHiejiB pyccRaro HanpaBJieHifl 
vb nojiHTHHecRoft SH8HH jiHTOBCRaTO RHflsocTBa. yBejuHieme ero BJiaA^nift 
vb sanaAHOfi MajiopocciH h BjdflHui na boctor^ otb J^H^npa. Gnjia pyccRaro 
BjexeHTa bb JEhtb^ npn neMB.- 93. IXpHSHaRH pasA^Jienui iieacAy pyccRox) 
H acMyACROD JIhtbo». BH^mniH TpyAHOCiH h BHyTpeHnia CHyiu wb JIhtb^ 



VIU 

nocjrb CMepTH Ojarep^^a. flraftjio, KeftCTyn, Bhtobti. 06cToaTeibCTBa, no- 

(SjAHBmia flrafijiy HCKaTB C66i co»8HHBOB'b ea CTopont 83—95. 

HreHie VK 95. Pa8A*JieHie cjiaBaHCKHxi HapoAOB'b Ha ^b* b^tbh — bo- 
CTo^HyK) H 8ana;(HyB). TpaHHipj, hxi paa^tMRmia. Sa^anH HCTopffiecKoft 
SH8HH sanaxHux'b cjiaBflHi. — 97. EisBBurasauia MopaBiH h BoJirapiH b'b 
IX B^K-b. — 98. HanjniBi xaABflpi h hib SHaiOHie wb HCTopiH sanaAHHXi 
cjiaBJivb. HcTopHHecEaa sa^aHa HexiH h IIojibiiiH.— 100. Feorpa^ifl h 9T- 
Horpa4>ifl nojiLiDH. HcTopia odpasoBanifl nojiBCKaro rocyxapcTBa. JlexHTU.— 
102. PoxB IlflCTOBi. MeHHCJiaBi I.— 103. BojecjiaBi BejiHKifl. OcJia6jieHie 
nojiBCRoft ^ocyJ^apcTBeHHocTH. PasAiJeHie IIojiBniH na y^tJH. YcHJieHie 
mjflxTu.H 0€Jia6:ieHie noJiBCKofi rocyAapcTBenHocTH na sanaA^* bb o6jiacTH 
BejHKonojiBCKaro njieiieHH.— 106. BjiaAHCJiaBB JIoKeTeKB. CocpeROTO^eme 

nOJIBCKHXB CMB BB oCjiaCTH MaJEOnOJIBCKarO DJieMeHH.— 107. KasHMipB 

BejEHKifi. noA^EHeHie JiaTHHo-repHaHCKHHB HanajiaHB. 3a($BeHie aapOA- 
HuxB HanajB. ^BHseHie nojiBCKaro eapoAa bb pyccm seiLiH. — 109. ffie- 
CTom CMyTu nocii KasHicipa. — 111. HcTopHHecicifl CBaan UoJiBniH cb 

JThtbod 95—114. 

HreHfe VII. 114. noioseHie iHTOBCBaro BnasecTBa bo Bpeia coexHHO- 
aia ero cb IIojiBinefi. — 116. YcjioBia coeAHHeaia JIhtbu cb IIoJiBmeft. — 
1 18. JiHTOBCRo-pyccKia CTpoHJieHia kb aesaBHCHMOCTH otb IIojtBmH. M'j^pu 
npoTHBB HHXB. Hapymeaie ycJiOBifi coDsa. CKapraftjio, Bhtobtb.— 121. Bopi»- 
6a H npHMEpeaie BaioBTa cb HratJioft. HoBHa BoscTaaia bb aHTOBCKoifB 
KHasecTB'ib. — 128. rpDHBajEBAeacKaa dHTBa.— 130. FopoAeJiBCKid cefiHi 
(1413 r.). PasBeAHHeme jhtbhhobb h pyccKHXB, BOSBiiineHie jraTOBcisaro 
BJieMeHTa a yaHseaie pyccEaro. — 133. HocjiiAHia apeMeaa npaBJiema Bh- 
TOBTa.— 136. CBHAparaftjio, CnrHSMyHAB.-— 141. OacHBJieaie h o6i»eAHHe« 
Hie JiHTOBCKaro a pyccRaro dJieMeaioBB npa KasHMipt. BopB6a aHTOBCKaro 
KaasecTBa cb UojiBoieft sa aesaBHCHMOCTB h bi oco^eHHocTs sa Bojuihl h 
noAOJiin. OnacHOCTB paspuaa coiosa JIhtbu cb IIojEBHieft. — 145. JiHTOBcsoe 
RHaacecTBo npa AieKcaaApi. BopB6a aeasAy ahtobckhhb h mocrobckhu 
rocyAapcTBOMB. GRpinjieHie coiosa JIhtbu cb UoJiBmeft bb ROHi^i XT h b% 

HaHaj* XYIcTOJiiTia 114—147. 

HreHie VIII. 147. GocToanie jiHTOBCRaro RHaacecTBa bb HaiajoLi XYI cto- 
Jriiia. — 148. PasjiaAi MeatAy aHTBHHaMH h pyccRHMH sanaAHoft PoccIh. 
HoBua nonuTRH rb BoscTaBOBjeaii) jiHTOBCROft HesaBHCHMOCTH. — 152. Gh- 

FHSliyHAB-ABryCTB J[HT0BCRHMB RHaseHB. — 1 53.JlBT0BCR0e npOTeCTSLHT- 

CTBO. — 156. BaAHHoe o^BeAHaeHie jihtbhhobb h pyccRHXB. — 157. Gr- 
nisifyHAB-ABrycTB hoibcrhmb RopojieMB. JlaTHHoaoiBCRia Bjuaaia aa nero.- — 
158. BayTpeaaift pasjiaAB bb jihtobcroitb RaasecTBt. Boflaa cb mockob- 
CRHHB RHasoHB. 3a6oTU coeAHBeaiH jraTOBcaaro RHasecTaa cb IIojiBnieft.. — 
161. AoaioBpeHeHHua nparoTOBJieHia. — 162. Jln^xHHCRift cefixB 1569 r. 



IX 

Cnopur lesAy JHTBHHaiiH h noJAKaxn. YxajieHie ci ceftiia jihtbbhobi, IIpH- 
coe^HHeHie k% Uosbmt floAJiicBii, Bojihhh h ideBCKOft o^jmcTH. HeyxaHHUH 
BonHTKH JHTBHHOB'B paspymHTb 8T0 ji^^JLO. HeffocTaTOKi^ eAHHOxymifl MesxY 

JHTBHHaMH H pJCCKHXH. HoCJltXHiA HOIIUTBH JHTBEBOBl CnaCTH T^Hb JIH- 
TOBCKOfi SesaBHCHMOCTH. AkTI ^I06jIHHCKOft JhIh 147 — 167. 

HreNie IX. 167. IlocJitxcTBiA Jii)6j[HHCKoft ymH. OnepKi* eocTOJiHix jih- 
iHTOBCKaro KHflsecTBa orb nepBaro coexHHeHifl ero ci QoJBmeft xo jn>($JiHH- 
CKofi ymH. OrxiJiBHocTB JIhtbh oti UoJiBniH h HapymeHin avoft OTAtjtB- 
HOCTH. — 169. CefiMB jiHTOBCKift H 610 oco^eHRocTH.— 169. FocyxapcTBeH- 
HHe HHHU iHTOBCKie H pasx^JieHie jiHTOBCRaro KHJixeeTBa no ynpaBjenin, 
cyxy. — 171. CocTOiiHie ropoxoBi jiHTOBCRaro iCHiUKecTBa. — 172. Ilojiose- ^ 
Hie KpecTBflHi. — 173. HaiuHBi nojiaROB'B bo BpeMfl npeOuBaHiA Kopojra 

Bl JlHTB'b H OCOCeHHO BO BpCMeHa BOOEHHA. — 175. JtHTOBCRlft CiaTyiB^ 

saKB Bupaseeie shshh JiHTOBCKaro KHaxecTBa.— 176. IlepeBopoTi npo- 
HSBexeHHUft jindJOBHCRofl ymefi. Kopoja, cefiKU, xBopuHCTBo. JlHTOBCKaa 
apHCTOKpaTifl h jchtobcroo niJiflxeTCTBo. FopoxcRoe coejioBie, — xhxu. Xjioh- 
CTBO no leopin nojiBCROIt.— 179. 3HaH6Bie bb stoitb cjiynai naii^ioHajiB- 
Haro H pejiHriosHaro pasjia^ifl. Bi hbd uojibs^ xoJUSHa ttua, CRjioHflTBCJi 
BByTpeHHAfl 6opB(ya .Mesxy Hanajiaiin jraTOBCRaro RnazeeTBa h noJiBCRHMR? 
OOCTOflTOJiBCTBa, He(>jaronpiETHHfl XJi< iHTOBCRaro RHaacecTBa.— 180. Baac- 
Hiftmie ABHiaTeJiH ycntxa noaBCRaro jifkia vb aHTOBCRom RaaacecTBi^ — 
iesyHTH. OnepRi leopin iesynTCTBa h ea npoHCxosxenie.-^ 189. OnepRB 
oprasHsaiuH lesyHTCRaro opxeaa 167 — 187. 

HreHie X. 187. BsexeHie iesyHTOBi bb OojBmy h JlHTsy. — 189. 3a- 
TpyxHHTeaBHoe noaoxenie iesyHTOBB bb BaaBnt. GpexcTBa, ynoTpe6aeHHiia 
BXH xaa ycHaeaia CBoeft Baacia. Hn caMOOTBepacenie. YcTpoftCTBO iesynt- 
CKHXB jHsaHniB. Gnopu cb HHOB%p^aMH. Jlaxenie npoTectaaTCTBa. — 193. IIo- 
iiTHHeeRoe SHaMenie iesynTOBB npa Baxopin. Hxb mapoRift naaaB aa cneii 
Poccifl. Heyxa^a. BaniiaEie hxi cocpexoToniiBaeTca aa sanaxnoft Poccia. 3Ba- 
Heaie hxi npa CarHSxyaxt III. — 195. EUraaB i^epROBnoft yaia. HcTopane- 
caaa noxtOTOaaa vb sanaxaoft Poccia rb yaia. J(Bt napria aeacxy npa- 
Bocai^BBHMa. — 196. PeaaaTeja npaaocaaaia, — naTpoau, 6paTCTBa. J[»- 
XRt cnoeo^Bue aa acaaia cxtaxa. BopB6a aeacxy 9Taaa napTiaaa. Baiaaie 
aa dTy 6opB6y npoTecTaaicTBa, boctohbhxb iepapxoBB a iesyaroBB. — 
200. yaia 1596 r 187-204. 

HreHie XI. 204. iiouuTRB rb sau^ax'b sanaxao-pyccRott caMO<$UTBocTa co 
CTopoBU sanaxao-pyccROfi apacToapaTin.— 207. Goexaaeaie npaaocaaaaHXB^ 
a npoTecTaBTOBB xaa o6mfiti 6opB6u CB-iesyaTCTBoaB. Heyxana. — 211. Xa- 
paRTopacTaaa sanaxao-pyccRaro xBopaaciaa bb aanajii^ XVII CTOJitiia vb 
eoHBReaia OpaaocB.— 212. Ycajda sanaxao-pyccaaro ain^aacTBa rb san^a- 
Ti CBoeft caxoduTBOCTa. B^xcTBeanoe noaoaceaie xiHtaacTBa.— 215. Hso- 




^paaseaie aToro 6tACTBia bi npoiaemu acHiejieft sanaAHofi PoccIh, no ho- 
BOAJ roH6B)fi« Kb nojiBCKOMy cenaTj, 1623 r. A^jso HapoAHoe nepexoxHT'b 
Bi pyKH HapoAa. — 216. 3anaAHO-pjccKoe KosanecTBo. Ero HCTopia. Bopip 
da KOsanecTBa cb aBiaTCRmn* MipoHi. 3HaHeHie AHtnpoBCKaro KOsanecTBa 
AJM sanaAHo-pyccEaro napoAa. BjiiflHie na Hero nojibCKaro npaBHrejib- 
CTBa. — 219. OpraHHaaAia KosanecTBa. Uopna Haiajii AH^npoBCsaro KOBa- 

HecTBa .1 204^22(K 

HreHie XII. 220. OpraHHsai^ifl KOsanecTBa bi 1590 r. Ea DOCJiiACTBia 

, Bb CBa3H ci» uepsoBHOH) jHiefi. Bonpoci Koaai^Kifi oTcpoHHBaeTca BOJiHeHia^ 

MH mjiaxTu Bit Uojibmi h caHosBaHHOCKHMH CMjTaMH wb PoceiH. KpadHaa 

nop^a Ha^ajii KosanecTBa bo Bpexa dTHXi cmjt'b. — 223. IIpodjaExeHie' 

HapoAHaro cosnaHia Vb KosaKaxi. — 224. KoHameBSHi CaraftAaHHufi. IIobo- 

pOTl Bly UOJlHTHHeCEHX'b CTpOKJieHiaXl KOSaKOBb.— 226. XoTHHCKaa dHTBa. 

Bi^ACTBia sanaAHO-pyccKaro aapoAa. — 228. KynueBEHi — BupasHTOAb 
jiaTHHo-nojiBCKaro j^aHaTHSMa; ero cxepTb. HapoAHuft npHSHBi KosaKOBi. To- 
BOHie npaBoejiaBHuxi. JiHmeHie KOsaKOBt Bctxi npaBi. Hxi* BOJiHeaia h no- 
paaceuia. CMepib GnrHSMyHAa III. — 229. PacnoJioaeeHHOCTB BjiaAHCJiana IV 

Iffb KOSaKaHl. IIpOTHBOA'i^fiCTBia nOJiaKOBl* H HOBUa M'bpU np0THB1> EOSaKOB-b 

Bb 1635 r. HoBue 6yHTii. Sfipu ceftiia 1637 r.— 233. Kpaftne 6iACTBeH- 
Hoe nojioseHie MajiopocciH. noaBJienie XvtjibHHipcaro .... 220^-235. 

HTOHle XIII. 235. UepBaa 6opb()a Xii^JibHHiiaro ex noJiaKaMH h Ko;i6($aHia' 
ero nocjii OjiHCTaTejibHux'b nod^Ai naAi* hhmh.— 237. JlBHateme Xxtjib- 
HHi^Raro BByTpb IIoJibniH nocjii CMepiH BjiaAHCJiaBft^ h ero mHpoKie njiaHu. 
i^BHaceme noJuiKOB^b npoTHBi XHi;IbHH^Ka^o nocji^ HsOpania HOBaro Kopojia. 
JQ[tjio 3({opoBCKoe h ero nocji^ACTBia. GAtjocH Xni^JibHHiQcaro ci nojiaKaHH. — 
239. FafiAaMaKH h lepeMia BsniHeBei^Kifi. HeBosHoacHOCTb BunoiiHHTb 360- 
poBCKift TpaKiaTb. HoBaa (5opb6a XntabEHQEaro cb nojiaKaMH< HeyAana ro- 
saROBb. B'bjioi^epROBCRift MHpb H ero TarociH. KpHTHnecRia MSHyiH 3a- 
naAHo-pyccRaro a^m, ~ 241. Pasp-jtmeme ero no yRasamw napoAa. Ilepe- 
cejienia napoAa Ha BocTOHHyio CTopoHy JlH'Inpa Bb npeA'i^JrH HOCROBCRaro ro- 
cyAapcTBa.— 243. SanaAHaa Poccia npnsHaeTi BiacTb AjieRcta Mnxaftjio- 
BHHa. — 243. BoftHa AjieRcia MnxafijiOBE^a c:b IloJibniet Hiib-sa PoceiH sanaA- 
Hoft. IIlBei](ia BOB)eTb Iloabniy. B^ACiBeHHoe noaoAeme IIojibniH.— 245. 05- 
CToaTeabCTBa, HsdaBEBmia ee orb norH6ejiH n npHHHHU HeyAani AjieRd^a 
MHxaftaoBHHa. IlepeMHpie cb Ilojibmett, CHepib XMiabHHiQcaro ^ 235—247. 

HreHle XIV. 247. CMyiu bi> Maaopoccm bo Biopoft iioaoBHH'ik XVII h b^ 
nepBOJt XVIII CTOJii^Tia. HcTOpHHecRia napiiE bi» Maaopoccin. — 248. Ilap* 
Tia ROsauRaa, npoHHRHyTaa maaxeTCRO*noabCRHMH HaHaaaHH. npeA<^TaBH- 
Teab ea BHroBCRifi. FaAaHCRift AoroBopi bi 1658 r. IIpoTHBOA'&ftCTBie Bu- 
roBCROMy.— 253. IIpHBepaseHf^ii coeAHHeaia Maaopoccin cb MOCROBCRHirb ro- 
cyAapcTBOMb. YcHaeHie B'b Maaopoccin MOCROBCRaFO Baiania. FasaaAi MeacAy 



XI 

KajfOpOCdftCKHMH H XOCEOBCKHMH JIVABMH. GHyTH. AlIXpyCOBCKift XOFOBOpi. — 

255. Typemcaa Kosumcaii napTifl. npeACTaBsrejiB ea AopomoHRO. Boftm Tjp- 
iQH ci Iloji&nieft. yerynKR IIojibuiH. BIixctbui MajiopocdH. Haxeme Typeit- 
Boft Kodaipcoft napxiH h jcHJieirie pycexot. Bofisa Poceix ci Typiqeft. Bin- 
Huft wap'b PocdH ci nojiBmeft. BeaiuioxHOCTB ero jt,jui HajiopocciB.— 259. Ho- 
BUfl CTpoHTeAHUfl CHJOi MajiopocciH.IIajiift h ero saMHCiu. 261. Ilerpi I h ero 
nojiHTHKa no oTHomeHiD Kb samiAHOft PocciH. — 263.HcTop]n6CRaa odcTanoB- 
Ka MajiopocciH vb XVIII CTOJitTis. KpHirb h Typiqn oejra6jieRu h OTpi* 
38HH Poccieft OTi nojiBioH. BesHaAeacHoo HOJioseirie MajiopocciH i/i Bceft sa- 

na^Hot PocciH okojio nojiOBHiiu XVIII ct 247 — 265. 

HreHie XV. 265. 06Ta,ifL xapaKTepi HCTopiH naAeHia pyceRo-nojtBCKaro ro- 
cyAapcTsa, ea ABOflCTBeHHOCTB. Hciopiii mjiaxeTCRO-noJiBCKafl, AmJioiiaTine- 
csaff. HcTopk HapoAHaa, sanaAHO-pyccBax. — 267. GocTOflHie IIojiBmH nps 
ABrycrl III.^ 269. IIojioseRie sanaxHO-pyccKaro napoAa. yniaTCKaa npo- 
jiaraBAa vb Bi JopycciH. — 270. mjiaxercKas KOJiOHHsaiuH h ymTCEaa 
nponaraHAa b'b MajiopocciH.— 271. 3axoftcKift co^opi. GTapamfl BBecTH ero 
nocTaBOBJieHis vb MajiopocciH. — 278. OxHSJieRie sanaAVo-pyccKaro napoAa 
eo BCTynjieHieiTB na npecTOJTB EjracaBeTH IleTpoBHU h oco6eHHO npn Esa* 
tepuHt II. — 274. Feoprifi KokflccKit, Pepsacit nepeacjniBCsift h IfejiBXH* 
coAeKi fiBopcKift. — 276. 3RajQ<hii npaBocjiaBEHxi. A^Jia Feoprifl h Hojibxh- 
€ex«Ka. noctn^eme FepBacieiii cBoefi iiacTBu na sanaAHOftciopOHi Jln^npa. — 
276. MtpH yniaTOBi. MoKpui^Kifi.— 277. HeHCTOBCTBa hojibckhx'b boAcbi 
Vb HepKacaxi, ^6otaE% TeJiemiH*, MrjiieB*.— 278. MyHeHHHecTBO J(a- 
flHJiH KymHspa h nepeHoceHie ero rjiaBH bi IlepeflCJiaBJiB. — 280. 3aT0He- 
Hie MejBXHceAeKa. — 281. BojieeHie napoAa. ycHJiiii PepBaciA h ocbo6oahb- 
marocK MeJiBXHceAOKa ycnoKOHTB ero. — 282. 3a6oTH pyccKaro npaBHTOJiB- 
CTBa npaBocjiaBHuxi. AnccHAeHTCKift Bonpoc^ — 283. BapcKaa KOH^e- 
Adpaiaa. TafiAaiiaipcoe BoscTanie h ero HeyAanH. Apecn yHiaTCRHxi cba- 
n^eHHHKOBi. — 287. IlepBuft pasA^JTB UoJiBinH. IIpocB^a HajiopoccoBi nps- 

HHTB HXB nOAl BJiaCTB PoCCis. — 288. GnOKOftHUfl BpeHOHa IIoJEBniH, CTpOH- 

Mm Kb jujimemsacb, pe^opMu. BesnioAHOCTB hxi ejih aubo npoTHBopi- 
Hie HHTepecaxi napoAa. — 289. HapoAHua CTpaAania. MyneHiraecTBO npoTo- 
iepea KHpHJuia 3ejiBHHi^Karo. — 290. MHTponojiHTB EBCOBifi. — 291. Hasea- 
Hesie B'B nojiBCKoe rocyAapcTBo npasocjiaBHaro eimcKona BHKiopa. HeyAo- 
BOJiBCTBie nojiaKOBi. — 294. Apecii BnKTopa. PascjitAOBaHie o BynTaxB. — 
295. IlHHCBafl KOHTperai^ifl. — 297. MafiCKaa KOHCTHTyi^iji. — 298. BMima- 
TejiBCTBo PocciH H IIpycciH. BTopoft pasA'i^JB nojn>mH. — 300. BoacTaHle 
ex noA'B npeABOAHTOJiBCTBovB KocTnmKH. Tperifi pasAtxB. 06mfie saMtna- 

Hie rH6ejiH Hojibbih 265—302. 

HreNie XVI. 302. HojioseHie pyccRHxi odJiacTefl, OTomeAniHX'B otb IIoxbhih 
nocji'lk pasA'i^JiOBB dioro rocyAapciaa. OsHBJEeHie pyccRHxi chjib bb napoAt. — 



/ 



SOSk SosMtaiHeBie juiaTOBii bs Bi.iopjcciH. — 304. HcKjccTBOEBoe niM- 
MTtraie bto«j.— 306. rpoMawiM BoaMeiBHeaie yiuwoBi m, IfeiopocciH,— 
SOe. CHCTeaa jupftueaia npa sHnepaTpBat EssTepHEi. PjccEoa eoioehib- 
IQ8. — 308. nojoKesie otSjacret iscto aoxhciaa'b noia BAscrin iictpii h 
DpycciH. FimHiejUiBaa BeBOiHosBoeiB paiBBBaiBea art hbii MHcn o bosctb- 
HDBMBiH dojibcboB rocyjapcTBeHiociH.— 309. Hacn yta pasBHBaetca hb 
pjCGRoB noiBi. IlepeiitRU vb jopaBieBifl sanaAHolt PocciB npa ButpaTOpt 
IlaBit. — 311. AjuuTB HspiopiittcEiB. Ero Apy^a ci MuepaTopon kne- 
RcaHApom 1. HoBUfl nspeMtEU wi. ynpasjieBiH BaoaxHoB Poccih.— 313. Hayn- 
Boe upeoCpaBoBaHie bi BocnHraEiM naoiiiMTBa bi aanatHofl Poccis. — 
816. IloibeKia DOJBTH^eeKia HaAssAii bb HKnepaiapa ijeacaajipa I-ro. . 
HBAeatjij H» HanojeoHB. Tepi^orcrBa BapaiBBCKoe. Qoabckm QapCTBO. — 
317. BoJiKeBia mukob'b, 3SK0B<iHBa!iaca BoacTBHierft 1881 r. — 318. Ha- 
posHaa BCTopia aanasaofl Poccia loro Bpeaeiia. HoioxeBie yaiBTOBi nocxt 
EKaiepBHu. G'bjtGTBia nm. oit, jiaTsaaBii. HapriB yaiaTCKaB, ciapanniaaca 
aaiDHfliaTB yBin on. laiHacTBa a c6xaawii vb opasocjuieMi. Hhtpobojhti> 
HpaiuiS JlacoBCKiB; enacRoai KpacoBcaiB. Heyjaia hh>. — 321. .UtaieiB- 
ROCTb locH^a GtHamRH. Haaoe BoicoeiBHeaie yaiaToai. — 827. Saiuna- 

MBie 302—333. 

IIoaeEeEia in> aiHurpa^iEiecKofl aapri .?33— 341. 



r 



HTEHIE I, 



Hto hjsho paajH^TB noxi» sanaAHOft Poccieft? Gi KaKoft tohrh spibnia 
losHO npaBHJiLH'le oi^'i^HHsaTB npomeAinee B HacToan^ee sanaAHoft Poccm? 
Cbash sanaAHoft PoccIh c% BOCTOHHofi h o6ii;ie TpjAii vb CTpoeniH pyc^ 
cxaro rocjAapcTBa. IIoJiBCKoe BJiiaHie aa HCTopaHecKyn amsBL sanaAHoft 
Poccia H ne^ajiLBua nocA'ibACTBia SToro BJiiaaia. IIojiLCKoe mjaxeTCTBo. 
GpaBBeaie BOCTO^ao-pyccKofi acasBH h noiBcaoft. Yacaeaie saAani Hamaxi 
iT6flifi. SaM-bnaaia o JiHTepaTjp'b, o6i»acaai)n^eft acTopiio saaaABOft Poccia, 
MTepaijpa noJiBcaaa, pjccaaa aoo^n^e, Mi^CTaaa saaaAao-pjccEaa. 



IIo;^^ HMeHeMt 3ana;i;H0ft Poccin Hy»Ho paajMiTB B4jro- 
pycciK), sana^HHyi) MajiopocciiD, hjh TaB'b HasuBaeMyiD 

yKpafiHy, H JiHTBy BX C06cTBeHH0M'b, nJieHeHHOMl CMBICji, 

T. e. Boo6in;e hoa'b SMeneMi Bana^oft Poccin nysHO pasyM'&TB 
BCD Ty CTpany, KOTopaa jeaHTTb na 3a^a;^•B OTt J^ninpa h 
Dro-Banaj;^ otx ofijacTefi sepxHeS ^bhhh jifi rpaHHii;^ Ilpyc- 
ciH, ;(ajr6e ]i,o IIojLmH, hjih TaK's HaBUBaeMHxt npHBHCj^H- 
CKHXi ry6epHift, h HaKOHe^'B ao rpaHHi^i aBCTpiilcKaro rocy- 
j^apcTBa. Ecj[H ate hm^tb vh bthjij, BaKoio sanaAHa^ Poccia 
6sja npes;i;e n r;i;']^ eiii;e »HBer& TaROH see napo^'B, KaK'B wh 
B'kiopycciH hjih b'b' YKpaiiHi, hjh b'b JEhtB'I, to Hy«HO 
6yAeirb paBABHnyTb yKasanHua Bume rpaHHD;u axoS 

CTpaSH H Ha BOCTOK'B Sa JI^Hinp'B, Vfl^ SHBeTl He MaJTO 

6ijopyccoBib H oco6eHHO HajiopoccoB^b^ h Ha sana^'B b'b 
npeA&[K IIpycciH, T^b shbot^b ?aCTB jhtbhhob'b; A&^e 
HysHO Hxi pasABHHyTB b:b npeA&iu IIojiBinH, ho^th ao 

1 



— 2 — 

Bhcjh, Txb xscBjTh Ha eisep'^ ?acTB jihtbhhob'b, b'b ce- 
pe^HHi TOCTB (^jopyccoBi H Ha E)rt ?acTB HajopoccoBi; 
HaKOHei^ib HysHo nepeABHnyTB axH rpansi^ii sa bocto?- 
HyiD TajLuuXfo bi KpaKOBCKofi o6j[acTH h sa YropBe Benr- 
piH, rA'6 »HByrB Tose Hajopoccs. 
Bcb dTK o6jacTH h bc^ 8th njreMena, sa HCKJiD^emeM's 

yrOpCKHX'B pyCCKHXX, SHBHIHIC'b CI AP^BHHXl BpeMeHi 

OC060X) SH3HiK), H sa HCKJ[K)^eHieifB 6ojiBinefi nacTH Hajo- 

pOCCOB'B Ha BOCTO^HOd CTOpOH^ ^H^npa, C0CTaBJ[A1Dn^H£B 

no3;i;H']^fimifl nocejeHia, Bci diH ofijacTH h njieueHa c% 
HesanaMflTHBrxi BpeiieH^B naxoAHJHCB b:b Gjhskhxi Bsa- 

HMHUX'B CHOmeHiflXl H paSA^JEAJIH Ofl^UJ^ 06myK) HM'B hcto- 

pHqecByK) ynacTB. Ohh bm^t^ (BBJBO^aa A&^e SHa^HxejiB- 
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H aKHjH o6ni;eK) pyccBOBo shshIbo. Bci ohh hotom^, sa 

HeHHOrHMH HCBJ[K)?eHiHHH, nepBHIJIH nO^^'B BJiaCTB JEHTOB- 

cbhx:b KHflsefi h Tose hhjh pyccBOBo shshIk), hm'^jih A^tace 
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nasuBaeMufi sanaAHO-pyccsifi, na BOTopoM'B HanHcano o^shb 
MHoro rpaMorB h BHnr^B, Wh tomi mucjA h bc^ cxapue 
saBOHBi 6HBmaro JHTOBCKaro BHHsecTBa. Bm^ct^ bc% 9th 
o6jiacTH H HJieMena noAnajH saT^Ho^ hoa'b BJiacTB IIoJBniH h 
o;i;HHaKOBO nocTpa;^ajiH ot:b stoS BJiacTH, — noTepHJiH 
no^H Bci CBOH po;(H£ie BHflsecKie h ABopflHcsie po- 
AU, CA^asHiiecfl nojrHRaMH, noTepAJH 6ojLhmjS) ^lacTB 

CBOHX'B pO^HUX^B TOpOSaH'B, TO OnOJA^HBHIHXCfl, TO HO- 

AaBjeHHUx^B »HAaMH, npHHieAHiHMH B'B sanaAHyi) PoeciD 
BM^rb c% HOJiHsaMH, H noTopn^JiH HHoro ApyrHX^ sojob, 

KOTOpua yBHAHM'B HOCJli. HaBOQei^l, BCt 9TH 06jaCTH H 

MeneHa, sa HCSJio^eHieM^B npyccBHxi jthtbhhobs h as- 



\ 



— 3 — 

CTpiSCKHXl MaJIOpOCCOB:B, BOSBpaTHJHCB nOj^^b BJiaCTB Poc- 
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CBOH no^^opBEHHUfl CHJU H BOSHarpaswiDTi noHeceHHUfl 
noTepH. 

HasHBaa bck) btj CTpany aana^Hofi Pocciefi, mh, one- 
BHAHo, CMOipHifB Ha Hoe CB cepeAHHHoft qacTu pyccKaro 
rocy^apcTBa, HacejienHofi u^ijihuuwh, hjiothnm'b pyccKHM'B 
HapoAOM'b; a ecjm oxTy^a cmotp'J^tb Ha 3ana;i;'B, to ji,kme 
vh npocTOMi, reorpa<{)HqecKOM'& CHUCJii, t. e. no uojo- 
semio 3THX's CTpaH'B, MO«HO 6e3'L 6ojihmolk norptniHocxH 
HasBaTB sanaAHog Pocciefi He tojibko EljopycciK), ho h 
YKpafiny h JiHTBy. 

CMOTpixB orryAa na sanaAHyH) Pocciro, hs'b cpe^OTO- 
tia pyccKaro rocy^apcTBa, npH omiHKi ea npomeAniaro 
H HacTOJin];aro nojEOsenifl, 6oAie BasHo, t^m^b sto Moacexi 
nosaBaTBCfl c^ nepBaro pasy. 

ECJH OTQpaBJ[flTBCA B'B 3SLllSLfl,EJ¥) PoCCisO H3'B pyCCRarO 

cpeAOTo^iji, TO npiftAOTCfl HeH36:b»Ho h caMUH'B narjEH^- 
Buwh odpasoM'B yd^AHTBca, ?to sana^Haa PoccIa neco- 
mh^hho pyccKaa cipana h CBHsana cb bocto^hod Poc- 
ciefi Hepa3piiBHUMU y3aHH, hmohho, npifi^eTCfl ?ani;e Bcero 

CaHHM'B He^yBCTBHTOJIBHUMl 05pa30Ma^ HepeXO^HTB 0Tb 

sejiHKopyccoBi k% 6ij[opyccaM'B hjh MajiopoccaM'B; nacTo 
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BejHRopyccKoe nacejEenie h Ha^ajocB 6'i^JiopyccKoe hjh 
Maj[opyccKoe, h bq BcaKOMi cjiy^a^, npifi^eTCfl npH3HaTB, 
HTO Bce 9T0 — OAHHi pyccKift Hapo^T^, OTi AaJiBHaro boc- 
TOKa BHyTpH Poccin ^o oT^ajteHnaro sana^a b:b npe^^- 
jiaxib nojiBHiH H ABCxpiH. ^ase nepexo^A otb 6&iopyc- 

COB'B K'h JIHTBHHail^, Hpifi^eTCa yBHA^TB, >g[T0 H 3TH ^Ba 

njeMBHH T^CHMmHifB o6pa30M:B CBagaHU Mes^y co6o]D h 

I* 



— 4 — 

CMimnwa Ha 6oxhm(fwh npocrpaHCTBi xase no asmcy. 
He roBopHM'B yse o poactb6 h 6jh3octh uexxj 6&iopyc- 
caMH H MajiopoccanBL. 

Ob cepeAHBHoft nacTBi) PoccIh, HacejreHHoi i^BHan'b 

pyCCBHM'B HapOAOM'B, ^(iftCTBHTeiBHO CBJISHBaDirB CHJIBHUa 

H »HBua CM3H H YspafiHy, H BijiopycciiD, a sa hhmh 
rj^SL npHTflrHBaercA ci HesanaMJiTHHxi BpeMenrb h JlHTBa. 
Tyia HX'B HeoAOJiHMO Tanyrb h pyccKaa Bipa ^poMa;^- 
naro 6oJ!binHHCTBa HacejieniA Baaa^HOH PoccIh, h pyccRii 
flsraicB cuiie 6o;iie rpoMa^tnaro ^Hc;ia hxi, h pyccKaa Top- 
ronM, 6ojiie nacyn^Haa ji^a Bceft 3toh CTpano:, ^^mb 
ToproBJH ea Cb sanaAHUMH cocj^a^mh. 

HcTopH^ecKaa, Hapo;i;Haff Tara 3ana;i;Hoft PoccIh k% bo- 
cTo^Hoft CBaBUBajiacB ' B'h MHoroHHCjreHHHxi cjry^aaxB 
jlSime Tor^a, Kor^a dia sanaAHa^ Poccm naxoAHJiacL hoa'b 
nyacoK) BjracTBK), — jiHTOBCKoft, nojiLCKoft, H nija, dobhah- 
MOMy, Bi coBepraeHHo npoTHBonojioatHyK) CTopony. Y^a- 
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AapcTBeHHOMi CTpoeHiH H Kb nepBua, caMUH yacacHUA 
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HHMaa BMicT* CL ApyrnMH ynaBmifi ^yxt Hapo^a, h npn 
na^ajii MocROBCKaro eAHHOAepaaBi;i, Haxo^acB Bt Apy- 
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Aaro. lloABHsajiHCb ohh napa^y ci ^pyrnMH pyccKHMH h 
B^ TpyAH'bftniia npeMena mockobckoS rocyAapcTBennocTH, 
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RyjHROBCRUX'B, MJH npH OepBOlTB ABHSemH pyCCRHX'B B'B 

lOHCHoe rnisAO Taiapi — Kphm-b, npn loanei PposBoirB. 

OlCpySRaJIH OHH BMiCXi CB AipYTlUMH pyCCRHHH HpOCTOJTB 

loaHHa III Ha Bepxy Moryn^ecTsa CTaparo MocROBCRaro 
rocjAapcTBa, PaCoTaXH ohh unoro BMicTi cb Apyrnira 






— 5 — 

pyccRHMH H Bi npocB'^THTejbHOMi ABHSceniH PocciH npH 
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Co({)iH H npK nexp*]^ I, ji^sime 6oJiie 6jaroTBopHo, h^mi 
Hy»ie, npHnuue jiiDAH-HiMi^u. HtKOTopue mi* sana^HO- 

pyCCEHX'B H JIUTOBCKUX'B Jl¥)Jlfi% TpjAHBniHXCA Ha noJiL3y 

BceS .PocciH, ocTaBHjiH aocjii ce6s. neyBJOi^iiaeMyiD cjaBy. 
TaKOBu: ;i;o6j[ecTHuS 3an],HTHHKi» IIcKOBa, jihtobckIS bhasb 
J(oBMOHT^ Cb HHoro^HCJieHHofi Apy^HHoS ero; Be^uKie pyc- 
CKie CBATHTejiH — B)acHopyccu: MHTponoJHTb Ehphj['S II, 

MHTponOJHT^b neipii H UO UpOHCXOSAeHiK) MHXponOJIHT^b 

AjiCKcifi — 9T0Ti> BCJiH^afimifi paTofiopei^i 3a e^HHCTBO 
Bcei PycH, h Bocxo^Hofi, h sana^Hofi; sHaMenuTuS cnoA- 

BH»HHK1» JI^HMHTpia JI,OHCEarO B'B MaHaeBOM'B no6oHui.'&, 

BoeBo;(a BofipoR^-BojLuneii.'B, a xaKse iHTOBCKie khasba 
JI,HMHTpiH H AH;i;peH O^ibrepAOBH^H; a^PobhtuS h Hyse- 
CTBeHHuS saii^HTHHK'b MocKBu Bi> ToxxaMumeBo HamecxBie, 
ihxobcbIh KHflSL Ocxefi; cbpomhuh, ho yqeHifimiS xpyase- 
HHB'B HayKH 'Eim^EiA CjiaBHHei^Kid — 9xoxi» B^pHufl xpa- 
HHxejL Jij^nmx'b Ba?ajii> HiBOJiLHaro yneHia h saB^xoB'B 
iiepBBH cpeAH cxpacxefi HHROHOBa BpeMenu; CBAXHxeju JI,h- 
HHxpifi pocxoBcsifi, HHHOBeHxifi HpsyxcBiS H MHorie ^py- 
rie, BOxopHx^B oxqacxH yBH;i^HMi nocj^. 

Mo;bho cBasaxB co Bceio cnpaBe^^HBOcxiK), hto bi cxpoe- 
hIh pyecBaro rocy;i;apcxBa, pyccBaro ASUKa h pyccBofi jih- 
TepaxypH xpyji,HJiHCB bc4 pyccEie, h cl BOCXoKa, h ct sa- 
na^a. Otl xoro dxo cxpoenie h buhuo xaBHMi 6oibniHMi» 

H XaEHlfB BpinBHMl. 

9xy-xo HapoAHyio 3ana;i;H0-pyccKyK) HCXopHHecByio ansHB, 

XiCHO CBJiSaHHyK) Cb BOCXO^HO-pyCCBOH) 2CH3HBK), Mil H 6y- 

j[fiwb HsyiaxB B'B axflx-B qxeniaxB, HMeHHo: fiy^eMTb noaa- 
suBaxB, BaBOBa ^'bkcxBHxeJiBHO 6iiJ[a 3xa skhshb, BaBie 



— 6 — 

OHa jifkAOJUL jcaixE vh cBoem pasBHTiH h Kasla Bcrpt- 
HEjia upeoATCTBiii h Hecaa noTepn Ha ceoem HCTopHHe- 
CKOWh uyxH. 

B\ HZCAi ^eBsro^j^i sana^^Hoi PoccIh caHUMi BasHHifb 
6ujio TO HecqacTie ea, hto ona en^e ao TaxapcRaro na- 
mecTBin, a oco6eHHO co BpeneHH 9Toro &bj5<CTBis, 6£ija 
OTpuBacHa OTh BOCTo^Hofi PocciH, H ^rku'b AajBine, TkuT> 
6ojiBine no;i;na;i;aj![a Bji^Hiio h BjacTH ^ysHXi JD^efi, oco- 
6eHH0 noMKovh, Hapo;^a, xota h po^^cxBeHHaro HaH'b pyc- 

CKHlfB, HO CI ApeBHMmHX'L BpeMOH'S jBjieHeHHaro 6jp- 

BuicB noTOKOM:B 3anaAHO-eBponeicKO& sbshh, a aro h no- 
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CJiaBAHCKoft asHSHH, T^CHHJO c^B 8ana;i;a, ci> hxi po;i;Hoi 
aeMjiH Ha boctoki, na Hyatyio, pyccKyro h jHTOBCKyBO 
aeMJK), — H ^epesi nojaKOB'B bhochjio h Bt sanaAnyiD Poc- 
ciro BejHKia 6i;^CTBia, — BoSMymeme Mapa coBicTH h Bi- 
poHcnoB'£;i;H£iA CHyTsi, HapojuHyH) nop^y, KaE:B mh yace 
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TOBCRaro Hapo^a b'b np'^nocTHOMi cocTOARm, ROTopoe ot- 
CK>Aa pacnpocTpaHHJocB Aa»e Ha BocTOHHyio Poccis), xoxa 
ropas^o no3»e h vb HecpaBHeHHo 6ojAe MflrROMi BEjifky 
u OTh ROToparo yse vh namH Bpeirena ocBo6oAHjrb h bo- 
CTO^HyK), H 3a^aj^HylD Pocciro, h caHyio IIojLniy pyccKift 
Hapb-OcBo6oAHTejiB h My^enHRx AJIeRcaH;^p'B II, coBep- 
HiHBi npH dxoM'B BejH^aftHiee, hhf^ bi idpi He6uBajoe 
A'kio — 0CB06oaKAeuie RpecxBAHi cb seMJieD. 

HiTh cnopa, ^o saBoeBaniji nojiBCRoi B^pu h nojB* 
CRoft Hapo;^HOCTH wb sanaAHoft PoccIh xocxaBiJiJu ne mejo 

CBOeROpilCTHim BHrOA'B MHOrHlCB H31 vkTh pyCCRHX^ H 

iHTBHHOtfE, KOTopue OTpHBajiHCB ot:b CBoero HapoAa H x^- 



— 7 — 
JEajincL nojEARaMH. Mes^y pyccRHMH h jhtobcrhhh khasbahh 

H ABOpflHaMH, A'^^'BIDHMHCfl JiaTHHAUaMH H HOJilEaMH, paS- 
BHBaJHCB H^KOTOpUfl HayRH, HCKJCCTBa, J^^ofiCTBa SH3HH. 

Ho o6mfie dJiaro CTpanu oti dxoro ne tojbeo ne ysejE- 
^HBaiocb, a HanpoTHB^ — 6ojhme h 6oj[Line na^^ajio. Eja- 
rojg^eHCTBie OROjamsBmsxcn pyccKHX'b h jiutbhhob^ 6ojiie 
H 6ojrke 6e3noin;a;i;Ho pasBHBaJocB na c^erB yrHexaeMaro 
Hapo^^a, ^fl ROToparo Bci 6j[ara iiojiBCROfi shshh h cava 

nOJBina AO TaROfi CTeQCHH CTaHOeiLIHCB HySAUMH, ?T0, 

Ror^a HeJBSJi Cujlo Ha^aTBCA Ha noMOiii,B boctohhoS Poc- 

CIh, OH^ rOTOBl> 6UJ[B OTAaTBCA noAi BJaCTB TypoRi, H, 

xiicTBHTejBHO, He pasx OT^aBajECA hm'b b'b yRpa&Hi. 

IIpHHHHaMn xaRoro nenajiBHaro h ^i^CTBeHHaro ji,Ji& bc^xi 
HOJioseHifl sana^Hofi Poccin no^^ EiacTBX) IIojibhih ^hjh 
npes^e Bcero nojiBCRoe jiaxEHCTBO h nojiBCRoe mjaxexcxBO. 
BecB pyccRiS napojni^B sanaAHOH Poccin, RaR'B jBJijij/iWb^ 
HCHOB^AUBajix ci AP^BHHXi BpeMeHi HpaBocjaBHyH) B^py, 
H xoxA BHyxpeHHflA CHjia npaBocjEaBifl Moryni;ecxBeHHO AiA- 
cxBOBajra na jehxbhhobb, ho pyccRie HHROMy ne HasA- 

3HBaJ[H CBOefi B^pU H MHpHO 2RHJH H CB Sa^SSHMH HHO- 

Bbpi^aMH H ch xyseMHHMH ASEiqEHRaMH — jHXBHHaMH. JEa- 
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i^ipcRHx^ opAenoBi jHBOHCRaro h npyccRaro, nopamaBmie 

ft 

H JEHXBHHOBX H Hep^ARO pyCCRHX'B. OhO BHSBaJEO HpaBH- 

xejiBCXBO JiHxoBCRoe' Ha yHHsenie h npecji'i^ji^oBaHie npa- 

BOCJiaBHHXl, ABHHyJIO B'B Sanaj^HyK) PoCCiH) BCeMipHHXl 

CMyxoxBopD;eBi h pasBpaxHiejefi — iesyExoBi h BBeJo ca- 
Hoe ^BjjaL^Koe h neycxofi^HBoe BtpoHCHOBtAanie, sana^HO- 
pyccRyi) i^epROBtiyi) ymi), nepesx Eoxopyro HojiBma 6ojEbme 
Bcero nepexAHyjia S'b ce6']^ o6pa30BaHHEixa^ sana^nopyccoB^B, 
6ojibme Bcero HSMy^Hjra napo^'B h 6ojBine Bcero ynnsHJira 



— 8 — 

ero, uoTOMj ^iro se toako npasocjasie, ho h jhui, t. e. 
BOo6mjd pyccsaji Bipa, c^HTajacB vbpov> iiysH^Bei), u(hi- 
csoD. ^pyrHUi cpexcTBOifB ienb yHHsemi) h noxaBjieHiip 
Hapo^^a aana^HOft PoccIh 6ujo noACKoe nuazercTBO. 
HcTopHHecBaA h ^ase coBpeifeHBaji nojiBCKaA shshb 

eCTI* HCK.![I)qHTej|[BHO SHSHB BepXHAFO CJIOA nOJUiSOBO^, — 

BepxHHro He B'b tomx cMHCji, b'l naisowb shshb BcuKaro 
Hapo^a ecTb npe»Ae Bcero shshb Bcero xapoBExaro, o6pa- 
soBaHHaro, a bi» chhcj^ caMoi ajphoS HCBJiD^HrejcBHo-^ 

CTH, — B'B CHLUCjA HIJI£[XeTCTBa. Bee, ^TO 6UJ[0 UOJl.'h dTHLWb 

niJ![axeTCTBOMG&— Hapo^i, ne hm^jio shshh, 6uao neprBo, 
He ynacTBOBajo bg& nojBCKofi ncxopiH. Mes&xy noJiBcsHicB 
mjiAX&tCTBOTA'h H HOJiBCKHMi HapoAOMx Hep-bAKo e;i;Ba bhahu 
j^ase CESBH HapoAHOCTH. Ho Bce-raBH wb caMoS IIoJKBmt, 
Tj[ii ABopsHe H napoA'B hojiakh, 3th cbash Cwol h ecTB, 

CjijI^OBaTeJBHO eCTB Bnepe^H BOSMOSHOCTB JI,JI& IIOiLBBIH 

HcnpaBHTB CTapue rp'kscH h B£ipa6oTaTB BaKod nnfiy^B ho- 
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6B[Bmaro xjona, ocBo6oacAeHHaro hs'b xjoncTBa Pocciefi. 

R% COSajri^HiH), nOJBCEift KpeCTBAHHH'B, 0CB060SAeHHUft 

Poccieft, BBo;i(HTCH Bx BpyrB cxaponoiBCKHX^ noHHxi&, ?an;e 
Bcero BpaaKAe<$HHX'B Poccih. 
B'B sanaAHOft Poccin, wh Macc£ napo^a nixi hh sxhx'b 

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THiTB Hanepe^ HcropH^ecsyK) shshb socxo^HO-pyccsyK). 
B% BOCTOTOoft PocciH, H6 CMOxpH Ha BH^^HMoe pasBe;!^- 



— 9 — 

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6eHH0 CO BpeneHi Ilerpa I, o^eHB p^SRoe pasjH^ie Measly 
T^MH H ApyrHMH, cyn^ecTByeT^ OAHaso irea^y sthhh cjojdih 

O^eHB HHOrO CBASeS, KOTOpUA 06'BeAHHflK)rb HXl H cjin- 

BaDTi Bi ojsjiwh — pyccKifi HapoAib. Ectl y hhx'b o6mia 

OCHOBU H TaKijI CTOpOHU »H3HH, Ha KOTOpiIXli CXOAflTCA 

H o6^eAHHJi]DTca Bci pyccKie j[]D;a;H, KaKoro 6u cocjioBiH 

OHH HH 6uJlJi. TaS'B 06l>eASHflE)Tl HX^b peJIHriOSHNA B%- 

poBanifl. TaKi aapoAHUJi HCTopn^ecBia npexaHifl o^HHa- 
SOBO roBopAiTb pyccEod Aynii) s^k'b Bucmefi, xaB'B h hh3- 
niei cpe^H. Tpy^HUJi BpeMeHa pyccRod shshh cjifiisTSLvyrh 
vh o^Hy ceuLi) Bcixi pyccKHXi jiiDAed. He roBopHMi yse 

Bcj^ACTBie dTHX'B o6ieAHHfl]Diii;ux'b CB^aefi, b'b pyccRofi 

aSHSHH, He CHOTpA HH Ha KaKlii Tpy^HOGTH, npOHCXOAHTl 

nocTOSHHiufi oCiiiwh MHCjed,. nyBCXBi h sejanid MesAy 

BepXHHMH H HHSHHMH CJtOflHH. EpOM'& TOFO JUD^H Bepx- 

HHxi cjioeBrb, BCJii;i;cTBie npeBpaxHocTeft shshh, nep'^^so 
nepexoAATQb bo^ HHsnie cjioh, ne Tep^A chocoChocth h na- 
Aes;^£ caMH hjih b'b cbohxi noTOHKax'L CHOBa no^HflTBCA. 
To^ho TaKse h j[K)ah hhshihxi cjoeB^, njTeM'b o6pa3o- 

BaHLH, TOprOBJ[H, HOABHraDTCA BBepX'B, He TepHH Ha^ajEi 

HapoAHHx^B, He nepecTaBafl 6uTh pyccKHMH. 

SanaAHO-pyccBafl shshb ne HMieTi> hh SToro npo'inaro 
BOCTOHHO - pyccxaro oftBe;(HHeHifl BepxHHXX h hhshhxo^ 
ejEoeBx Hapo^a, hh Aa>»e T'bx^s cjaduxi* CBaseft Hea^^y 

BepXHHMH H HHSniHMH COCJEObIaMH, KaBlfl HOSHO Saif^HaTB 

B'B HECToani^efi, A^ficTBHTejiBErofi nojiBm']^, vxb H CaHH H 
HapoA'B — HOJiaKH. B'b 3ana;i;HoS Poccin, roBopa Boofime, 
cyHj^ecTBjeirB secTOKoe pasA^jenie Mes^y npocTHicB na- 

pOAOlfB H BepXHHM'B, HOJ[BCKHHX, CJOeill, — paSA^eme HO 



— 10 — 

Hapo;i;HOCTH, no Bipi, pas^^ijenie npe^nanifi h o6mBewh. 
TaH'B napoA'B ctohtb b'b BejHROM'B ye^HHeHiH. 

?to6h[ npe^JLcraBHTL naoAAHO aTO 7e;^HHeHie, npHBe^eM'B 
ojijiwh TOJBKO, no noHCTHH'& nopa3HTeJBHufi npHM^px. B% 
j[HT0BCB0Hi> HoBropo;i;Rt MHHCBoft ry^epnin, wh cxpani 6£- 
jopyccKaro HaceJiemA, po^HjiCfl nodTi, npHSHaHHHi BejH- 
KSLWh nodTOifB — MHi^KeBHH'B. Bd nodTHqecBifl HaTypu, 
oco6eHHo BejiHEm, HH'l^iDT'B o6n^yK) HH:b B(Au% H canys) 
ofiHKHOBeHHyio Me»;^y hhmh oco6eHHOCTB — ^yxKOCTB kx 
CTpa^canijiMi napo^a, e:b 6ojibho& cxopoHi^ napo^Hoft shshh. 
Ohh H3;i;ajiH jblcho BH^aTi 9Ty CoJBHyio CTopony, rj[y6oBo 
e^ qyBGTByiOT'B h rjiacjiTi o($% neS cb CBoiCTBeHHOD hitb 

CHJ[0K). MHI];BeBHH1&, yBEI, He BEJBi,^Al>, He nOHHHaJll, H6 

HyBCTBOBajE'b 6oj[BHOft CTopoHU sana^^Ho-pyccBofi shshh, ottb 
KOTopofi oTopBajEHCB 6uBniie pyccKie h jSHTOBCBie ehasbh, 
BejBMOSH, 6ojipe h Cojbbihhctbo Mini;aH'B, He cxaji^B na 
CToponi 3aRp^noni;eHHaro, sarnaHnaro Hapo;i;a, a cj^'&irajCA 

nOJBCSHM'B HUJIXeTCEHlTB HOdTOlTB. 

Bi HacTOflmiee Bpeifa nojiflSH h bx sana^^nofi PocciH cTa- 

paK)TCH c6j[H3HTBCfl C!B TaMOmHHlCB HapO^^OM'B H npHBJie^B 

ero Ha cboh) cTopoHy. Ohh oCxabjijiidti, ^to yBasaiOTi h 
jiHTOBCKyro, H 6'fejopycCEyH), h najiopyccEyK) Hapo;^HOCTB, 
HTO xemiOTh Aaace, ?to6£[ sth Hapo;^HOCTH pasBHBajHCB 
H co3;i;aBajiH cbok) HHCBMeHHocxB, neqaTajH shhssh na 
CBOHxi nap'^maxB. Ho b% to se BpeiiH ohh roBopHTB, ?to 
nojBcsafl Hapo;^HOCTB ncTopHHecsH tbophtca h ^ojasna 
TBopHTBCA, no;i;BHraHCB na boctosi, t. e. ^to jihtbhh^b, 6*6- 
jEopyccB, Hajiopocci, nojyqaA ofipasoBanie, ;^0Jiseu'B js^b" 
jiaTBCfl nojiflSOM:B. 

ECJTH 6U HOJflRH npH dTOWb ^^ase HCSpeHHO rOBOpHJH, 

9T0 3T0 nepeco3;i;aHie jHTBHHa, fi^Jiopycca h Majtopocca b% 



— 11 — 

nojjiKa jsft^ssMO coBepmaTLCfl cbo6oaho, 6e3:b npHHysA^niH, 
TO H Tor^a BCAEii pasyHHHfi jhtbhhi, 6impj(ScT> h na- 
jopocci js,o^xem> 6u BaAynaTBCfl, He jiy^me jh b'b TaROM'B 
csy^B/k A^jiaTLCA BejiiisopyccoMi», a He hojaeou'B, ne jry^me 
JH npncTaxb B'b CHJBHOMy, ^i^'h ki> cjia6oMy, He Jiy^jDie 
JH cjHBaTfcca CB MorymecTBeHHOH), chokohhoid Poccieft, 
H^Mx c^ cjadoH), b^^ho HflTymieScji IIojiBHieS? H TaKoe 
coofipaaenie ^nojiatHO nojyiHTB Tim 6oj[hmjfo CHJiy, 5T0 

HHKTO HSl MaJIOpOCJCOB^B, 64jI0pyCC0B'B'H JIHTBHHOB'B, yCBOfla 

pyccKoe o6pa30BaHie h asuk'b, He flj^E&ics ^epe3i 9to 
BparoM^B CBoero njieMeHH, h3'b KOToparo Bumejii, a jiib- 
laacB nojiAKOM'B, oh'b nenpeH'bHHO ^ypHO othochtca kt^ 
eeoeHy njieHeHH. HafiOHei^'B, a^jo b:b tom:b, "sto CBo6o;i;HOe 
nepeco3AaHie bi uojiakowl uojl&kvl neHCRpeHHO npe^cjra- 
raiDTB JiHTBHHaMi, 6ijopyccaM'B H HaJopoccaHi. cbo- 
(oAHoifB nepecosAaniH hx'b b:b hojakobi^ ohh roBopAX'B 
tojbko vh PocciH, noTOMy ^to nna^e HejiBaa tobophtb h 
jijkjLSLTh, a TaMi, r^i ohh hm']^e)t^ BjiacxB, ohh 3a6HBa£)T'B 
CBo6oAi. B'B raj[Hii,iH ohh HeMHjrocepAHO a^'Bht^b pyccKifi^ 

HapOA'B H CaMHHH BOBMyTHTeJBHHHH HaCHjiHMH HOpeCOS- 

AaDT^B ero b'b noJiBCKid napoj^^B. 

EcTB, Bopo^eH'B, B'B sana^^Hofi Poccin hojarh, BOTopne 
HCBpeHHO, ^ecTHO c^jHsaioTca c:b napoAOM^. Ohh C03HaK)rB, 

HTO BCi MH — H BOJIHKOpyCCH, H 3ana;^B0pyCCH, H nOJflKH — 

ot:b o;i;Horo EopH^ h po;i;a cjiaBflHCRaro; j^ajti^e, ohh co- 

3HaE>T%, ?T0 npOABH HeHBH^pHMO 60JlhmSiT0 ^HCJIS HBlH'l^HI- 

HHxi 3a^a;^H0-pyccKHX'B hojhkobi 6HjrH pyccKie hjh jiht- 
BHHH, hto HX'B TonepeHiHee noiosenie cpe;i;H pyccBaro hjh 
JiHTOBCEaro Hapo^a HenpaBHJTBHo, ^to ohh ji,oasb,bu 6uTh 
HJH qysHHH b:b CTpsLBi, HJ[H ^^ijiaxBCH MaJopoccaMH, 6i- 

JOpyCCaMH, JTHTBHHaMH HJIH BOO^HIje pyCCEHMH. H^EOTOpHe 



231 HBXl H ?ikJli 
TO JHTBH^aHH, TO 

C06010 Ha asusk 

^T06u: JiaTHBCKSJ 
HJia^HTOBCEOMt 
HHHH AP73I>AHH 1 

HecouH^BEyio no. 

UajIO, H OHH He 

TaEHncb io6pa3i 

Ciz eCTL XH3Hb ] 
Haa, — XH3HL B 
poAHoro, HaA6acB 
Aaqa noicasaTb, i 
HapoA'b sa^tepxH 
CEaro yejiHHeHia 

HUXX pyKOBOp^HG 

PoeciH. 

nocuoi'pHuib I 
pyccaaa HCxopH? 

EOTOpUX'B UOSCHC 
Hipl: B'b lipOHSE 

H M^THog aana; 
nojibCKOft J 
mecTEyiOTi pasH 
jHTepaxypa, KaK' 
JHEOJi'i&nBa H ^ 
?T0 ona EHEyxa 

9TI1UII EpafiHOUT. 

paTjpy TOJBKO n 



— 13 — 

KaK^b H nojbCRaA ujirBHjiHsai^ifl, o^eHL 6oraTa no bh^iuho- 
CTH. B'B nefi MHoro KHHri, h fb "^hcji^ hx'l ho hejo xo- 

pomO HanHCEHHUX'B H XOpomO H3,'^aHHIIX'S. Bivh comh^- 

Hifl TaiuKe, ^To wb fieS o^eeB paspafioTaHs HHom ^acT- 
HOCTH SH3HH H Hep^^^Ro pa3pa6oTaHii npeKpacHo. Ho bo 

BCiX'B T^X'b CJy^aflX'B, Wh KOTOpUX'b HJSHO O^HJiTL JSJbjLh" 

HHMrb B3rjfl;i;oM'b shshl, oShatl 6oJt>inyK) coBORynnocTL 

^aSTOBrb H HOHXITL ^^^fiCTBHTeJILHUft, SH3HeHHlI& HXl 

CMucJt'B, TaM'B nojLCRaH jiHTepaTvpa, sa neMHorHMH hcrjr)- 
^eHiflHH, RpafiHe HecocTOflxejiLHa. Bo bc^^x'b TaKnx'B cjy- 
nsjLX'h ona npe;i;cTaBjiaerB Ty noJiBCKyio ojtHocTopoHHOCTL, 
KOTopyro pyccKift Hapo^t TaKi aKecTOKO oxapaKTepH30Bajit 

H3b4cTH0I0 CBOeBD nOrOBOpKOK) nOJEflKaXl. O^liHOCTOpOH- 
HOCTL 8Ta npOHCXOJIIH'PB, % MOSOTTb 6hTB, HO CTOJLKO OTB 

CKJIa;^a nojLCKoft rojOBU, ckojilko otl HCTopn^ecKaro y^peac- 
j^enia nojiBCKoft aH3HH, — o'rt Toro ae nwaxeTCTBa, o 
KOTopoMt MH yae roBopajiH. 9to n^axeTCTBo, cocpe- 
;i;oToqHBaK)]ii;ee b'l oahom'b cocjobIh Bcb 6j[ara h npaBa 
»H3HH, HacTpaHBajo H jsfiSRQ TonopB HacTpaHBaeT'B nojB- 
CRaro ^ejioBi^Ra ho o6paiii^aTB BHHMaHix h ho 3HaTB,^ hto 
npoHcxo^^H'TB noj^i nuaxeTCTBOMi, — wh Hapo;i;i. OTClD;^a 
RpaHHaa CRy;^ocTB b'b noJitqRoft jTHTepaTypi cBi;i;iHift ^aae 
nojiBCROM'B HapoA*. B'B nojTBCRofi jiHTepaTyp'6 nopasH- 
TeJBHaa CRyJ^ocTB 9THorpa(|)HqecRHX'B CBiA^nifi ;i;a»e o 
caMOd noJBin'^. Mu tojcbro no CTapuM'B H3BicTiiiM'B H no 
BecBMa HeMHorHM'B noB'j^finiHM'B coqHHeHiflH'B snaeiTB, ^to 
B'B nojiBffli cyni;ecTByH)T'B pa3HHa nojiBCRia njreMena — 
BejHRO-nojiBCRoe, Majo-nojBCRoe, MasoBeaRoe, ho y3HaTB 
OT^eTJHBo 3TH njiOMena hs'b nojBCRofi iEHTepaTypu h'^^tb 
BOBHoacHocTH. He roBopE) yace o tom'b, RaR'B Majio Moano 
ysnaTB o njOMenaxB HojiBmn ne nojtBCRHXx, RaR'B, na- 



— 14 — 

npHMip-B, MaJiopoccax'B JlroSjiHHCKofi ryfiepnm hjih 6ijio- 
pyccax^ Gifl.JieiijBioi h jihtbhhex'b CjBajiBCKOH. Bee dTo 
orb TOH ate mJiJixeTCKOH Teopin. IIo 3Toi Teopin Bce paBHO, 
KaKOBo 6u. HH 6hj[o xjoncTBo, H ecjiH oCpamiaeTca na nero 
BHHMaflie, TO xjToncTBO B'B nojiLCKHXi noHflTiaxt npe^cTaB- 

JIAeTCA . despaBJEHqEHlfB, nOJIbCRHMI* XJ[0nCTB0Ml>« 

Stot^b KpafiHift HOAOCTaTOKt co;i;epmaHia nojitcKoft jh- 
TepaiypH, noBHAHMOMy, ecTecTBennie Bcero jifi^xewb 6hjii 

6u BOCTLOJLEKThCSl T^MH nOJLCBHMH DHCaxeJIAMH, BOTOp£ie 

npHHa;i;jea:aT'B b'b Tas^s nasHBaeiiOH uo^bcroh napoAHot 
napriH. 9Toro ecTecTBOHHie 6h oacH;i;aTB, HanpHMipx, otb 
H3BtcTHaro H o^eHL TaJiasTJiHBaro noiBCsaro nHcaxejifl 
JlejieBejis. Ho ^to se mu Haxo;i;HM:B? JlejieBejib a^hctbh- 

TeJBHO KJieHMHTB HOJEBCKyK) apHCTOKpaTiio 3a TO, ^TO OHa 

nonnpajia Bct npaBa napo^^a. Ho Tjijb 3K6 napo^ii'B y le- 
jOBeja? Ohi Haxo;i;HTi» ero bte> toS me nojLCKoft nuraxTi, 

COfiCTBOHHO B'B HH3fflefi fllJiaXTi. B'B Heft OH'B BVLJlJlTh BBipa- 

ssBEie Hapo;i;a, sHSHeHHyE) ero cHjy. 9to HaT^atBa a^& 
nojiBCKoft mjiflXTH H He MajiOBascnaji. Ho najio dxoro. Ecjiel 
nojBCKaa mjiaxTa, xoxa 6u. to jy^maa ^acTB ea, octb ho- 
CHTOJiBHHi^a nojEBCBoft Hapo;i;Hofi :kh3hh, to ji,Jia. 3ana;i;H0- 
pyccKaro napo^a hochtojib »h3hh, ^HBHJIH3a^iiH — Ka»;i;uft 
noJiaK'B, xoTa 6u to h xjioh'b. TaK-B AiftcTBHTejiBHO cmo- 
TpHT^ JlejieBejB. Owb KaKx 6u naMtpeHHo yHHataoT'B, 
yHHqH»aeTt b'b Jhtb-^ h Boo6iii;e btb 3ana;i;Hofi PocciH bc4 
;i;peBHie 8a;i;aTBH caMoSuTHaro pasBHTin ii;HBHjH3aii;iH. 3to 
)[,jis. Toro, ^To6hL noKa3aTB, ^to 3ana;i;Haa Poccm Bciwh 
ofiasana IIoiLBin^. Y nero h BOodm;e y hojibckhx^ nnca- 
TOJiefi sana^Ho-pyccKaa atHSHB npe;i;cTaBjiaeTca rpy6oB) 
MaccoE), KOTopaa ^ojiasea 6utb o6ji,ij[8LnsL no HanaJiaM^ 

nOJIBGKOH I^HBHJIHSaiUH. CaMO C060H) pa3yMieTCfl, ?T0 H3% 



— 15 — 



jiHTepaTypH, npoHHKHyroft TaKHM^ BBrja^oMi, He MHoro 
MOSHO ysnaTB sanaAHO-pyccKyK) skhshb. 

Fyecsaa jiHTepaTypa, KOHeHHO, He Horja uuin TaRoro 
rpy6aro nonaTia o sanaAHo-pyccKOft »H3hh. PyccKaa rocy- 
xapcTBeHHaA jsrepaTypa noflasiiBaeT'B, ^to Poccm scerAa 
snawia sana^HyK) PocciK), kslK'b cbok) pyccnyK) seMJio, u na- 
noMHHaja 06^ dTowh Uojihwh. Bb axoifB OTHomeHiH He 
HCTeKajEo HHKaKoft ;i;aBH0CTH Hac^ex^ 3to& cxpaHU, h 3Ha- 
HBHHxoe Bupassenie HMnepaxpHii.u ERaxepHHu II, Bu6uxoe 
Hanej^ajH no cjiy^aK) Bxoparo pas^^ija IIojiBinH: ^oxTopacen- 
Hafl BOdBpaxHX'b", ecxB bhojih^ ecxecxBennoe h 3aEOHHoe, 
xoxa H nenojcHoe, EaR'b yBHAUH'B, o6o3Ha^eHie s^EOBoro 
cnopa uemjij PoccieS h IIojiLnieJi: HSB-sa sana^Hofi PocciH. 
B:b 3X0& FOcyAapcxBeHHofi jiHxepaxyp^ noHaxie sana^HoS 
Poccm acHO. Kor^^a pasBHjacb pyccRaa HCxopniecRaa jh- 
xepaxypa, to h oHa cxaja CMOxp'&XL na sana^^nyK) PoociK), 
KaKi cMoxpijio Ha nee pyccRoe rocyMpcxBO, x. e. cxaja 
pacRpuBaxB Hcxopis) 3ana;^H0fi Poccin xaR»e cb rocy;i;ap- 

CTBeHHOH CXOpOHU, TOBOpHXB ^CpeBHHX'B 3A%Cb RHaa^e- 

cxBaxx, rocyAapcxBeHHux'B nooEixRaxB B03CxaH0BHXB 
eOTHenie sanaAHo-pyccRHX^ ofijaxefi ex socxo^Hoft Poc- 
cieS H T. n. ji,ijiax'h. Ho h npH dTowh npasHJiBHOMX 
BBrjia^'b Ha BH^mHia ^^ja 3ana;i^Hoi PoccIh, sanaAHO-pyc- 
CKaa ^H3HB vb HeS npeACxaBJcaexca lan^e Bcero wb apxeo- 
jL&rynecK.owh BH;i;t, bx ocROJnsax'B. I^ijiBHaro, a^HBoro npejir 
CTaBjrenia sanaj^no-pyccRod sshshh h b'b nefi AO^roe speHa 
611JL0 Haj[o. 8xoHy i^-ijiBHOHy, acHBOMy upe^i^cxaBjeHiH) sa- 
na;(HO-pyccRofi a^usHH M^majiH h ao cvlvb nop'B Htoaiox^B, 
uexjij npoHHM'B, cj[%AyH)in;ia o6cxoaxe;[BcxBa. H b'b boc- 
TO^aoft H B'B 3ana;i,Ho£ Poccm ^o chx'b nopi He^ocxaxo^no 
yacHeHU ^peBHia pyccRO-cjEasaHCRia na^aia shshh h x^ 



— 16 — 

ocoffeHHOCTH, Kaida Bsipa6oTaHH boctoihod h sanajHon 
nojOBHHaHH pyccKaro aapoAai Kor^a ohh 6ujih ttb pasi- 
eAHHeniH. On sroro pyccsift ^eJioBiifL qacio cxaBHTi 
Bi aanaAHofi Poceia, icaBL ocHOBBoe saqajio pyccKofl khshh, 
TO, ^t6 ecTB He (Soji^e Kaiti BocKHHo-pyccKaa hjh 3a- 
na;(Ho-p7ccKaH ocoGeHHocn. nosAH'ltniaro npoHexoaxenia. 
Jtaaie, ?aiite acero npocTo safiuBaercs, hto oflHHt a 
TOT* ate HapoAt, ho pasA'&JiHBinitca na nwk hojobhhu h 
npoxHBmifi jojiro «h stoitb pasA^eniH, He Moaert ne 
BUpafioTaib paajH^ifi, soTOpua AO-iacHU (Sbitb Bcrpi^aeMi 
CHBcxOAHiaiLHo H siwih ce6t, ae aapymaa BopeHHOPO 
e;(HHCTBa, noKa hmi cyflHrt xhtb HCTopia. HiJi-Haro, 
xHBoro DpeACTaBjenifl sana^Ho-pyccKoft xhshh ecTecraeHHO 
osHAaTb OTh irbCTHofi, sanaABo-pyccKofl JiHTepaTypU' ^^' 
TepaTjpa 3Ta Hwfcera HicaoabKO BiiBefl: MtcTHy» noJib- 
cayio, uajopoccificRyio, (SijopyccKyw; qacTo jhtobckoS 
HirL. 

Bujo fit sana^BoS Poccia Htsoropoe apeiw, tto Ta- 
MoniHie ofipasosaHBue j(»ah, ycBOHBmie nojibCKyio hhbh- 
jiHsaiuio, npo6oBaj[H caHOcroaTejibHO Barjaayrb na cbod 
cTpany. 9to Chjo bo BpemeHa sHjeHCitaro yHHBepcHTexa, 
KOTopufi: cTpafflHo DQjiaqHJi'b 3anaiHy» Pocci», ras-L noJta- 
5HJit ee, Kuct He nojaiHJH ea HHKaKia noJiLeicia hbhctob- 
CTBa BO BpeHena noJbCKaro rocyjapCTBa, ho soTOpuS, ho 
ecTecTBeHHouy Bopa^Ky Beniet, passHBaj'B TaKace b% He- , 
HHOFHX'B jiHQHOCTarB H flpoTBBonojoacHoe BanpaBjeHie. 
BcjrtACTBie 9Toro, m, sanaABod Poccia cia^a coeiaBaaTBCa 
He6ojbniaa napiia nojibCKHX'b SK>jsfi&, Koxopue npaxoAB-ia 
El cosBaRiH), ^To H cauH OHH Be BOJiaKH, a Tka.'h 6ojnte 
He nojibCKiS — BapoAt bxi cxpanH. Ohb saAyuaJiH BOBCra- 
HOBHTb (bl Hayai) cauocxoaTejibHoCTb saflaABofl Poccia. 



I 



— 17 — 

OCHOBOJIH OHH 66 Ha CJ[']^;i;yK)III,HX:B Ha^dJaXl. OhH BSflJH 

crapyiD H^^en) nojiHTH?6CKOB[ HesaBHCHHOCTH JIhtbh h no- 
jarajH, ?to sana^^naa Pocck M0»6rb Bupa^OTaTL dxy ca- 

MOCTOJiTeJIBHOCTB npH TOfi TUB nOJIBCROH Ii;HBHJIH3ai^iu, HO 
CBO6OAHO, eCT6CTB6HH0, 6631 BCflRarO HaCHJBCTBeHHarO HO- 

AaBjenifl M^CTHnxi* Hapo;i;HHX'B oco5eHHOCT6fi. Tslkl dra 

T60piA BHCBaSUBaeTCA AOBOJEBHO Saif^THO B'B Tpy^ijax'B ^a- 
HHJIOBHHa, B'B HCTOplH JLVLTBU Hap6yTTa H B'B co^HHeniH 

^pomeBH^a „EapTHHa JIhtbu". Teopia axa cjieqiromi 
maTKa. noj[HTH?6CKaa caifOCioflTe^BHocTB 8ana;i;H0& Poc- 
ciH HeB03M0»Ha H 6in;e 6ojLie H6B03uoacHa, 6CJih hossho 
TaK^b BupasHTBCfl, npH nojiBCKofi i](HBHj[i!3ai];iH. Tor^a axa 

CaH0CT0AT6J[BH0CTB BOH^HJiaCB 6hl T^ICB ^^6, ^^M'B BOHqa- 

jacB np6»Ae, HanpHMipt, bi noJOBHHi XVI CTOjAria, 
Bor^a JlHTBa cjHBa^acB ci IIojiBHieS. Gji;i;oBaTejiBHO, dxa 
Toopifl HOseT^ HM-i^TL SHa^eme tojbbo Eas'B T6opifl sjro- 
Hair^^peflHaA. H6Aap0Mii ee BucB^suBaDT'B h TenepB Bfk- 
EOTopue nojiJiBH sana^^HoS Poccin h sadoTJUBO yBJieKaDT^ 

Vh H6e MOJEOjnjHXl pyCCBHX'B H JEHTBHHOB'B T03 CTpaHU. 

X*ficTBHTejiBHoe, npo^Hoe Hsy^enie 3a^a;^Hofi Poccin 
Horjo na^aTBc^i tojebeo na sanaAHO-pyccEoS, Hapo;i;HOB[ 
no^Bft. Ha^ajocB oho bi 6oji4e KHsneHHoft nacTH sana^i;- 

HOft PoCCIh, B'B MaJ[OpOCCiH, BOTOpafl He paS'B BHHOCHJia 

Ha CBOHX'B nje^ax'B Bce sanaji^Ho-pyccKoe ^-^jro h ao chx'b 
nopi TaKi 6oraTa CHJiaMH. 3;^icB-T0 h HanajocB ceptes- 
Hoe H3yq6Hie sanajiiHoS Poccin. HoMorjio b^ btomi Ma- 
jiopocciH oco6eHHO cjiiAyroniiee o6cTo«TejiBCTBO. SHa^HTejiB- 
ns^ HacTB MaJEopocclHCEaro njteMeHH naxoAHTca, saE'B mh 
yace SHaeiMCB, na bocto^hoI cTopont Jl^ninpa. Uoji^^h pyc- 

CROE) BJiaCTBH) OHO MOFJO COXpaHHTB BCA CBOH CHJIIi; Wb 

newh pasBHBajHCB cbo6oaho nepe;ii;oBue ji^^Tejiis. hs'b o6pa- 

2 



— 18 — 

soBaHHaro cocjoBk. Mnorie hob dthxi ^epe;^0BHXl ^ia- 
Tejeft nepenuH Ha BanaAHjK) CTopony ^Htnpa h ^o;^HaJH 

HapOAHOe A*JO npOTHBl nOJUHKOBt. OhH BHCraBHJH 60- 

raTUH Hapo^HUfl chjh, fioraTHA Hapo^HHH npe^aHk, 

06paTHJHCB Kl HCTOpiH H CTaJH pa3CKa3HBaTB BeJHKia 

;^4J[a MajopocciH, ocoSchho Kaaai^Kia. Teopia Kasa^ecTBa 
njiiHHJia MHoraxi Hat ehxi. Kasa^ecTBO ;^•tftcTBHTeJIBHO 
HHoro CA'ijajio, ho hhofo TaR»e hm^jto KpafiHHX'B npH- 
MsaHiS, nojHTHqecKHX'B. H^ROTopiie MajropoccH 3a6HBaJH 
3T0, safiHBHJH TaK»e H TO, ^TO MajopocciScKoe Kasa^ecTBO 

OTSHJO CBOft B^Bl, H CTaJH danjTHBaTBca Vb pESHQSi 

Teopifxi caMo6uTHocTn MajiopocciH, o&h ota'^jbhocth 

OA OTl BOCTO^HOfi FoCcIh. GodJS,BJLCH TaKHMl ofipaSOH'B 

Tax's HasBiBaeifHd HajiopoccifrcKift cenapaTHSM^ hoth xo- 
xj[0MaHiA, H oTpasaeTCA bo MHorHX'b Hajopocci&cKHxyb 

CO^HHeHiflX'B. 

MajEopoccidcEifi cenapaTHSHi pascunaeTCA wh npaxx npH 
BCABOMi npHBOCHOBeniH R'B ;^ficTBHTej[BHoft Hapo;ii,Hoft 
SKH3HH H, 603% cOMH'bHiff, ^aBHO 6ji najT'B; HO OH'B ito^^^^ep- 
SHBaeTCA caMHMi He^^ocTofiHEiM'B oSpasoifB. Ero ycep^^Ho 
HOAi^epsaiH H pas^yJiH b'b o6ni;ecTBeHHO]irb hh^hIh no- 

JTflKH, ROTOpUMIi OH'B O^SHB BUrOJ^OHl, RaR'B fiOCBMa ^(Ift- 

CTBHTOJiBHoe cpe;^cTBO ocja^HTB MaJopocciR) H c;^•feJraTB ee 
6ojAe noAaTJHBOH) Ha nojBCRie Me^TaTeiBHHe njiana. B^ 
HOB^HHiee BpeMA ohh BciHH CHjaMH no^torp-i^BaDTrB Ha- 
jopoccificRift cenapaTHSiTB hs'b FajiHi^iH h yse ycnd^jiH 
HanecTH Majropoccin secTORid yj^ap'B. Ha no^B'b ceaapa- 
THSMa Bupocjo Hej^aBHee coi^iajHCTH^ecRoe ;i;BHseHie bx 
MajopocciH, Ha^^aBHiee ctojibro 6iA'B. HejBSA He oiuta- 
RHBaTB dToro acecTORaro MaJopoccificRaro 3a6jiy»AeHia. 
Oho yse nory6Hjio mhofo MaJopocciScRHTB mojoaux^b cb^tb 



— 19 — 

H npo^^ojrsaeiTB ry6HTb hxi; oho cnyTHsaerB h napajrasn- 
pyeTx MHOTHXX jry^niHXi MajiopoccificKHxrb ^^jiTejieS, eo- 
Topue tipoero tojibso jrioCflTS cboh) pojijHHy h sejajH 6u 
coA^ficTBOBaTB iipaBHJLHoiiy pyccRonry es pasBHTis). Mosho, 
Bnpo^eM'B, BSLjtjtaTbca, ^o MajEopocck o?s>^ieTb 3th 3a- 
rpyjiflema. Bib nefi ecTB HHoro 6oApuxi ^ATejefi, b'b nefi 
ecTB y^enufl cpejcoro^itf — KieBeKaA aRa;i;eMia h ^^Ba yHH- 
BepcHTera — KieBCKift h xapLKOBCKift, KOTopiia Moryrb pa3- 
BHBaTB npasHjBHo jry^mifl chju h a^a MajiopocciH, h js^Jis. 
Bcei Bana^j^HOft Poccin. 

B:b npeojsfijtbBm dtarh TpywocTeft h Bootfme B'B Hsy- 
qeniH BanaAHO-pyccEofi shshh jsflJimu9. 6u noHo^B Majio- 
pocciH Bijopyccia. Ona Taxi 6i;i;Ha, hto ne MoaterB ;i;o- 
nycxaTB npa3;i;H£ixi Teopi^, oTBJie^eHHHX'B Me^TaeiS, ;i;a 
H 6&Q[opyccRoe ujiema TaKi Cjhsro e;b sejEEopyccROMy, 
HTO HHEaEoS cenapaTHSM'B He hoxbt'b b'b hbh^b hm^tb 

CHJH. dTHH'B HOryT^ BaHHHaTBCA TOJIBEO HJtH COBepmeHHO 

jierROMucjieHHnA tojobh, Hecnoco6H£[fl hh na sasoe cepB* 
^Hoe js^ijLO, HJH en^e 6oJi4e acaJEia opy;^a ;i;ypHHX'B no-^ 

JAEOB'B H XTIAOVb, A^fiCTBHTeJEBHO 3a60T)in^HXCH H 3A%CB 

paaBHTiH cenapaTH3Ma. Bfijopyccm nyacHO piinaTB na" 
cym^Hue, cyHi;ecTBeHHO Heo6xo;i;HM£i6 sonpoCBi. E'b coaca- 
j^hIe), cja6ocTB B'i^jitopycciH BiipasHJiacB n m, ea jHTepa- 
TypHHX'B jiikuBJjh. B'B He& AOJroe Bpeicfl HH^ero ne ab- 

JIHJOCB. TOJBEO CJiy^afiHO HJtH HHCTHHETHBHO Wh B^JEOpyCCiH 

B3HJIBCB sa pa3pa6oTEy naMjiTHHEOB'B ApeBHeS saua^HO- 
pyccsoft jiHTepaTypH. IlyrB stotb oEaBHBaeTca ojiiHaEo 
caMUHx c^acTJHBEiH^. Hm'b mosho ^o&th ;i;o caMaro B^p- 
naro noHHMaHk sana^i^HO-pyccEoS aamnE. B:b sthxi na- 
MaTHHEaxi, B'B 9Toft ^pcBHefi sana^Ho-pyccEoft JHTepaTypi, 
jsesjifb H BO BceuTB — o^ho BejHEoe, o6^e;^HHflH)^l;ee Bcixt 

2* 



— 20 — 

t 

f 

pyCKHX'B CJTOBO — PjCB H PjCL. 9tH naiMTHHKH, 9Ta JLTSr r 

TepaTypa uo^th Bce na TaKOMt ashoA — sanaAHO-pyccKoirB, 
KOTopufi 6iijch o6iii;HM'b AJtA Bcefi 3ana;i;Hoft Poccm h 

CJIHJECA nOTOM^B CB 06lIi;epyCCBHM'B JIHTepaTypHHlTB A3U- 

KoifB. TaKHM'B nyTeM^b jiyqine Bcero MoryiPB 6htb paspa- 
(k)TaHH H o6in;ifl, KopeHHiiA pyccxifl na^ajra, KOTopu^ bo 
b4kh BtTiHHe 6jji,yrh coej^jHHaTB sa^a;^HyH)^ h BocTO^Hyro 
Pocciro, H T'fc 3ana;i;H0-pyccKia oco6eHHOCTH, KOTopHa mo- 
ryrb h xojisshh ce6i sshtb cbo6oaho, ckojtbko h RaR'b 
cyjijiiTh HMi asHTB HCTopia. Ha» btoti^ nyTB bhotmo cia- 
HOBflTca yace He tojbko CijopyccKie, ho h MaJopoccificKie 
jibo^h; Ha Hero BCTynaroTi h BOo6ni;e jiro^H pyccKie. 

TaKHM'B oGpasoH'B, m^ bc^x'b JHTepaTypib, tlslsis. hh 
3;(%CB RpaxKO o^epTHJH, H02KH0 TeoepB BOo6ni;e no^epnaxB 
He MajKO ;i;aHHuxi ji^Jia npaBHjBnaro nsy^enifl sanaAHo- 
pyccsoii SH3HH. JiHTepaTypa HacToani;aro BpeHenn ne Mooa 
He BocHOJiBgoBaTBca hmh. KpoM*]^ Toro, caMaa sshshb, — co- 
Bepmaion^iACJi bi 3anaAHoil PocciH co6uTiE chjibho ^bh- 
raro^B h jiHTepaxypy, h ,o6ni;ecTBeHHoe MHinie ki yncHe- 
Hiro BanaAHo-pyccKaro Bonpoca. Hcjibsh ne BaiiiTHTB, ^to 
B'B HacTOAHcee speMJi caMue pasHOodpasHue HHcaxejiH k 
opraHH rjiacHOCTH cxo^axca bo MHiniax^ o^t^ 3tomi> bo- 
npoci. OflH no^TH eAHHO^yniHo san^nniiaDT'b pyccKyro ro- 
cy^apcTBeHHocTB, HapoAHOCTB H Bipy sanaAHO-pyccKaro 
napo^a, a npo^ie pyccKie jro^H, KaKi nsBtcTHo, csasa- 
jHCB He^aBHO, Bi hocj[4ahk)K) CMyxy, eni;e acnie h rpoM^e, 
^iMi jHTepaxypa. nepe^t 3thm% pyccKHM-B roiiocoM'B npi- 
ocTaHOBHJocB H HpHsaAyMajTOCB Aaa&e sanaAHo-eBponeftcKoe 
o6niiecTBeHHoe Mninie, o KOTopom TaK»e CKaaceMt Hi- 

CKOJBKO CJIOB'B. 

BaHaAHO-eBponeficKOiiy o6mecTBy, sanaAHO-eBponeftcKOft 



— 21 — 

iHTepaTypi o^eHB Tpy^HO noHHMaTB aana^jHO-pycckift bo- 

HpOCB. FOBOpfl 9T0, MH yCTpaHfleM'B HOJIHTHHeCRiA CTpeH- 

leHifl H nojBCKie no;i;Kyn£i, nopa»;i;aH)iii;ie uemwi^imy^ 
JOSB. EepeH'B micTjvy CTopoHy 3ana;ii;HO-eBponeficRaro mh^- 
Bifl H jiHTepaTypu. SanaAHO-eBpoaeficKoe o6ii];ecTBo JierKO 
noHHMaeri n j&CEA&srh ce6t 6opB6y pisKO pasJH^HUx'B sa- 
poAHOcxefi, HanpHu^p'B, 'HiMn;eBi» cb AaxqaHaMn, cb (|)paH- 
i^ysaMH H T. n., ho eMy He TaK'B jerKo hohatb 6opB6y 
Mes^y pyccRHMH n nojAsaMH, 6opB6y bb oahoicb h tomb 
se napoA'i^, oco6eHHo b'b TaRoirB Majo ysnaHHOM'B, RaR'B 
napoA'B CJaBAHCRiS. Bnpo^eifB, 6opB6a ueas^y boctohho- 
pyccRHMH H HOJHRaMH emjd ;i;oboj[bho yflCHena HCTopien, ho 
Me»;i;y BOCTOHHo-pyccRHMH h nojraRaMH ecxB eni;e 3aiia;i;H0- 

pyCCH, OTJIH^HHe OT'B HOjaROB'B H HMijOni;ie 0C06eHH0CTH 

H no OTHomoHiK) R'B BejHRopyccaH'B. JlerRO jh HHocTpani^y 
noHjiTB, HTo 9T0 3a Hapoj;!* B'B cepe;i;HHt Me»Ay bojhro- 
pyccaMH H nojjiRaHH, Ry;i,a owh ;i.McTBHTej[BHO T^tneTB, 
oco6eHHo, Ror^a hojihrh xaRi* ycHJienHo 3aTeMHAH)Ti> rjiasa 
HH0CTpaHii,aM%? TenepB o;i;HaRo yse npojiCHJiiDTCfl rjasa Sa- 
na AHO-eBponefiuieBi H no 9T0My Bonpocy. Ectb yae TaK'B co- 
^HHeei^i jijime^ nepBORjraccHux'B y^enux'B, b'b ROTopux'B co 
Bcero Hay^HocTBH) noRasHBaeTc^, ^to sana^Haa Poccia — 
pyccRaA, a ne — nojBCRaa cxpana. Ho b'b sanaAHOfi Espon*]^ 
^aace t% ROTopue i^opomo snaiDT'B saiiaAnyH) Pocciio, ne 
jierRO npHSHaEOX'B saROHHocTB Hapo;i;Haro sana^HO-pyccRaro 
;i;4jia. Eflponi Mtmaex'B B'B axoM'B ;^py^oe 3axpy;i;HeHie. 

HsB'IcxHo, ^xo BCARaA CHCxeMa 3KH3HH, CHJBHafl, paspa- 
6oTaHHaH, pacnoJEaraexi* cbohx'b nocji'i^AOBaTejieg aJPho ox- 
BOCHTBCA R^ ApyroH CHCTeidb. no dtoi npHHHH^ Espona, 
rop^aA CBoeS i^HBnjHsan^ieS, ne jerRO MomexB npHBHaxB sa- 
KOHHOE) APyrys) i^HBEjiHsaiijiK) — pyccRys), cJio^HBniyioca no 



— 22 — 

;(pyrBHi na^ajaHi, oco6eHHO peuriosHuirb. IlauRE npo- 
HHUBCb sanMHo-eBponeficKOD i^HBHjHsaifiefi. Ohh saxyTca 
Espon^ saBOBHUui xkaieiiiuE «h rpf6ofi, ao bsi usk- 
Bin, Bapsapcsofi, sanaAHoA Foccih. Rl 3toiii ciy wit, ohh 
CMorpjTi Ba saBaxHjK) Poccix) toil si, to^l, Earn noiflSH 

Cl CBOet J&THBCKOA H HUilXeTCEOS TOQKH, T. 6. t&Kh Bl 

rp76ull HatepiaJi, KOtopiift HjatHO o6pa6oTaTb no hxs sa- 
lajiaui. 

Bi nocjiABDiD noibCKjD cvyry hu, pyccKie, BueraBHJH, 
BC^A'^ sa saTepiaibBott, eamy naTpioTHTOCKyn any npo- 
TBBi 9Toro BeopKSHaBla Haci H EaMBx-b npasTb sanaAHOD 
EsponoA. Ho droro eii[e xajo. Hyxao eBte BuciaBHTb h 
SHasie. HyacHO aosaa&th, KaKOBo aM(:tbht&u>ho pyccsoe 
Xiio vb sana^BoA Poccui, ooKasaTb h onpaB^aTb oam; i^' 
BHJHSaiiil), Hyzao paGoraTb saaHieNi, DyTem Haysa. 



HTEHIE n. 

ItTiiorpa^Riocitia b cTaTHciH^ecEia cBiiieia o suiaxBoi Poccih. PyccKie: 
MMi>]io(itiincK(ie n CiiopjccEoe uttta. nojosesie wn, crpaHu. Bhtobiu oco- 
duuiiucTii. IUeHeHB»a k HCTopHiecBai CBaafi xexji; smra. 4>H3B^ecKui jxo6- 
ciTJiu H iipeuaTCTBia ki araaj. JlBToBCElfl Bapojii. Ero MtcTOZBTMbCiBO, oco- 
Ohhiiucth, oTBunieaia Kb aanasBo-pjccEoM;' Hapoji;. KuAOBCBoe Bftcejeaie. 
(jra ■IcTOKHTSJbCTBo, OTHomeBia st, aapoiy aooasBO-pjccKOaj, a Tasxe ki 

itMIUMl, DOJIUMI B Kh BaCTOUOS POCCIB. Oco6eHBOCTH ZHXDlCTBa, at- 

UHKiKia Knxavt A^Ji&Tbca pjccbbmb rpucAauum. Qojueh, an cocxobhm 
nuiuKiiHie, 0TaomeHi« n BBpoAj. OCiiqia bbmbsi bb muoKeiie b&uhxhdA 

HacTOABtee vreBie fiyAori sauniarb bi ce^ araorpa- 
i|>BiecKifl H CTaTiCTHQecsiH cB^x^Hia sanSABofl Poccih bi* 

*) ^11 BOmnaro oGoapim^ crpaBB, aasHBaeaot saiiaxBof Poc- 
cieB, Moryn ciyuii crlii7i>vis aajiitBii: y^eCsBA kTian bo pjccioS 



r 

r 



• — 23 — 

CBilSH CI TiMH HCTOpH^eCKHMH A^HHUMH, Sask OKa»yTCJI 

Heo6xo;i,HMUHii a<sji yAcneHifl hxi. dTfiorpa4)n?ecEia h cTa- 
THCTH^ecsifl oco6eHHOCTH CTpaHii He B£ipa6aT£iBaE)TCA cjy- 

^aHHO, Bl EOpOTROe BpeHA. KaSOfi HH6yAB HpaBCTBeHHUfi 

Tim ^HSH^ecEiS nepeBopoi*B i^oser'B crjra^HTB HisoTopiifl 
^epTU Hapo;ii;Hot shshh, yBejuqHTB hjih yifeHLniHTB "^hc- 
jiOBHji ^j^aHHUA; HO He Moaserrb h3M']^hhtb BceS ^indionomvi 
cxpaHU H js,BMe mitAOBux'b OTHomeniH, BupaacaioniHX'B cy- 
n^ecTBeHHUA npoA&ieHiji shshh. IIodTOMy 9THorpa4)HqecRua[ 
H CTaTHCTH^ecKk j^aHHHJi uovyvb MHoroe yacHHTB b'b hcto- 
pin CTpanu, oco6eHHO TaKod, b'b Koxopofi jijbM napo^^a najio 
sanHCUBajtHCB, KaEOBa h ecTB sana^^Haji PoccIa. Gi xpyroi 

CTOpOHH, KOr^^a UM^eTCH Wb BISJIJ H3JI0»CHTB HCTOpiK) CTpaHU 

b:b eaMOHi cmaTOicB BH;ii;t, to 9THorpa4>HqecKid h cxaTHCTH- 
?ecsi£ oqepB'B e& MoaceTx cjLjs&viTh BaKi 6u o6^BjicHHTej[B- 
HOX), cnpaBo^HOK) Ta6jrHi];eK), npH KoxopoS He nyasHo 6y- 

J[fiTb nOTOMl BXOAHTB B'B ofilHCHeHie MeJBHXl qacTHOCTed. 

9th coo6paseHiH h no6yjijiJivi Menji npej^nocjtaTB' H3J[ose- 



HCTopid npoj^eccopa SaMHCJioBCKaro, iis;^. 1869 r.; Atjiecb 3ana;i;H0- 
pyccKaro Kpaa no B^poHcnoBix^HiAMi, HBAame uHHHCTepCTBa BHyip. 
KbjTh 1863 r.,— Tpy^it 11. H. BaTioniBOBa h A. 8. PHTTHxa; KapiH 
CTapoH UojiBinH h dTHorpai|)H^ecKaA sapia 3ana;^Ho& FoccIh, npHjiO" 
seHHHA vh HSAanijD Apxeorpa^. EommhccIh, HcnojEneHHOMy hoa'b Hoeft 
peAasipefi, — ^oEyHeHTH, o6!bJiCHfflD]i;ie HCTopii) 3ana;i^H0H PoccIh h ea 
oxHomeHUi ki Poccm h nojuun*!, hsa. 1864 r.; MaiepiajiH x^a 9tho- 
rpaj^iH QapcTBa IIoJBCKaro. Fy6epHiH: jijo5jQnB[HCKafl h aBrycxoBCKan. 
A. FHTTHxa 1864; KapTa pyccKaro 3a,6jxha. GocxaBJieHa II. II(e5ajiL- 
csHKby 1880 r.; 3THorpa4i)HHecKaa Kapra eBponedcEofi Poccm, co- 
CTaBjueHHaJi A. 9. Phtthxomi, HSAanie reorpa({)H^ecKaro o6in,ecT!Ba, 
1875 r.; 9THorpa4)H?ecKaA Kapia cjraBAHCKHxi napoAHOCTet, cocTaB- 
seESLsm M. 9. MEpKOBH^eifB, HaAanie GjaBHHCKaro 6jiaroTBOpHTejiLBaro 
oCmecTBA 1874 r. 








~- 11'. 

^~- C. 



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"":',;,, 












""I/:,,^ 



"""o, 



'■OOQ, 



""««« 



■Ii«i„ ' 






•»» ' 



""•ll< 



o«o« 



»«i. 









•"to* 



"'••nb- 



'•»«.« 




— 25 



no dTHM'b BiH^^paicB MOHHO BHA^TB, ^To HaceieHie sa- 
Ha;i;Hofi PocciH — caMoe pasHOoSpasHoe, necrpoe. Ho no dTiswh 
se j^H^^paM'b cen^aci mossho saM^THTL, komj wh 3ana;!i;H0H 
Pocck npHHa;i;je2RHTb rjiasHoe m^cto vh 9THorpa<|)ii?ecBOM'B 

CMHCJli. 9t0 — pyCCKHM^ H JHTBHHaiCb, COCTaBJiaiDin;HMl 

BMicT* CBHine 10.000,000 — 80®/o. Ohh-to cocTaBMDT'b 
dTHorpa^H'iecByio ochobj cTpaHu. HHKaRoS aTHorpa^)'^ ho 
HasoBer^ 3ana;i^no& PocciH HHa^e, jsakb CTpanoH) najiopoc- 

eOB'E, 6^J[0pyCC0B'B H JHTBHHOB'L. 

B^ dTOM'b dTHorpa<{)H^6CKOMi CMucj[% BCfl sanajsjHaa Poc- 
ck pacna^^aeTca Ha xpn rpynnn, — Ha MajiopocciK), Bijo- 
pycciD H JlHTBy. PascHOxpHHi npe»Ae Bcero Eaac^yH) h8% 
BTHX'L rpynni. 

cocTasHjiH HamH cTaTHCTH^ecm ^HCJia. Jterie scero 6u3io bubccth 
^nicjio whmifiB'b H shaofb; ho E&fi<o6jio said^THTB, ^to ^hcjio H^MBieB'b 
3a BpeM£, OTB EOToparo HMiDtcji hsb'^ctIa (crojibko TenepB HiMii;eB'B — 
HeH3BicTHo), Hpe^BejiH^eHO, TasB KaifB vb Hero nonajiH h o6pyciBinie 
H^Mipi, a HHCJio SHAOBB, zM.'h BceiAa Bi noAo5HHxi cjiy^aflxi osasii- 
Ba.iocB, MeHBme ^^'ItcTBHiejiBHaro hxi HHCJia, j^o chxi nopi He;^ocTyn- 
Haro TOHHOMy onpeA^JieHin. ^ai^e, bi ^hcjio HajiopoccoBX h 6^jiopyc- 
coBii HeH35^3EHo noHa^aeTi MHoro BejiHsopyccoB'B lipaBocjiaBHaro B-l^po- 
HcnoB^A^'Hifl} H o^HH TOJiBKO CTapoo6pHAii;H onpeA'i^jieHii TO^H^e. Pas- 
X^iLeHie HesAy najiopoccaiiH h 6'ibjiopyccaMH CA^jiano no hxi m^cto- 
XHxejiBCTBy, H HHCAOBoe OTHomeme Me^K^y hhmh aobojibho 6ah3ko k'b 
hcthh^. Bi* MeHBmei CTenenn axo ho»ho csasaTB o hhcji^ jihtbhhob'b, 
vh H^cTaxi nocejoLeniH soTopuxi xota HeHHoio hojuikobib, ho hxt* Tpy^no 
BH^'fejETL. HaKOHen;!., Tpy^nie Bcero onpeA^jiHTB sMcTBHiejiBHoe ^hcjio 
nojuiLOB^b vb sana^HOE Foccin. Bo scib c^cth axoro po^a saneceno 6o- 
jr&e Hjm ueH^e snaHHTejiBHoe ^hcjio MaiopoccoB'B e 6ij[opyccoB'B jia- 
THECKaro 3aK0Ha. Mh othjuih caMyn MajiyD naciB xaKHxi, HenpaBHJBHo 
npHSHaBaeMHxi hojiakob'b, HMenHO, xcjibko xpexBD ^acxB jl&these'l- 
cji&BXSh KEsanaAHoi Poccin. npH axoHi hh pysoBOACTBOBajiHCB ijiaB- 
iSHXb o6pa3oici c^ECJieHieM'B ho cocjiobLimx, Kani 6os!he XBepxuMi oc- 
HOBaHiem* 



— 26 — 

MaiopocciftcKoe nieHH saHHHsen bi sanaxHofi PoceiB 
sieBCEjK) rySepHin, noAOJbcxjS), bojiuhcktk), nro-Bocioi- 
Bjn noJOBHHy rpoAHeHCsofl, bxoxhti omxo IIpHnetH vh 
HBHcsyK) ry6epHiK) h vh DSByn ^ctl vorHieBciEod. Ha 
wxm, STOVL npocTpaaCTB^ Ma^opoccoB'B CBume 5.000,000. 
Epoirk sanaxHofi Poccih, MajopoceH xasyrh «h h^bojb- 
KHxi rjlJepHi.HX'b sa BocTo^Hofi cropoH'i ^stnpa, raeHHo, 
wb qepHHroBCKOfi, nojiTaBcsofi, Kype&ofi, esaTepHBOczaBCKofi, 
xapiiKOBCKOfi, xepcoBCKofi, a raKxe bi JX)6jiBBCioft h c^- 
jiei^Koft ryfiepaiK nojbfliB, h vb F&jiBBiH b yropcsofl P;ch 

Bt AfiCXpiB. BciX'B UaJOpOCCOB'B HaCHHTSBaDTl CBHOie 18 
HBJjdOBOBl. 

MajopoccificKoe nieufl do^tb Be&x^ aasBer-h Ha lepHO- 
seHBofl aoivb, Tas'L ^to, bosbo cEasaTL, ^epaoseHi H Ha- 
jopocct — 9T0 jifiA cjOBa, BepaspUBBO uexAj cotSod cooab- 
BeBBua. 3to oco6eBBo p^Ko CpocaeTos b% rjiaaa vb Tixi 
irbcTHOcrarb, r^t iiajtopocciScRoe mieiiB cxoahtcb cb 6^- 
jiopywEBHrb. Tx^ TOJibKO BUAaJica EJio^eid ^epBoseuHoft 
nouBU — T&m Majopoccu, a r^^ bcckb bjb 6oioTa. — T&m 
(SijropyccH. HtoCh noBepHyiB BpH BCBaniKi rjinCy qepno- 

SeHHOfi BO^BU, AJIfi 3T0r0 HOAOCraTOlHO TOmfik JHTOBCSOS 

coxB HZB Aoace 6o.iie sptnEOg pyccKoft coxb. ^ju btopo 

ByaKB'B BJiyrt, aanpaxeBHuft He iteHbnie, aaKi ^eTupbiur 

BoiaHB. Ho sTOTt TAxeJiufi TpyA'B o6pa6oTKB BosHarpas- 

rcB CTOpfli;eEi. Majopoccitcsan 6jaroAaTHaii no^sa npH- 

iTh Goraiue bjoah. 

asaa so^Ba, eCTecTBCBBO, sostfyxAaen at ^ejoB^ici 
peHSOCTb, CB0EOftCTBie..9TB CBOftCTBa oneHB p^BO sa- 
afOTca Kb uajiopocc^, kofak obi saBaTi cbohmr pa6o- ^ 
a. Kaxerca, A4fl aero Be cymficiBjsyfb BBKasijEt npe- 

TBOCTB, BaKlb 6yAT0 BCe BI Mipi BpOZOABTIb HHMO Hero. 



r 



— 27 — 

Ero He 6e3noEOH'rb hhceojfbso h ysacHufi cxpuLWh xojeci 
ero lei'^rH, Ha KOTopoS owb thxo, Me;(JieHHO seserB ceoft 
tioraTug xJii6'h h AJMaeri Ayny. Ho hoa'b dTHH!b chokoS- 
CTBieifx CBpuBaeTCA 6oj[binofi sanacb anepriH, Koxopafl cno- 
co6Ha BApyrb cKa3aTi»CA h na^'i^aTB MHoro Ao6pa hjh 3ja. 
9to ofinapyasHJiocL, na naniHX'B raasax'B, bi nocjiAHiox) 
nojLLCKyD CHyTy. Ilepe;^ dnnan, BOdCTSLBiewh wh Majopoc- 

CIH JS,BXe XVJfflj 6JH3BO SHaBOMHO CI HapOAOMOb, He dESU^Lj 

vso 0H:b j[jmL&n» A'^jaTB, nrb owb npeAnpHMer^, Kor^a 
Ha^neTCfl nojiBCKoe BoscTanie. KasaJtocB, owb 6ajrh coBep- 
ineHHo paBHOAymeni Vh xoMy, cto saTieaJH nanu. Ho 
East TOJLBO aoABHJiac& Bi MajopocciH nepBaa noJiBCEaa 
mafiEa, Tas'b HeMe^jieHHO ^pasue moj[o;(ii;u c&ih na sonefi, 
eocTaBHJH caMH C060K) OTp&jifiL H noHLiH sadnpaTB h ;i;o- 
craejATB bi SIob'b HflTeiKHiix'B nanoBOb. Hi^o noAofinoe, 
xoTfl H BecBHa npe;(ocy;^HTej[BHaMi o6pa30Mi, CEasaJOCB h 
vh HeABBHExi, TasrB HasHBaeMUXt SH^oBCEHxab norpoMaxi 
UH sHAOTpenaHiH. 

9th ^BXThi HOEasuBaioarB, ^to vb Majopoccaxob — He jeh^* 
laa TOJBSO aHepiifl, ho ^0 bm^ct^ cb TiarB y hhxi ecxB 
H HapoAHafl, o6Bi;ecTBeHHaji cua. GnjEa dia, soae^no, ecTB 
pesyjiBTarB npe»A6 Bcero HpaBCTaeHHUX'B sa^ecTBi najio- 
poccoB'B, HO OHa Bupa6aTUBaeTca Tasse h HesaBHCHMO orb 
HHX'B. Ha CHjiomHod, njEO^opoAHoS MaJopocci&CEofi no^Bd^ 

eCTB B03M0SH0CTB HOCeJHTBCA Vb O^HOltB IftCT^ dOJBHIOMy 

wcjy jLDjsfiA H opoEopMHTBCJi. SaT^Mx, oTspuTaji, irajo- 
poccificKaA CTpana, vb ap^bhIie BpeMOHa noABepaceHnaa 
^lacTUMX HanaAemaifB, xose nofiyaiAaJia MajEopoccosi ce- 
[TBCH 6oja>mmm rpynnaMH, a ne pa36pacuBaTBca no oah* 
[o^uci. IIodTOHy B^B MajiopocciH hotfh Be3A^ 6ojBnua ^e- 

»eBHH, laCTO B'B HicSOJ[BSO COTb ABOpOB^B. BCJlSaa MUCJIB, 



— 28 — 

BHeceHHaa vh 3th 6ojiBniifl rpyanii jmjufii, 6HCTpo ooie- 
Taert Bcixt, o6o6in;aeTcn, noflBepraexca ephthk4, h ccjh 
OKasHBaeTca ^pH^o;^HOK), to jTBepajiiaeTca bo Bcixi h 
yTBepat^aeTca npo^Ho.' HosTOMy ecjH MajopoccB yBtpHTca 
Bt HGMTb, TO paayBipHTL ero ne jierKO. UocjAa^^^ ^^" 
6eHH0CTB nopasHTejBHO o6Hapy»HJiacL bo BpeMa kphiickoh 
BoftHH Bi 1855 roAy, BTb 6ijion;epKOBCKOirb napoAHOMt boj- 
HeniH. KaKie-TO HOAofipue jho^h nycxHJH Bt napoA'^ mhcjb, 
^To Bci ;i;oji»HH fipocaTB pafioTH nanaMi, co6HpaTBca n't 
Kaaa^ecTBO h h^th Hrf Boftny Bt KpuMi.. HapoA't saBOJHO- 
Bajca, fipocajiTb naninHHy, cTaJii cofinpaTLCJi na Boflay h 

^ cocTaBjiaTB OTpJa[;^u. y64»;^eHia, BpaayMjenia ne ^ijtftcTBO- 

BajiH. HpHinjiocB ynoTpefiHXB BoeHHyH) CHjy. Ha^aJBCTBO 
HotTaBjieHo 6mjio 3;^tcB vb neqajBHyBD neofixoAHMOCTB ot- 
HecTHCB K-B Ha,po;^y cypoBO. Hyano 6hjio BoscTanoBHTB no- 
pa^oKi H HeKor^a 6uao bxoahtb vb pa36opx toeo, KaKia 
no6y»;i;eHia ;^BH^aJIII ba^cb Hapo^oM^. A ^o6y»;^eHia 9TH 
6UJE BeiHsifl, HCTopu?ecEi£[ no6y»AeHiA! B'b axOM'B Sly- 
Ha*]^ CRasuBajiocB ho nejo^Hoe a^ejEanie OT^^jraTBCJi oti^ 
6ap[n;HH£i, a HCTopH^ecKiK hhcthhkt^ Hapo^a, ero naMATL 
A^BHeft 6opB6:& c'b asiflTCKHHi MipoMi h ci» noj[;iEa]iH, 
KOTopHXib OH'B H To^;^a xopoino noHHMaji'B. Hapoj^x pBajca 

[ Kh 3To6 6opB6i, KB cTapoMy KasaqecTBy. Kasa^ecTBo axo 

^ A^fiCTBHTOJIBHOy CH.1BH0 SEBBTB Bl HeUTB H OSEBJiaeTTE ero' 

Oho coxpaHHjiocB bx MHoroiHCJieHHHX'B no3TH^ecKHx^ upe- 
' A^Hiflxi, nicHJixi. 

I 

BOTl 06pa3^HK'B MaJOpOCCiSCKOft pi^H, — OTpHBOltTEfc ^^^ 

lopocciScKoii n'bcHH, bi Eoxopofi BOcn'&BaiDTCJi A^Jia. hso^ 
BpeHOH^ Xm^JBEHinKaro: A 

He ^BySiecji, Ao6pHH Jii>Ae, 
IQ^o Ha BKpaHHE noBCiajio: 



r -^ 



— 29 — 

Oft aa AamesoiTB im^ CopoKon 
Mhox6ctbo jijixhb'b nponajio. 
nepe6ifi-HH<rL npocHxi He mhofo, — 
GiorL-corL sosaKHBi s'b co5od; 
Py6ae ue^ewb tojiobh ci lue'iefi, 
A perHTy*) tohhtl bo^oi). 
Oft nifiTe, JUEKH, boah xaJiDSH, 

BO^H SaJlDXH, 6OJIOTJIHHH, 

A n^o nHBajEH no Tifi BspasHH 

Me;^, J[,2i BHHa CHTHHH. 

SasECJin, jflmsH, sasHCJiH 
Ski ^epna xxapa na Bhcjih. 
JUxcKyD cjiaBy, sarHaBi nHX'b xaBy, 
GaMi ^paBHH K03aK:b ryjue. 
Hyie, EOsaKH, ycKOKS , 
' Sa^epeMocji bi 6okhI 

SaxeHeMi jamRa, Bpaxaro CHna 
Axi 8a Tuft ^yHafi rjiH6oKift... 

B4jopyccKO0 njeMfl, cocTaBjraDmiee Bt sana^Hoft Poc- 
cis Haf^jieHie ;i;o 3.300,000, a cb CMOJeHCKHiiH h xojm- 
CKHMH 6ijopyccaMH OKOJO 4.000,000, He HMieri t^x-b 60- 
raxHX'B oco6eHHOGTeft, KasHMH oTjiH^aercfl HajopocciftcKoe. 
TojiBKO K^B 3ana;i;y ot'b MHHCRa, K'b Ehjibh*]^ h oxqacTH 
K-B TpoAHy, Bijiopyccia ^pe;^CTaBJIaeT^ 6ojiie cyxyE) h bx 
fojiie ^acTHx^ h KpynnffiCB noJOcax'B ji;obojbho njio^nopoji;- 
Hyro no^By, oco6eHHO b:b ofijacTH HoBropojilKa jiHTOBCKaro. 
H HapoAi 9Tofi ofijiacTH Bujijkjisi&rcs. 6owiBnieK) 6o;i;pocTiK) 
CHjii, jB^axe ero nasuBaiDTB oco6EiMrB HaSBameirB ^epao- 
pyccoB'B, Kax^B 6el vb cooTB^xcTBie 6ojihme& ero 6jh3octh 
\K'h Majopyccam, ?acTB KOTopiixi — rajiHn;KopyccKie Majo- 
^occH BOCsTb 6JH3KO ^o;^xo^flI^ee K'B 9T0My HasBanie nep- 



*) T. e. perHMeHTi, cipoeBofi noJiBCicit oTpji^'B. 



30 — 



BOHopyccoB^B (no Bcei B'^^poathocth, orb leHHO-KpacHaro 
ipiTa ojifiXA'b H rjEBHaro Marepiajra hxi, — TeMHo-Kpac- 
Hoft mepcTH OBenii). O^eHL uoxevh 6utb, ?to vb nucsi 
npeAKOB'b ^epHopyccoBi h 6UJH BOJiBHue hjh eeBOJiBHue 

HaceJTLHHRH H3'b Maj[OpOCCiH. Bo BCflKOM^B CJTy^ai, B'B 

CTapHHy 9T0 6UJH 6ojrbe CH']^£ie KOJOHHsaTopii, ji^sjLbme 
^cpyrax-B 64j[opyccoB'B BHfljBHHyBmieea bx jHTOBCKyK) cxpany 
H AaBmie nepsyK) pyccEyro ocHosy js^ jthtobckoS rocy- 

;^apCTBeHH0GTH. 

CoBC^Hrs HHHA oco6eHHOCTH iipe^^CTaBjjierB E^JEopyccifl 
H e^ HacaieHie k^b BocTOEy h Dry ot'b MHHCKa. 

npHpoAa, saacercA, co6paja bj> crpsusrk Bijopyccin bc% 
HeyAo6HHa jsfla shshh HeJOBixa ycJOBia, ^to6u ^aTB 6u- 

Tie H'i^CBOJIBKHM'B rpOMa^HUM'B p'^KaM'B, 6jaraHH BOTOPHX'B 

CojbineH) ^acTiro nojo^j&rcn He-64jiopyccKoe njeMa. Bt 
aTofi CTpaH*]^ 6epyT% CBoe nanajro Jlfliupb^ JI^BHna, IIpH- 
neTB, H'bMaH'B, HapBa. IlecBH, fiojroTa, HHsmaro copTa 
jrbcni> nospuBaDrB no^TH bck) B'bJtopycciK). B'b . Tanoft 
CTpaH^ napoA^ He Moaeerx orjEH^aTBCA (oraTUMH ({>H3n- 
^ecKHHH cBoficTBaMH. B^jopyccu CojiBmeio ^acTiH) hoSojib- 
moro pocTa, xhjih, bash, ^j^ahh. HepiAso napHH h A'b- 
BHii;u paHBine ABaAn;aTH jAtb yse ne HHiDirB hh xpo- 
BHHBH vb joinib. BjiarococTOAHie jsfi ocBOAOs^cenia xpe- 

CTBJIH'B 6UJ0 HDCB pi;i;KO SHaKOMO. BOJBniaA ?aCTB HK^ 

ijiSL xjii&b Heo?Hiii;eHHHfi, ci mabhhok), RaB'B Bofb ji,Bjrh^ 
no 6ijiopyccKOMy BnpaaceHiio. Btb rtxi MicTHOCTaxi, r^ 
MHoro necKOB^B, 6ojotb, jScob^b, 6ijropyccH »HByrB EaRx 
6y;i;T0 na ocTpoBax-B, Meat^y eotophmh HHor;i;a no wb^ 
csojiBsy H^CflnieB'B He 6aBaeirB HHsaKoro cood^enifl. B' 
TaxHxi MicTax'B 6i;[opyccii ^acTo npHHysA^HU 3aEj[ED^aT] 



n' 



— 31 — 



I ypo;^CTBa• 

BcjAjifiTme TaRHxi oco6eHHOCTe& CTpanu, 6^opyceH 
SHByTb He6oj[BiDHMH, pi^KHiiH rpjnnaHH. BojBmiA ^e- 
peBHH 7 HHxrb p^ARO nona^aDTca. npH cBoefi pasfipo- 
caHHOCTH, 6&ropycc£L ne Hiri^iDTb Tofi o6iii[eeTBeHHod chjh, 
saRys) HH BH^nifB b'b Majopoceax'B. HcRJiiD^eHie cocTaB- 
JLsxyrh^ HJH, TO'fHie CRasaTB, npeac^i^e npe;i;cTaBj[flj[H, hx^ 
rpymiu h jijbls&b nojocu HacejeHk no pisaH'B ^bhh^ h 
An^npy. TaRi, ioxhmjD mxy noRaaajiH nojEO^He ne 
ToiBSo BB \2i;peBHiA BpeMena h B'b rocy^^apcTBeHHoifb cTpoe- 
bIh, ho h BBocj'&ACTBiH, B'b odjacTH 06lI^eCTBeHH0S. 
Ilojoi^soe vk^e h Boo6ii^e nojoi^aa ofin^HHa 6hj[h hs'b 
^Gia caiiHxib CHJLHHX'b pyccRHx:b B^qed h o6iii;hh'b ^^aiRO 

BB TOprOBOfi 6opL6% C% HHOSeilHHSH CHJiaHH. Eo^pOCTB 

9Ty j^oJETo coxpaHtfjiH nojio^ane, a sa hhmh BHTe^n^ane 
H MorHJieBmii BO Bpeuena nanjuBa kb hhmb sh^^ob^b h 
OGodeHHo B'B iiepBHA BpeHena HanjiiBa iiponoB%;i;HHROB:B 
yniH. B'B dTOirB no^^asaj'B HifB en^e nos^H'^e h Mhecr^b. 
Ho KpoMi dTHX'B BUAaH)m;HXCA ABJieHiH, y 6ij[opyccoBB 
Boo6ii^e Haoro oCn^ecTBennofi chjh. Hx'b jerRo jsjBjiJijLJiL no 

HSLCT^Wh. OhH He CROpO npOl'HBOnOCTaBJAJH CBOD CHJiy, 

fjBL H TO hm:b Hy»HO 6UJ0 B036yacA6Hie co CTopoHU. 8to 
o^napysHJOCB acho bo mhofhx'b co6uTiax% hxb ncTopiH, 
HanpHM'i&p'B, B'B cj[^Ay£>in;Hxi. Y hhxb nepBHX'B BBe;i;eHa 

6WLSL HOJBCRa^ CHCTena yBOJEOR'B (noABopnuxB h SaT^lTB 

ceue&uuKT, y^acTsoB'B seHJH), pa3pymHBniHX'B d'i&Jiopyc- [ 
CRyro o6n^HHy, h ho bh^hho, ^to6h fiijopyccH 6opojiHCB ^ 
rpoTHB'B axoro BejiHRaro sjia, RaKB 6opojracB MajiopoccH. 
ffiapysHJEHCB dTH 6']&JiopyccRiH Ra^ecTBa h bb nocj^ff,' 
:iDH) nojiBCRyro cMyxy. Bo BpeM« Moero nyxemecTBia no 



— 32 — 

sanajcHoft Poccin, b'b 1862 r., HH'i ne pasi npHXOAHiocB 
cjrumaTB OTb C^jropyccoBi, hto ecjm6ii hk^b tojbso cjobo 
CRasajEH HSi neTep6ypra, to ohh 6u fb miiERaxi Aocra- 

BHJH Ty^a BCiX'B MflXeSHHX'B naHOBl. Ho CaV H OHH Hajio 

fljbjajm. ToJBRo ib'b Fopu-ropRax'B, HicxnocTH, coxpaniB- 
mei 6ojLhme napoAHuxi chj[:b, KaR^B h Boo6n^e b'b mofh- 
jeBCRoS ryfiepniH, fijiarojiiapa cociJ^CTBy bocto^hoS Poccin, 
MHTeacx 6hj['b cpasy no^naEieHi cbohhh cpe;i;cTBaHH. CRa- 
sajiaCB ein;e Hapo^Haa CHja, h CHja o^enB ^peBHHH, Ha 
Bri MHHCRofi ry6epHiH. H'JbROTopuH npaBOCJiaBHiifl mna.- 
xeTCRin orojhi];u — ^noroMRH^TaRi Ha3EiBaeMuxi jihtobckhx^b 
6oAp'B — Ao6j[ecTHO no^avBJLJiL caMH nojBcicyi) cnyTy vh 
CBoed CTpani. UpoHSHjacB en^e Tor^a Hapo;i(HaH CHJia 
OROJEO ^HHa6ypra, ^jaro^apa no^nny TaifOoiHHxi cxapo- 
o6pHAi^6B'B. Orh 9T0lk o^i^HaRo cj[a6o& a^tgjibhocth no 
co6cTBeHHOMy no^HHy, 6ijiopyccH chocoChh nepexojUHTB b'b 
^pyryro RpafinocTB, CBoficTBeHHyro jtbo^uhmi 9Toro po;i;a,-j- 
R'B sJioynoTpefijeHiHM'B B035ys;(eHHo3[ chju. TaR'B ohh b'b 

HHUX'B M^CTaX'B »eCTORO HOCTynaJIH CB SaXBa^eHHUHH 
nOJIBCRHMH MHTeSHHRaMH. IIO^^O^HLIH RpafiHOCTH CuBQJiB, 

H B'B CTapuH Bpeiiena. £o BpeHena RasaniRHxi boSh'b b'b 
BtjopycciH oco5eHHo hhofo cocTaBJHJiocB TaRi HasuBae- 
Mux'B rafi;i;aMai];RHxrB saroHOB^B^ — napTHsancRHX'B RasaniRHX'B 
maeRi, ROTopuH npoH3Bo;i;Hj[H CTpaniHHH secTOROCTH. Bo- 
o6ni,e 6t JopyccH nep'^^niHTejiBHU h b'b to s&e BpeMH o^eHB 
Bne^iaTJiHTejiBHBi! IIocjii^^^Hee Ra^ecTBO hx'B ne paso^ CKa- 
suBajocB H B^ npeRpacHux'B ^BJieHiAX'B s^hshh. B'b nep- 
BUfl BpoMena mepROBHOH ynin, ohh 6ojBnie ^tpyrnxnb no- 
RasajH BejH^ecTBeHHys), HpaBCTBeHnyK) CHjy npaBocjiaBi^ 

B'B CBOHX'B 6paTCTBaXX, BO FJaB^ ROTOpUX'B Jl^OJlTO CTOAJX 

SHaMOHHToe, BHjieHCRoe npaBocjiaBHoe 6paTCTB0. y hhxiU 



— 33 — 

se B'B nocji^^Hiii BpeMena paHBme h 6ojrLnie pa3BHJHCt 
Hapo^^HUA y^HJiHii^a. 

E^jopyccu HHROr;(a ne sHajH TaTapcnaro Hra. 9to Toace 
orpasHjrocB fb ni^KOTopiix'B ^epraxi hx'b sh3hh, nanpn- 
H^px, n't nopa3HTeJBHOMi AOB^pin k'b j[id;i;ami, b:b 3Ha- 
iHTejBHo xopomeS hxi cenegHoS nH3HH h, b:b ofiu^Hoe 

SarnaHHue bi tfoJOTa h jica, 6ij[opyccu b:b stoitb ca- 
MOH'B HaniJH ce5^ oAHaRo cnaceflie He tojibko oti TarapB, 

HO H OTl MHOrHXl ^CPyrHXl SOJTB. OhH SaEpUTU 6blJIH H 

He;(0CTynHii oRpysaBmefi hxx ii;HBHj[H3aii;iH, h laRi RaR^ 
9Ta i^HBHjtHsaniJi — no^BCRa^, iesyHTCRaa 6£rjia o^enB jnyp- 
HaH i](HBHJH3ai;ifl, TO 6ij[opyccu HaxoAHJTH 6j[aro kb CBOHxib 
ji^caxB H fioJOTax'B, cRpueaffCB otb hga. Ohh ;i;'&ficTBH- 

TOJBHO 60jie COXpaHHJH CBOfi ;[peBHifi 6£IT'B, ^^M'B KaJTO- 

poccu. CanaA pi^B hx:b 6oj['fie ^Hcra, 6oj[ie 6jH3Ra r% // 
BejHKopyccROiiy a3HRy, ^iMi MajopocciftcRoe napi^ie. 

BoTB o6pa3eD;'B (JijopyccRoft pi^n, — nicna atenniiHHH 
Ha ^a(6HH£: 

Bi i^ioMHOMi jrikH, Aft Tpasa sejieHa, 
Tab* a BHftj^y — Bcio Hy»aa cTapana, 
A vh caxo^sy cojioBedRH hodi^Lj 

Bl IPOMHOICS liCH SDSDJILKn KyDUB. 

GoAOBeiiKo, pyxHnS ^pai^EKt Hyt, 
A SDSDJTBRa, py^Ha ciocTpHHKa MHi: 
Hh He 61UIH BH Bi Maes cTapani? 
^H He >iyjrn HaBnHymKH 060 hh*]^? 
^H He TysHi^B Maa MaTKa no UH'ib? 
„Ty3RHn;B, njia^e, y6HBaei;Bca, 
IIIto a3%hb, hohb cnaAS'l^Baei^BCA^. 
En^e 60 fl He paxsHJiacA, 
JLnxa AOJia npnKai^HJiacA; 
* En^e 60 A VB nii[X)iiiKax:B jiesaja, 



Eme 60 a KOio laBSH xoASBaa, 
JIsxA jioia sa pyvenuH saAsaia. 

Ho aTHMt ofipaai^aMi piqn MoopoceiftcKoft h fttjopye- 
cEoS y^ uoxHO cyAHTb, TFo 06a njteiceHH OHent SjihsSb 
OAHO Ki ^(pyroHy. E^HsocTb aia oco6eHHO «CHa bi t^xi 
Mtcraxi, rj,4 KajopocciftcBoe h fiijopyccKoe njieMesa cxo- 
AdTCA, KaEi, EanpHHipi, oEOJio IIpuaeTH a y piEH Hapsu. 
TaH'b o6ie;!iEHaH>TC£ uaJiopoccificBift h 6ijiopyccEift ro- 
Bopu, H — saMtqaTejiHoe aweHie — otb aroro o^hexaEe- 
hU BtrxoflHTi pt^t 5HCT0 BftiHKopyccEaa. HanpaiipL: 
no-MajopoccificKH TBnapt, no-6§jiopyeeEH iianept. Majo- 
poect, ;t^afl yciyiiKy ditiopyccy, CMar^erB CBoe 9, a 6t- 
jopycci ycrynaen cboh tf, ;i, sautHaen HXi dysBaiiH 
»B, e, H BuxoAHTi — TenepL. Kpoir& Toro, HcxopLa nocra- 
BHja 06a 9TH UjeHeHB Bl OABHaKOBUa yCJIOBlfl Bapo^HOfi 
KHSHH, DO OTHOmeHilO, HanpHUipt, Kl naUABaiTE. IlOBTOMy 

060HH1 BjeHeHau'b hcoSsoahho o(>o6iii,aTLcs, u^BnThca huc- 

jisHH, aa o;i;ho A^ficTBOBaTb h ass sroro HMiTb nocToaHsua 

CBomeHia. CnQineHia 9th h o6jieriaK>TCa TaEHUH tSaibmHUH 

p^EaHH, EaKi JI^Hinpi H UpHQexb ci ea ioxhuhh spH- 

TOKaMH. Ho ofijeraesie 9to — 6oj[bnie no TeHeniro 9THXi 

p^Ei, T. e. Ba 6ojBniia paacxoaHia, wkwh bb nopepe^Hom 

HanpaBieHiB, na Gjihsehzi, ho uHorHxrb pascTOaHiaxih 

n-t aroHi nocxi^tHeH'b oTEomeHiH, sa caHosi SoibmeMik 

tcTpaHCTBi coct;(CTBa ofioHxi nieHesi, iipBpoj^a %ecTOBc 

leciacb El. 3Toft HX'b noTpetjHocTB B no^osHja neua- 

lasaiia nperpaAu xexjj hhub. Mexj^ stbhh njieHe- 

iii npoieEaerb 6ojbiiiaa, cyAoxojiHaa p^sa IIpHneT& 

BHAHHoHy, yAoCicTBo E'b o6ie;(HHeBiH). Ho ara 6oxhm.SLai 

[oxoABaa piKa ospyaeHa iJcubmeK) ^acTbD neio^BUJu^ 

\ 



— 35 — 

jricaMH, cuny^HMH necEaMH h orpoMHUMH 6ojOTaMH, a 
y HCTOKOBi ea, KaKt CTpafflHHH I^epfiep-B, CTepeatera koj- 
xyH^, i][apGTByEDio;iil sa^cb h nopasaE)^!^ cTpa^aHiaMH 
Hacejenie na oCdihphom'b npocrpaHCTBi *). 

TaKHMi o6pa30M'B, npHpo^a He MHoro noMoraeT'B c6jih- 
seHiH) fiijopyccEaro h MaJiopocciScKaro njeMeHH. A xaE'E 
BaacHo dTO c(5j[HseHie, dTO He pasi mosho 6y;(erB BH;i;tTB 
HS'B HCTopiH sana^Hog PocciH. He pas^b sauaj^HO-pyccKoe 
Bapo;(Hoe a^o noTOMy h HcnuTUBajro ney^^a^H, ^to He 
jiepRo 6uAo 6'bjopyccaM'B h najopoccaM'B ciaxb pa^^OMi h 

J[,HCTBOBSLTh 3a O^HO. 

•iHTOBCKoe njieMJi He 0T;i;*SjieH0 otx bthxi jsfijrb njie- 
iieH'b xaKHMH j[h6o npHpoj^HUMH nperpajcaMH, ho h oho 
sHa^HTejiLHo yoAHHeno, tojilko no ApyrnifB npHTiHHaifB. 
JlHTOBCEoe ujie^iLK 3aHHHaeT'B AOBOJiLHO y;i;o6HyiD ji^ia »h3hh, 
6ojiLffleH) ^acTiBO ^JOAopo;^HyH) cxpany — npHHiMaHCEyio. 
Oho Hacejaerx EOBOHCEyK) ry6epHiH), ciBepo-3ana;i;HyK) 



*) ^ejOB-feKi, no^^BepraDn^mcfl KojxyHy, HyBCTByers TOMjenie, jioMOTy, 
oco6eHH0 CTpa;^ae^B roaoBoft. 3to SHaHHTB,— KOJiTyHi Hmeit ce64 bu- 
xoAa. Majio no Majiy bojoch na roioBi cjiHnaDTCAJ npeBpan^aiOTCA 
Bi njioTHyi) uaccy, o6pa3yK)T'b pOAi* mamH, KOTopaa Ha uHorie TOf,u 
DOKpHBaerB rojiosy. CTpaAanifl npeKpan^aDxca. Ho coxpaHz Bof'b pas- 
ApasHTL H^Mi 9Ty Maccy na rojiOB-fe, oco6eHHd naxy^HMH BemecTsaMH. 
Tor^a KOJiTyHX hcrphbhtb Bcero ^ejioB^na h saMyTH-rb. HysHO aoxh- 
^i^aTBCfl, noKa owb caM'b Majio no Hajy CTaHeTi 0Tji,'ki&Thcsi, npnnoAH- 
MaxLCA Ha rojioB:^. Kor^a owb xepxHTca yse Ha HeMHorHxi BOJiocax'L, 
TO snaxapH 6epyTca CHHMaiB ero, h to ^acTO npHxo^HTca 6oii»HOMy 
pacnjia^HBaiLCfl 3a 3to. JTy^me, xor^a xo-iTynt cain. cofiAexi. Ho h 
6jiaTonoJiyTHO KOH^aacB, KOjixyHi ocxasjiaexB name Bcero nocjii ce6a 
cjrbjs,u. — HSHypeme opranHSMa, bajiocxb. KojixynB He pasraAani b'b He- 
XB^ani, Ho acHoe a^jo, ^to ero ^poH3Bo;^ax^ 64jiopyccKia fiojoxa. 
Owh BeBfti, PA'fe MHoro dojioxt. Ha npi-fesanxt owb ne ^^ficiByexi 

^BHO, HO H OBH Vh JltxHee BpeMfl HyBCXSyiOXB CHJLHyD 60Sh Vb rOJIOB^. 

3* 



— 36 — 

^acTb BiueHCKofi. HefiojiiUiia rpynau ero paafipocaHu b'b 
dbsepHog ^acTH rpoAHescEoa. Kpoxit sanaAHofi Poxia, 
jiuTOBCKoe nseua aasHHaen <3fLii>inyio qacrb cfsajKCKofi 
ry6. (ctBepHyi) lacTL, cjiheikobi 200,000) z BOcroiBys) 
ospaHHy npycdH (200,000). B^ sanaAHofi Pucciu, sasi 
CKaaaHo, iktbhhobi 1,300,000. Hapo;ti 3Tort pasfliiaerca 
Ha ABa njieiieBH: co6cTBeHBo, laR'L HasHBaeHUX'B, .ihtbh- 

HOBl, XZBjmaj.T, Vh BHjeHCKOH H BOCTOqHoft ^aCTH KC 

Eofi ryfiepaia, h aMy^HHOBi, KHBymuxt sa ciBepi 
{■h ovb JHTBKHOB'L, Bi> KOBeHCKo^ ryfiepBiii, cyaajiE- 
H B'B npycciH. Bi> crapHay jHTOBctdt uapoAi- 3a- 
A-b Coibvaee npoCTpaHCXBo, hj^itb TeaepL. Bi. HUBim- 
IpycciH sHja ocofiaa b^tbl JiHTOBCKaro EapoAa, npyccu, 
MXh uoAaBHJiB H^uqs. Bx sanaxHofl FocciH niina ; 
[> 9Toro sapoAa, Tasi HasuBaeuue jiTBarH, shjik bi | 
lanaAuoS ^acrH rpoAHeHcsott ryCepHiu h b'b'c^A'O^ii- j 
Q cyBa^iKCKOg. MaJiopocctScsoe mieua B'B XIII cro- 
[ u noibCKoe si, to me Bpeu^ u wb XIV ctoj%uh j 

aJlH JIHTOBCKig HapOA'b Cb STOfi CTOpOHU H COBepmeHB? 

)6hjih flTBarenoe era njeiia. JIhtbhhh oerajiHci. TOJiLKi 
ipHHluaHCKoft cTpas^ sfl 6ajiTidcKaro Hopa. Ho A 
> OBH He HH^H Qosoa. Hsi seCTOEo A&BHJH puqapA 
opAena: npyccsig h juBOHCKilt. TasHui oSpasoscb, cbI 
ux'b CTopoat csHHazH jHTOBCsifi RapoAi. 9xa o6ctoa- 1 

rrBa BUpafiOiaJIH Bt JHTBHaaX'L Ty OCOfeHHOCTL, HTO I 

)6uKH0BeHHO ynupaDTM npoTHB-L Bcero, qacro jaae He ] 
.Baa, oo^eHy ooh sto A^jaasTi. Ctohti yiBepABTb hxt, | 
aKofi-JiHfio MucjiH, u ohh 3aiiiHii[aE)Tb ee ynopao. He I 
a ee6i OTnera, uoieHy yuHpaoTCa, 'sero Aot^HBaesxca. - 
[CTBeHHUe coc^AH, CB KOTopuHH y JHTBHHOB'b Bcer^^a J 
II jaA'b, 9T0 6i.iopyccKoe n^ieHa. Ol behi ohh su- 1 



— 37 — 

ByTB pfl^^oM'B cb HesanaMflTHsrb B^&»ewh h b'b 6ojiBinoft 
Apy^fii, KOTopyD H TenepB MOano BH;^4Tb. Ti h ;^py^ie 

nO^TH 0;^HHaROBO OAiBaH)TCA H ^aCTO H'&HflE)TCH p^^LK). 

B'b cxapufl Bpenena, KaB'b yBH^HifB, npn aTod ;i;py»({^ 
OHH MHoro jijkusuLVL jsfi^^^ ji^K Bcefi sana^Hofi PoccIh. K'b 
cosajiiHiK), o;i;HaKo, HCTopin Bupa^oTajia CHJbHoe padie^H- 
HeHie Mesjij jLwrohCJUKWb napoj^oM'B h pyccsuKH sana^i^Hoft 
PocciH. Bt HOBiftmee BpeMa, bote yae BTopoft past, mh 
BH^HifB CTpaHHoe, AHRoe ABjeHie. Jhtbhhh — no6opHHRH 
CBoero po;i;Horo, canue asapBie bx CBoe BpeaiA san^HTHiiKH 
3a^a;^HO-pyccKoft nesaBHCHMocTH oTh HoJiBniH — h b^b 1831 
ro^y H B'B 1863 ro;i;y — vb SHa^HTejBHOM'B HHCJit ctohjih 
3a noJBCKoe a*«io upothbtb pyccKHxi. 9to neBipoaTHoe 
aBjenie ofiBacnaeTca rtMi, ^^o jhtbhhh ^pHHyay^eHH 

6hJH npHHJITB jaTHHCTBO, HO^TH BC4 TGOepB JEaTHHflHe H 

Haxo;^TCfl BB pyKaxi jraTHHCKaro ^^yxoBencTBa h bojiiikob'b, 
ROTopne BcbMH CHjraHH BOopy»aj[H hx'b, HeBiijCMMO A^a 
Haci, npoTHBTb PocciH. HHHero pimHTOiBHO xoponiaro jht- 
BHHH He MorjiH ysHaTB PocciH. ^0 ^ero ;i;oxoahj!io 3to 
HeB'6;i;'6Hie, mo«ho cy;i;HTB no TOMy, ^to, Ror^a B'B nocjri;^;- 
H»ro nojiBCRyH) cnyxy naniH BoftcRa bobijih b'b 3KMy;i;B, 

TO OBaSaJTOCB, TTO TaM'B H RpeCTBHHCRail BOJTfl HO 6UJIB, 

.^d'BaBjreHa napo^y. Hjih eiii;e 6ojie HOBug npnuip'B. 
^or;^a b'b 1869 r. pimeno 6ujo bbo^htb pyccRift aauR'B 
npHfiaBO^Hyi) ^acTB JiaTHHCRaro fiorocJiyateaia, to cjiy- 
[HJOCB TaR'B, ^TO TpeSoBanio 9to npeA'BaBJiajocB npeat^e 
Kcero B'B JTHTOBCRHX'B npHXo;(ax'B, r^^ napo^^B hh cjoBa 
re SHEJ'B no pyccRH h, rjraBHoe, vjs,^ owb HMiji'B h chjbho 
>6epera;i'B ocTaTRH CBoero jHTOBCRaro asHRa b'b npH6a- 
^OHHOM'B jaTHHCKOM'B 6orocj[yaeHiH. Ha nacB pyccRHX'B 
[eaKHTB BejTHRaa ofiaaannocTB noaafioTHTBca o jTHTBHnax'B. 



'■ 









I 



»r *. —-■it 



1 



— 38 — 

9to 6hji'b CTopo»eBofi noJKt pyccKift, 3ain;Hiii;aBmi8 pyc- 
CKift HapoAi He Majoe BpeMA ot^ npyccKHX'L h ihboh- 
CEHX'b pimapeft, a saTiMt ovb noji&Kowb. JiHTOBCKifi Ba- 
po;i;'B H Bi Hay^HOMi oTHonieHiH sacjiyatHBaeT'B oco6eBHofi 
3a6oTjHBOCTH. 9to e;i;HHCTBeHHufi 6oJi'£e coxpanaBniiflca 
ocTaTOKi apiftCKaro j;oHCTopH^ecKaro njekeHH, b% koto- 
poMi cocTaBJiAJH o;i;ho Bci eBponeScKie Hapo;i;H. Bottb 
o6pa3eii;% jhtobceoS pi?H. 



JlETOBCRaa sioHfl: 



nponajiTacx SMofirycxI 
Kypx ^acH;^'fecID? 
Kac:b Hana amapaci 
HnioH'L HypaMHHCB? 
Oh eficy, amB eficy 
K) rnjia rapejin; 

10 FHJia THpeJlH, 

Paci niHcy ycejH. 
Tefi JIjiosacB TeftcHHroci 
MaHi> nniBKJiflync'E; 
Mana BapryciB, 
MaHa 6eAac!B 
HypaMHHCB. 



IIponaiii;iS ^ejoB^RB a\ 
Kyj^a ^Ji^HycB? 
Kto moh cjiesH 
S^'i^CB ocymHTB? 
Oxi, noH^y a, ^oz;^y 
Bb rjiy6oKifi ji^cb; 
Bb rj[y5oKiH j[']^c'b, 
Kb npaBOH AceHH. 
TaHB ciipaBe;i;jmBKd Eofb 
BncjiymaeT^B MeHA, 
n MOH CTpa^^ama, 
Moh 6iACTBifl 
O^JierHHTB. 



^iitCTBHTeJIBHO, JHTBHHy HaCTO OCTaBaJOCB noftTH B1> 

rj[y6(JKiH JiicB, BOCKpecHTt ;^peBHiH asii^ecKifi mho^, npe;ii- 
CTaBHTB wb C(J)ep4 3Toro MHGa Bora h eMy noBi^^aTL CBoii 
MyKH. Ero »H3HB, ero pi^B, ero Aynia nacTO 6hjih He-- 
noHJiTU jijame naniH pyccRHiin. 

Bci aTH njeifeHa — MajropocciflcKoe, 6ijiopyccKoe h jhv 
TOBCEOe — COCTaBJEflDTX HpocTofi, scMJie^iiijiBqecKiS KJiacc^ 
Hapo;i,a. CaMoe nefiojiBnioe hhcjio hx'b npuHa;i;j[esHT% m*]^ 
mancTBy, ein;e MeHBmee hhcjo — wh ^yxoBeHCTB-S h, HaKo 



\ 



s 



— 39 — 
Hei^^, caMoe icajoe ^hcio — cb'I^tckhx'b, o6pa3oBaHHUx'B 

TaKaji 6oj[Biiiafl Macca npocTiixi jiojifiA (cJEnrEOicb 
10 MHJjtioHOBi^) He MOseiTb He sejaTL js^Jisi jiyqmHX'B 

CB0HX1& CHJ'B BUXO^^a Kb APYTifi COCIOBk, He MOSeTTB He 

Tpe6oBaTL, ?To6ii sth jyninie ea jk)ah cocTaBHJH po^^noe, 
o6pa30BaHHoe cocjoBie h cJiyacHJiH cosHaxejBHUM'B Bupa- 
soHieM'B acHSHH CBoero napo^a. CanuMi ecrecTBeHHUM'b, 
nocTeneHHSM'b h 6jraroji;'bTeJiBHUM'b BuxoAoifB j[,j[& dTHX'B ' 
jiy^niHX'B CHJEi sanaAHo-pyccsHX'b aieiieHi aojesho 6u 
cjQrsHTL ropo^ncRoe, peiiecjieHHoe, ToproBoe cocjoBie; ho > 
AJA sanaAHO-pyccRaro Hapo^a bc% nyHETu na drowh nyxH , 

SaHATH SH^aMH. -^ 

2£hau bi sana^Hod Poccm Bes^^ Hace^ADTb ropoxa, 
cocTaBJuiiDTi ropoACKoe cocjoBie, ToproBoe. Bc^ nonuTSH ! 
npHBj[e?B HX'B K'B deMJLefl,ijLm OKasHsajHCB Hey^a^HBEMH. y 

np060BaJ[H 6UJ10 CXpOHTB Aep6BHH mUfl^B.V.'h Bl MHHCKOfi 

H xepcoHCKoS ry6epHiH, j^&bbljiw. ^oiaa^e CBHiii;eHHUfl HasBamii 
dTHM^ ^epeBHAMi, B'B po;^ CapenTU, BneJieeMa h t. n., 
npe^ocTaBjiAJi, EOHe?HO, nocejrHBmHHOcE eBpe^iTB pasHUji 
npeHHyiii.ecTBa. ^epes'B ro;i;rB, ABa OEasuBaJiocB, ?to ecjrn 

MiCTHOCTB AQSBOJJIJia BeCTH EaSOfi J|[H6o^ npOMEICeJI^B, TO 

emie ocTaBajiocB B'B lepeBHi^ HicsojBEO sh^ob'b; ho ocjh 
jAtb, to A^peBHA nycT^ja, h pasvj^ owwh »ha'b ocTa- 
BajECA wh Hed, Easi* 6u cxpaaceH'B, h to ycTponnx Eop^My, 
T. 6. nocTOAj[£i& js^Boyb. Bi nos^H'i&ftniifl Bpenena b^ sa- 
na^Hofi FocciH nona^aiOTCfl a&H^^ti, sanHMaDH^ieca seHie* 
A^JieMi, HO o^OHB p'&AEO Easi senfje^^Bi^ur, a ?ani;e 
Bcero Easi seMJieBjia^'i^Bi^iJ, o6pa6oT£iBaE)ii]^ie seMJH) xpH- 
naHCBHMH pysaMH. 



\ 



\ 



9to CuJi CTOposeBofi uoJteb pyccKilt, aan^Hn^aBiiiifi pyc- 
CKiR Hapojti ne wajioe Bpesta otl apycc&m-h h jihboh- 
cKMXi punapeft, a BaTiiri oTi noJfflaoBi. JtHTOBCKift sa- 
pOAi H m Hay^HOHi OTHomeHiH aacjyKHBaeri ocofeHBoS 
saCuTjHiiocTH. 9to esHBCTBeHHuft 6oJi^ coxpaBBBmitca 
ocTftTOKi apittCKaro aoMCTopH^ecaaro njieiieHH, vb koto- 
poHi cocTaaiaJH oaho bc^ eBponeflctcie fiapo^. 'Bon 
oSpaaeiti jhtobckoA p%?h. 



JlnoBOEftK nioHa: 



ttiiiiitiuTac'b aMoflryc^l 
Kyp^ mw-.turtci)? 

'In ion* BjpauBKci.? 
OB otlcf , hva oflcy 
H> roia rnpen; 
lit n»)i rnpiuii, 

l'»C* MHCf jrOJM, 

Mum fotkci 



nponamifi '^eiQwbsb al 
Kyjta jttBycL? 
Kto hob cieaa 
3rtu ocpnn? 
Ox*, noiiy «, noftfl 
Bi rjjSotil jtci; 
Bi rjj^oui ji<rb, 
El npuoi aceHH. 
Tun cnpuejuBBsi Bon 
BHciyaaen MeHx, 
H loa crpaxKoia, 
H«H Sticnia 
06ia«rv 



cnAim. B& «4*epb anvo n«a Bora ■ exy noBt^n cbou 
M^m. Ero xHHfc, «« pivi., a<o xyna ^acm &ui b^- 



sdAcBoe-, fiJtJDpvocsoe a sm-} 



— 39 — 
Heni, canoe uajtoe hhoio — CBifCKHxi, o6pa3oBaHHHxi 

'sx&a 6o3bm&a uacca npocTUXi JUD^ett (cjiHicKoirb 
UHJJiioHOBi) He Hosei-b He atesteih a-i^ Jj^mnii 
a-h cH.rb Buxo^a Bt Apyria cociobja, hc uoxen ne 
JoBaTb, TTo6u 9TH jjimie ea jdab cocTaBBJU pOABoe, 
»30BaHHoe cocjioBie h cjiyamiH eoaHaTejH.HHMt Bspa- 
ieui SHSBH cBoero Eapo^a. CaHuui ecrecTBeHauH'B, 
reneBHQH'b h l^jaroA'i^TejiBHUH'B buxoxoh'b fjiu aTuxi 
raHst CKJb sanajtHO-pycCEHTB njieHeHi aojxho 6a 
KHTL ropoACKoe, peifecjieHHoe, ToproBoe cooiOBie; ho 
sanaAHO-pyccKaro Hapo^a bc^ nyHKTu na aroiTB nyiH 

ITU SHAaHH. 

iuflM BTb sanajHoS Foccih BesA^ nacejaiOTb ropoxa, 
aB-aanTi ropOACaoe cooioBie, loprOBoe. Bcb nonuTKn 
BJie^b Hsi Kb seuJteA^is) osasuBajiHCb HeyAaqnuHH. . 

60BaJIl£ 6aA0 CipOHIb A^peSHH SHXaS'B Sb UHHCEOfl 

epcoHcKot ryOepHiH, A^BajiH Aaxe CBsn^eHHua HaSBamH 
I'B Aep6BHAHi, wh pOA§ CapeHTU, BHSJieeiia h t. □., 
loej&axaa, Koee^no, BOcejiHBniHHCA eapeAiTB pasHUa 
iHyn;ecTBa. Hepesi voxi, Asa OKasusa^ocb, rro ecjiH 

FHOCTB AQ3B0JflJia BeCTH KaKOS JIH60'' npoKUcej'B, TO 

ocrasajioci) Bt AepeBB^- H^cuojibEO shaob'^; ho ocjih 
t, TO AepflBHa nycxtja, h paafii oahhi khai ocia- 
lA Brb Heft, E3KI 6u CTpaxeHi, a to ycxpoHBt Kop^My, 
. nocTOiijHg ABOpi. Bi> nosAHiftmifi BpeHena m> sa- 
lofi PocciB noHaAaUTCH khau, 3aHHuaioiiiiecfl seUAe- 
ewh, HO OHCHb p'JbASO icaKi seiueAiJibiiij, a ^an^e 
EaKi> seujeBjiaA^bi^a, o6pa6oTUBaK>uiie senjiB} xpH- 
iCBHitH pyKauu. 



-^ 



— 42 — 

;i;a;Re ^jchsro rvb jijkJisiWb pyccKaro seMjreA'&.iiH h 06ja;i;%- 
Baroirt sna^iHTejiBHHMi yate KOJH^ecTBOMt seiurH Ha npa- 
Bax'B BJEa^iiijL^ecKHX'b hjh apen^taTopcKHXi. Bt roro-sanaji;- 
Hoft PocciH Bt HX^B pjKax^ yae Bca xjiifiHaa ToproBM. 
HaKOHeiij'B, asH^nu na cxoibEO c6jih3hji[hcb cb pyecKHMH, ^to 
nsx HX'B cpe^BT js&e buhoji^etb noaepTBOBaHifl, n HHor^ca 
o^eHB KpynHH«, na o6in;epyccKia fijiaroTBopHTejBHHJi y^e»- 
jijdmsi. Bee axo HOBMmee nanpaBJieHie naniHX'B skhj^obb 
HecoMHiHHO KpinHBTt H oSiiiiiaeT^ yKpinjraTBca 6ojiBnie 
H fiojBine. rpoMa^HHa h pasHoofipasHHa fioraicTBa Poccin 
cnoco6HH Ha^cojro npHB^saTB k'b nefi Hamax^B mu^OB'B h 
nepeB^niHBaTB hx'b H-j^MeiiiKk h nojiBCRk oco6eHHOCTH n 

HaKJOHHOCTH. BtB STOMl OTHOnieHiH HX'B CTpeMJCHie Kb 

pascejeniK) no Bcefi Poccin coBepmenHO ecTecTBenno h 
Bcer;i;a fiy^eTi nacTofi^HBO. 
Ho c^^ijaxBCA jc'^ScTBHTejiBHHMH rpas;i;aHaMH PocciH, 

CJIHTBCX Cb pyCCKHMH, KaK-B CJIHBaBOTCa CB HHMH pycilO- 

Hi^ie h']&mii;ei, hojeaeh h ;i;ame nHopo;i;uH nexpHCTiaHCKaro 
saKOHa, . HaniH pyccKie »ch;i;h, sa HCOK)?eHieM% ot;i;']^j[b- 
KHXTB e;i;HHHii;i, ne Moryxi h, Bipo^THO, HHKor;i;a ne c^'fe- 

jaiOTCA. B'B 8T0M1» HliCB M'J^HiafiDTl CJ[']&;];yK)Ul,iA npH^HHH, 
KOTOpUA OAHHaEOBO ^aiOTCfl H HayKO£, H CaMOS SH3HBH) 

H KOTopMJBE cocTaBjiaH)Ti asfiy^Hiia BemiH. 
HaniH pyccKie sRVij5fi[ ne CMiniHBaiOTca ex naMH pyc- 

CKHMH 3TH0rpa(|)H^eCKH, T. 6. KpOBHHM'B pO^CTBOMTb, H He- 

MoryT'B CMtniHBaTBCA. EpaBH uemjij naMH h hmh neBOS- 
Mo^HU hh no HameMy, hh no nxnoMy saKony. He noMorjiu 
6h 3T0My H rpa»;i;aHCKie 6paKH, noTony hto 9th 6paKH 
npoTHBHH H pyccKOMy ^ejiOB^Ky, a t^m'b 6ojrhe ss,iiji,a,wh. 
He;i,aBHO B'B cbohx'b opranax'B ne^axH caMH sh^h oajiBJiJL 
^To 3THorpa4)H^ecKoe CMiraenie hx'b cb pyccKHMH neBO 




— 43 — 

MoaHo H HeatejiaTejiBHo hmi, hotomj hto Tor^a ohh no- 
TepajH 6h cbobo ;iipeBHH)R), Haii;ioHaj[i>HyK) oco6eHHOCTB h 
Hcqe3JH 6h cl juhujel 3eMJ[H, Eas'B truji^u... ?to 7&e dTO sa 
HasiioHajiBHafl oco6eHHOCTL msiji,o^i>^ KOTopoS hm'b ne^ejia- 
TejLHo paapyinaTB h KOTopa,a MimaeT-B hmx cjHBaTBca c% ) 

pyCCKHMH? 

JerKO H npe»;i;e Bcero yjosHMaa oco6eHHocTB Haii;io- 
HajTBHocTH HanjHxt «H;^0B'B — 3T0 yKasaHHaa yate HaMH 
HX'B Himei^Kaa pi^B bi ;^OMal^HeM:B 6HTy, h xota ohh 
pi;^KO Ha nee yKasuBaroTi h totobh ji;aae oipeKaTBca ot^ 
Hea, HO B'B ;i;McTBHTejiBHOCTH 9Ta pi^B, oco6eHHO o6jie- 
.^eHHaa B'B niKOTopHa saHMCTBOBanifl wn> ;i;peBHaro OBpet- 
CRaro asBrsa h b^b ;i;peBHe-eBpe3cKiH aj[<|)aBH'rB, miA%Th y 
HHXB ^poMa;^Hoe BHa^enie h o^ghb n.iHHTca, noTOMy ^to 
cocTaBjaer'B b^b cbocm'b po^i ycjroBHBrfi asHKi h niH(j)po- 
BairayE) rpaMOTy, o^enB npHro;i;HBre m^ Tafinaro ofiMina \ 
MHCjiefi. H 9T0 He cjiy^aftnaa, Mejio^naa noTpe6HocTB B'B 

TaHHCTBOHHOCTH. Ona BHTeKaeTl HSl n,4j![BH0&, SaKOH^eH- 

HOH cHCTeMH, TaK'B HasHBaeMofi TajMyAHHecKoft, KOTopaa 
Ha 6oj[BniyB) nojOBHHy ecTB noj[HTH^ecKaa CHCTeMa, a He 
pejEHriosHaa, h tojbko no KaKowy to He^jopasyMiHiH) no;i;- 
BOJ^HTCa nojU'B pa3pa;i;'B TepnHMHX'B y^enift, a Henoji.'B pas- 
pJa[;^'B Bpe;n;HHX'B, neTepnHMHX'B, KaKi Kpaftnia ceKTH pa- 
CKOJBHHq^ecKia, BaKTb Teopia ieayHTCKaa, con;iajHCTH^ecKaa. 
Taj[My;i;HiecKaa CHCTeMa yaaKOHaeT'B oTopBannocTB hh- 
AOB'B o'PB Bcix'B ;i;pyrHX'B napo^iiOBi, yaaKOHaeT'B rocno^i;- 
CTBo Ha;i;'B hhmh BcaKHMH cnocofiaMH, ao Hapynxenia npaB-B 
coficTBeHHOCTH H jrH^iHocTH, H HaKOHen;* yaaKonaeTi. Tafi- 
flHa o6ni;ecTBa B'B BH;i;i KarajOBx, KOTopiia ;^iHCTBHTeJ[BHO 
I cyni,ecTByioT^ npn BC'bx'B ho^th cnnarorax'B h cocTan- 
raioTB CTpaniHO saMKnyTKra h ;i;ecnoTH^ecKia Kopnopaii;iH. 



— 44 — 

UpH TSKoR CHCTeui yienifl, o($£saTej:&Hoft ^ss sCAicaro 
xHAa H, Bi 6o3hme6 wxis ueHi>ine& cTeneaK, nsy ^aeuofi ci 

A'iTCTBa BCflEHHt SHAOUI, HeHUCJIRHO ^l^^fiCTBHTeibHOO 

wSpjcfcHie XHAOB'B. HtKOTopoe HSxaxie cocTEBjaiOTX yno- 
HAHyrue hbuh Eapaauu, KOTopue He npHHSHaiOTi toi- 
syjta, a Aep«aTCfl tojileo MoHceeBa saBoaa no oathkhh- 
xity CB. nHcaHU h A^tcTBHTeJibBO (SoJi^e (iJiiiaEB Kh ipH- 
crianaM'L, HtsoTOpua eme HSiaiia noATOTOBMDTCfl ea- 
HHUH TaiHy^^HCTaHH. MexAY hbhh ^aaHO yxe pafJoxaei'b 
coiiHaBie, mo TaiuyAHHecEoe y^eaie He Hoxcer^ Aepxancfl 
;t0Jibnie, ^to oho ASBHi-b sopomHX'b JtEOjeS, aaen neno- 
jrtpHy© cHjy ajtuwh jiBJAaM* a cocTaBJiaerb rjaBHyn cpn- 
^HHy HeHaBHCTH xpHCTiani wh acHAaBTL h CesiHcxoAHux'b 
64ACTBiS wa Tix-b H ipymx^. Bcji4;tcTBie TaKoro co3Ha- 
Bia uesAy acHAauH, sarpaHRiHUHH h ;ia»ce HamHUB, a^beo 
yse ofiHapyKHBaercfl cipeMJieHie Bupa6oTaTi> noBoe y^e- 
Hie H cocTaBBTb HOBUa o6ii;hhu, cqoco6hiiIa oxpaHUTi> xa- 

flOBCTBO OTl OKOH^aTejlbHOii II0p<iK Wb Taj|My;[HHeCKOirt 
yqeHlH H OTb HOCTOaSHHX'B BSpUBOBt HenaBBCTH CO CTO- 

poHu xpHCTiant. OfipasoBaaie TaKHxi HOBHtxt ofimnet, 

ecjiH 3T0 A'bjo HCKpoHHee, Bectma sejiaiejibHo, aeacAy npo- 

vBK-b, H HOToicy, ^To paspymeHie laJiHyflKTOCKoft cHCxeHu 

HeCOMB'tHHO H 6631 TOFO upOBCXO^tH'TB, HO HanpaBjaBTca 

B-B o^eHt lypnyn cTopony. Hai maAOBCTBa 6oJiie h 6ojrfee 

BuxoiHTi. laKHX'L jH>Aei), KOTopue He npHCTaavn hh art 

' B^poyqeHJH). Tasie jdab, sa HeHHoriiHH jramB 

[eniaHB, A'^aiOTca caHUUH Hocji^jioBaTaibHUHH pa- 

HCTaUB H EOCMOnOJIHTaHB, B T^Wh HesaH^TH'Jte a 

e BHoeart paMOffieaie vb sayKy, JtHTeparypy u 

cBOHxt xpHCTiaHCEHXt corpaawwH*. Bi sanajtHOS 

;ioBOJibHo qacTO mokbo cjiumaTB at dtom* pofl^t 



— 46 — 
suotfu orb ne^aroroBi Tixt ynefiHUX'B BaBexenift, r^i 

MHOrO yqeHHKOB'B HSl aCHAOBCTBa. 

Hs^ Bcero dToro mosho bha^tl, HaA^eHCfl, c^ Aocxa- 

TO^HOfi) ACHOCTLH) H jfi^AHTeJlBHOCTBH), KaR'b TASeJlU SHAH 

Pfl Hapo^a sanaAHoft Poccin h EaRi asejiaTejtbHo, qTo6H 
OHH nocBopte uocTaBieHH Cujoi vb jcjeobIa shshh, Mente 
BpeAHua j[^& 3Toro HapoAa. 

JtpyroD nperpaAOE) jry^niHMi HapoAHUH^B CHJiaMi» sa- 
naAHofi PocciH ki buxoaj hs^b BpecTLaHCXBa cjiysaTB no- 
JASH. nojARH sanaAHoft PocciH npHHaAJesaTi b'b GAi- 
jjjomjm'b Kjaccam j[H)Aefi. Ha H)ro-3anaAHOfi oKpannt 
rpoAHeHCKofi ryCepniH shbotx cx He6oj[BniHu:B 60,000 
noiBCKaro HapoAa ifasypoBx, Moa^Ay kotopkmh, BnponeHi, 
pasciflHU MajKopoccu h Gijopyccu. 3to eAHHCTBeHnaji bi 
sanaAHofi PocciH napoAnaji rpynna nojiLCsafl CTap£ixi» spe- 
ifeH^B. Bx HOBifimifl speMena nojiBjjiH)TCA nojiLcnia rpynau 
Ha BoJKHH H Bi UoAOJiiH. 9to 6oj[BineK) ^acTLK) nec^acT- 
nue 6iTjLeu,u h31 saBHCiAHCBOH noJiLinH oTi rsexa ni- 
Heii;Eoi E0J[0HH3ai],iH h ot^ 6e33aiii,HTHOCTH CO cTopoHU xa- 
MomHHXi noiBCRHXi nanoB^b. 3ax^Hi, H'i^cKOJibBo tfjinace 
Kb pyccEOHy HapoAy xaE^b Ha3UBaeMua oboihi^u, pa36po- 
caHHHJi Bi pasHUx^ M^cxax'b sanaAHod PocciH h nace- 
JeHHua xasx Ha3iiBaeMO]o mojirok) hijaxxok). mjAxxa axa 
KB OAHHxx Micxax^ roBopH^b no-noJbCKH, Bx Apyrnxx — 
AdUKowh M^cxHaro pyccKaro Haceieniji, no nicxaMii ona 
Aase npaBooiaBHofi B'bpii. IIo ofipasoBaniK) h cocxoaaiH) 
OKOjHqHaa mjiaxxa no^xH ne oxjiH^aexca ox'b BpecxbaH'b, 
HO cosHaex'b ce6a Bume KpecxBaEHna, Bume xjEona. 8xo 
ocTaxoKx Ayxa nojibCKaro MOjiKaro niJiaxexcxBa, hjih, jyqnie 
^fiiaaxL, axo ocxaxoKi AP^snaro JHxoBCBaro 6oapcxBa, 

[op^eaaaro xeopiefi nojbCEaro mjiaxexcxBa. ncBJK)?enie 






46 — 



1 



cocTaBJTflDT^ cei^acB ynasaHHUJi npasocjiaBHiiA mjAxer- 
CKia 0K0JiHi],Ei, 3acj[ysHBaK)iQ;iH rj[y6oKaro yBaasemfl 3a 
TBep;i;ocTL , HxaE» pyccKaro cosHanm, ne paaoa cKasHBaBina- 
roca B'B Tpyj^flHfl BpeMena BanaAHO-pyccKofi «h3hh. 

HaKOHe^l, Bci ocTaJBHHe nojaKH 3ana;iiHofi Poccia ein.e 
6oJiie OTopBaHH ot^ sanaAHO-pyccKoft bgmjih, xota MHorie 

HS-B HHXt H Bja^irorB 60J£>raHM'B ea KO JH^eCTBOMl, — 3T0 

noM'6in;HKn, ^hhobhhkh is. MHoro^HCjeHHue nancKie npn- 

CjySSHHKH, 3aHKMaE>III,ieCa paSHUME JlfiJlSiEOCTAlUll JLTi^m 

npH nanax^b h B'B ynpaB^eHlH HH'j^HiflMH. 
noAo6HO asBA^M^B, H nojflKH B'B sana^ijHog Poccin Epafine 

MHOrO^HCJieHHBE B'B CpaBHeHlH Cb HapOAOM'B. ECJIH miCJLO 

HXi ex 700,000 yMeHBiniiTB ;i;o 600,000, ecjH hxx ;^a»e 
500,000, TO H Torw hxi npifiAexca o^eHB MHoro Ha 
10.000,000 npoCToro Hapo;i;a, oco6eHHo B'B TaKofi ^yaoH 
ji^jiH HHX'B CTpanfi, KaK'B 3ana;i,Haa Poccia. CjiAOBaieJiBHO, 
no caMoft CBoefi MHoro^HCjeHHOCTH, nojraKH, noAo6Ho aE- 
ji.aM'B, npHHyat;i;eHH ynoTpe6jiaTB Kpafinia ycBjiia, TaacejHa 
]s,jiK Hapo;^a, ^to6h npojKHTB, npoKopMHTtca. Kone'iHO, h 

OpE 3T0]& MHOrO^ECJieHHOCTE OHE MOFJIE 6jl 6UTh EOJeSHU 

HapoAy, ecjiE 6u CToajiH cb hhwb 3a o^ho e tpyaejecb 
js^jiH. o6ni;aro fijiara B'B ^yxi Hapo;i;HBix'B Hanajii; ho stomj 
whmsL&ni ex'b pasHonjieMeHHOCTB, a npn stom'b enne e pas- 
HOB-fepie ex HapoAOM'B. Ho eni;e fiojiBme, ^iM'B 3th npn- 
HEHH, pa3'Be;i;EHaeT'B ex'b cb Hapo;i;oM'B ESB-icTHaa, ^acTO 
ynoMEHaeMaa naMH, Teopia nuaxercTBa, Oaa ^o6yat;^aeTx 

EXX HeE3M']^pEM0 BOSHOCETBea Ha^x HapO^OM'B E ^caBaTB 

eMy 3T0 TiyBeTBOBaTB bx aESHH. B'B HO^TBepat^eHie 3Toro 
He 6y;i;eM'B hphboahtb mhofo npEM'SpoB'B E3'b ;i;peBHHX'B 
BpoMeHx. YKaaceM'B tojbko na oaeh'b ^slkt^. Bx JH^e- 
pajiBHiHmeH noJBCKofi peeny^JEEi »e3hb xjoua oii.iHH] 



— 47 — 

jracL B'h nocji^AHifl speMena 3 p. 25 rod. Mosho 6ujio \ 
j6uTh xjiona h sanjiaTHTB 3 p. 25 k., — fiojfcme HH^ero, / 

T. e. SH3HB XJOna JS,1&BllJlSLCh TEK'h HH3B0, BaKli HMFA'^ HO 

j^HHjiacb asHSHB Herpa, o6paii]^eHHaro b'b pa6o^ifi csotx, 
TEE'S HH3B0, HTO co6aKa ?acTO CTOHja Aopose. He mho- 
THMB, Bapo^eifB, Jiynine cxaja asH3HB xjoua, Bor^a sanajn;- 
HOfl Poccia nocTynHja hoa'b BJiacTb Poccin. KpinocTHoe 
npEBO A&Bajio nanaM'b boshoshoctl yrneTaTS xjiona He iie- 
Hie npeacHJiro. B'b BOCTo^Hofi Poccin, EaB'b hh t^lxcjo 
61U0 nojomeHie BpinocTHoro BpecTbAHHHa, ho Bce s&e owh 
EwbJTh BJo^eK'b seMJiH, H ^TO oHa eMy npHHOCHJia, to 6ujlo 
ero. Bx sana^Hofi Poccin bo MHorHX'b MtcTax'b nanu noniJiH 
ropa8;i,a ^^ajibme. KpecTbflHHH'b TaBse, EaB'b h B'b bo- 
CToqHOd PocciH, o6ji3aH'b 6ujn» o6pa6oTUBaTb h nancByK) 
seiuiK) H CBOK); HO Bce, HTO npHHocHJia eHy ero 3eMJH, OH'b 
Hepi^KO nijiKBOM'b AOJisen^ 6uji'b 0T;i;aBaTb nany, OT'b bo- 
Toparo B'b npo;i;oj[2KeHie shmu nojy^aJi'b ulsljiuh jifi^n ji^jia. 
npoBopujeniA cBoeu ceMbH. TasHM'b o6pa30M'b, saxeMHH- 
jocb y BpecTbAHHHa C03HaHie, hto yqacTOB'b somjih, eMy 
AaHHuS, npHHa^JieflCHT^b eMy, crjaacHBajacb npHHaAJrem- 
HOCTB BpecTb^HHHy opo BeMjH. IlaHy jerBo 6uao ynnqTO- 

SHTB ee COBCiM'b, H A'^dCTBHTejA»HO, eCJH OH'b HaXOAHJI'b 
BHrO^HElM'b, TO COej^HHHJ'b SeMJIH) BpeCTbJIHCByK) Cb CBOOE), 

a BpecTbaHHHa nepeBO^HJi^ bo ;^Bop'b. 3thmx-to uyTOMi, 
HanpHM^pi, B'b BHTe6cB0H ry6epHiH naMHoacujiocb ^o 
10,000, a BB BOBencBofi j5fi 40,000 6e33eMejbHHX'b 6aTpa- 
BOB-B, cyAB6a BOTopHX'b CHjibHO o3a6oqHBaeTB fl,o CHX'b nop'b 
npaBHTejbCTBo. UoAO^Hue cjiyqan jEHnreHia BpecTbjiH'b seMjiH 
Bcrp'b^aDTCA h B'b ;^py^HX'b MicTaxB sana^Hoft Poccin. A . 
OTo OHH — He cjry^aftHoe aBJOHie, a n;ijiaa nancBaa ch- 
'BMa, wa y^^ocTOBipenia bb 3tomb ctohtb cnpaBHTbca cb 



— 48 — 

nojiomeHieM^B EpecTBAHCTBa b% caMofi nojBin'6. TaM'B Bcixi* 
KpecTBaHTb 3.000,000, t. e. fiojBine hojiobhhh Hapo^^ona- 
cejiemA, a uem^j t^m^b 6e33eHej[BHux:B speCTBAHi 6ujlo 
1.130,000. ItH(j)pa yatacnaa, KOTopofi HH^ero noAo6Haro ne 

6HJ0 B'B BOCTO^HOft PoCCiH. 

Ho ecjiH nojiBcsie naHH Tasi mecTOBH k:b cbohacb Kpe- 

CTBHHaMl — nOJIflSaM'B, TO MOffiHO ySKB Cyj^HTB, RaKOBLI OHH 

6hjih a-i-s pyccKaro hjih jiHTOBCKaro xjona. Pa3le;^HHeHie 
Mem;i;y hhmh h Hapo^tOM'B xaKGb ^hjto BejiHBo, ?to ecjiK 
KpecTBaHHHii npofinpajica ki. hhmi, nepemarHyB'B ^pes'B 
»h;i;ob:b, to Tepajii see Hapo^iHoe, oTKasHBajca oti po^i;- 
HUX'B, ottb HMeHH; 3a TO, ecjH nan^ KaK^B evi6jji^ nepe- 
xojijijvh Kb Hapo;i;y, to ho 6hj!0 xyatfe Bpara niJiaxeTCTBy. 
KaE'B Bi HOBifimee BpeMA OTHOCHTca nojBCKoe niJiflxeT- 
CTBo Kx Hapo;i;y sanaAHofi Poccin, o6'b 9tomi mh roBopu jh 
wh nepeoMx qTenin. 

TaKHMi o6pa30Mi, JLymniiju'b CHjraMi sana^eo-pyccKaro 
Hapo;i;a 3anepTH h cpe^nie nyTH — atHAOBCTBOMGb, h nyTH 
Kb BHcmeMy cocjroBiro — nancTBOMi. OTcro^a, Ha^ieMca, 
acHo M03KH0 BH;i,iTB, KaK'B Tpy;^Ho noj03KeHie 3ana;i;H0-pyc- 
CKaro Hapo^a H Bcefi ero CTpamj. 

3anepTuS, c;i;aBj!ieHHiJH napo^i;^ ne mo^gt'b ne sejaxB 
ce6i npocTopa. CaMOH) BaacHOE) ji^jik Hero, BaBi yBH^HM^, 

nOMepTKROK) B'B 3T0MI Tpy;i;HOM'B nOJIO»eHiH 6UJ10 TO oaHB- 

jenie, KaKoe ohi, no BpeMeHaM-B, nojyTOJi orb BejHKo- 
pyccBaro napo^j^a. B% HacToaiii;ee BpoHA aTO osBUBJieHie 
noABHHyjrocB js^ljibko. PyccKHx-B chji'b nonijio yae Msoro 
B^ 3ana;i;HyK) PoccIe). 9thmi pyccKHM^B, o^eBH^HO, npe^i;- 
CTOHT% BBinoJiHHTB TaM'B BejHKoe, HCTopH^ecKoe HaBHa^e- 
Hie, xoT«, KOHe^HO, TyTi He jierKO o6oSthcb 6e3:B ohihi- . 
6ok:b. HsBicTHO, hto HCTopia HH^ero Be BHpafiaTHBaerofc, ' 




p™r . 



~ 49 — 



MCTO, rja^Ko. CaMoe jryninee nanpaBjieHie, pasBHTie ca- "/ 

MHX'B BUCORHXli EJlfiH COnpOBOS^^aeTCA MHOrHMH AYPHUicn 

ABjeHiflMH, xypHHMH a^avh; HO HOBoe HanpaBjeHie, ho- ! 
Bas H^eji Bce-TaBH TopasecTByDTrB. Mosho Ha^i^TBCJi, j 
TTO OHH BOCTopatecTByiDTB H vh 3a^a;^Hoft PocciH, H Ha- _j 
poA% sanaj^Ho-pyccRiS, He cmotpa hh na ?to, uo&j5,erh no 
HyxH Toro se pyccRaro osHBjieHiff h pasBHm, no soro- 
poMy CTaj'B H^TH Bo BpsHH iLocAijs,Eavo nojTLCBaro BOscraniH. 



^TEHIE m. 

HeTopifl sanaAHoft PocciH ao raTapcKaro Era. GocpeAOToieHie pyccRo-cjiaBflH- 
CKoft SKHSHH y J^Hitopa. ^Bt HCTopHHecRifl saftaHH pyccKaro napoAa: sa bo- 
CTOK-ik — 6opB($a ci asiaTCKHHi HipoHi, sa sanaAt — OTHomeme pjccKaro na- 
poAa Ki sanaAHUMi cjiaBflHaMi h HtHi^aH'b. FpoMaAHua TpyAHOcin aiHi'b 
saxa^'b pasieAHHflioT'b o6t nojiOBHHii pjccKaro napoAa. IIoniiTKH noJioi^KHxi 
H raiHipsHxi KHflset o^pasoBaiB rocjAapcTBeHHue nyHSTU bi Bijiopyccin h 
vb ^epBOHHofi Pych. BcecjiaBHHH nojiouKie. IIaA6Hie noJIO^Ka^o KHasecTBa. 
PocTHCJiaBHHH rajiHi^Kie. IIpeKpaiE^eHie hxi poAa. Khasbh npH-npHneTCKie. 
naAeme hxi. Khhsba BOJiuHCKie. O^ieAHHenie BojoifiH h FajiHuiH.IIoAAepacRa 
CO CTopoHu C1I0JI6HCKHXI KHiiseft. TaTapCRoo HamecTBie paapymaeTi saAaxRH 

HOBOfi BOJIUHCRO-raJIHmCOft H CKOJieHCROfi rOCyAapCTBOHHOCTH *). 



HcTopH^ecKa^ shshb sana^i^HoS PocciH TaE'b BacjOHOHa 
coBpetfeHHUMH, Cojihmeio "^acTLD HenpaBHJBHUHH Bosspi- 
hUkh, nepeme^nTHMH h b'b nayRy, ?to' Hami EasaJOCB 



*) AP^BHExi BpeiieHaxi sanaAHofi Poccm RpoH"! 6oj[liiihx'b syp- 
coFB pyccRofi HCTopiH, RaRi ECTopiji PoccIh— KapaMSHHa, G. M. Go- 
xoBBCBa, A. H. HjoBaficKaro {nosasks HCTopis, a ne yne6HHR'&), mosho 
VLT2LTh: OnepRi HCTopin c&Bepo-sanaAHaro Bpaa PocciH coh. E. fi,. 



— 50 — 



HeBOSxosHuirb npHcryiiHTb Kib iiajioseHiio aroi HCTopiH 
npesxe, niwB 6jffiTb oHBii^eH'B Vb Heft nyrb orb 9thx'b 
coBpexeHHux'by 6oJihmet) ^acTBD HenpaBUDbHuxB B033pi- 
Hift. Ki aroft njbjm h nanpaBjieHH 6use xBa npej^mecTBo- 
BaBmHX'B ^reniH. 

nepBoe Treme npHBeJo Haci Kh sasiDHeHio, tto jy^nne 
Bcero CMorp^TB he sana^Ho - pyccKyn HcropiD es to^rh 
3p%HiA pyccBofi, HapoxHoft. 

Bo BTopoM'L TreHiH noKasaHO, ^n*o Tasoe sanaxHO-pyc- 
CRift HapoA'B. Mh BnjffkJDi, tto owb o^oHB BexHS'B, npo- 
CTHpaercA xo 10 unjLjnoEOVb cinniKOirB h, xoth pa3;^eH% 
Ha Tpn njreveHH — MajopoccificRoe, 64jopyccRoe h jihtob- 
CRoe, HO M,\{SL nepBux'B njeifeHH po^cTBeHHu neiRAy co6ok> 

H Vh CBOeH HCTOpH^eCROH SH3HH l^CHO 6\iJm CBH3afiU CTB 
Tp&ThKWh — JIHTOBCRHH'B. BOCB 9T0Vb HapOA'B Vh 10 MHJ- 

jioHOB'B, Ku roBopHJiH, He MosoTB HO pasBHBaTBCJi ^aJbHie; 
HO Mu BiiflfkjiJii, ?To OB'S Becb HOHTH cocTaB.iAeiTb upocToe, 
cejiLCRoe cocjoBie h sanepT'B b'b 3toh'b cocTOHHin nysj^vH 
dJieHeHTaiTH: sh^hobcrhitb h nojrbCRHH'B. Ohh saTpy^HHtDT'L 
eMy Bhij[fkjiiiTh HSTb ce6a Jiyqniiji chjih b'b Apyria cocjo- 
Bia, — y Hero wbrb do^th hh cpe^naro, hh Bucnraro co- 
cjOBin, EOTopuH 6k[ npe^^cTaBjAjH cosnaTejbHO ero sh3hb 
h pasBHBajiH ee no poahlim'b ero na^aiairB. 

EijMeBa, HsxaHHoe vb Bhjibh']^ 1867 r.; ero xe pascKasH hsi pyccKofi 
HCTopiH T. 4-S — HcTopifl no;ioi^Ka hjih C'feBepo-3ana;^HOH PycH, H3;^.^ 
1872 r.; BHTe6cKaA ciapHHa (co^panie BazH'l^iinHxi* naHHTHHsoFB cb 
olpasi^aHH nncBMa, rpaMOTi, noAUHceH, neiaTefi, pHcyHKaMH h nop- 
TpexaHH apxiepeeBi), hs;^. A. CanyHosa, t. 1, 1683 r.; RnJixeHie ^a- 
HiEjia rajiHi^Raro no pyccKHMi h HHocTpaHHHHi HSBtcTiflirB, coh. 
H. ^amKeBHHa, H3;^. 1873 r., — TyrB se cctb nzv'kcTisi h o JLHTB-fe; 
O^epKi HCTopiH BejiHRaro KHAxecTBa jiHTOBCBaro xo hojiobheh XY 
B'bKa, co^. B. 6. AHTOHOBHHa, BHnycR'B 1^ mji,. 1878 r, \ 



f^ 



— 51 — 

TenepB OTt Bcix'B sthx'b coBpeMeHHUX'b aBjenift, Cojtb- 
nreio ^lacTBBD rpycTHUx'B, nopo3K;i;eHHHxx 3a6jrym;^eHiflMH 
H cTpacTflMH nejoBi^ecKHMH H nopaat;i;aroiii;HX'B ao chxi 
flopi 3a6jiym;i;eHifl h cTpacTH, ofipaTHMCJi Kt ApeBEHiwrx Bpe- 
MenaM'B, k-b t^m-b BpeMenaMi, vj^ jih)ji;h h ;i;ijia npe^- 
CTOJiTx cnoKofiHO nepe;!;^ cyjuoMX HCTopiH h BnymaroT'B ne- 
BOJiBHoe cnoKoScTBie h Toiiy, kto xo'ieT'B npousnecTB stot-b 
cy;!;^. Mht yBH^HM'B, ^to 3ana;tHo-pyccKift Hapo;^'B, ocTaB- 
iniiica KX HameMy speMeHH b'b ootom'b KpecTB^HCKOM'B co- 
cjioBiH, HM^&j'B npe3K;i;e Bci nojTHHH chjike ;i:Jia CBoero pa3- 
BHTia H, CO BKJrro^eHieM'B ;i;a3Ke sna^HTejiBHoS ?acTH jth- 
TOBCTtaro Hapo;i;a, cocTaBjraj'B oiny i^'fewiBHyH) Maccy cb t^m-b 
pyccKHMi Hapo^jjOMTb, KOTopufi Ha BocToqHoft CTopoHi Jlninpa 
coxpaHHjrca fl;o Hamero speMeHH h bi TaKOMi rpoMa;i;HOM'B 

TTHCJlt, H CB TaKHM'B 6oraTCTBOM'B CHJfB. 

UOTOM'B, MH yBH;i;HM'B, ^TO HCTOpHHeCKiff ofiCTOHTeJTBCTBa 

pas^iJiHJiH 9Ty BitjiBHyH) Maccy pyccKaro Hapo;i;a na j^^ ■ 
nojroBHHu: BOCTO^nyro h aanawyK). Ha sanaOToft cto- 
poH-t pyccKie npofioeajiH oCpasoBaTB cbo^ rocy;i;apcTBeH- ' 
HHe ii;eHTptr, ho Hey;i;a^HO. Ohh piniHjrHCB coe;i;HHHTBca 

CB JTHTBHHaMH H CB HHMH CTpOHJH CBOBO rOCyjljapCTBeHHOCTB. 

Pa6oTa nonrjia y;a;a?H0 h, KasajocB, npamo Beja isjh Toft ^ 
ii:6j[h, KOTopyio aa^ajia HCTopm 3ana;i;H0-pyccK0My napo^ty, — 

K'B CJiilHiH) OHflTB CB BOCTG^IHO-pyCCKOK) HOaOBHHOK). Ho /- 
B-B JEHTBHHaX-B CHJTBHO 6hJ0 C03HaHie CBOeft He3aBHCHM0CTH 

H MaJTO cpe;i;cTB'B J^J^j^ ea noMepatania. He HMia chjt'b 3a- 
in;Hni;aTB ee h cpb pyccKaro MOCKOBCKaro rocy;i;apcTBa, h 
OTB ;^py^HX'B BparoB'B, ohh ptmnjiHCB coe;i;HHHTB bck) 3a- 
na^yK) PocciH) cb HojiBnieft. Bthm-b ohh 3aTopM03HJiH na 
;i;ojro ecTecTBennoe pasBHxie 3ana;i;Ho-pyccKoS a!;H3HK. Corosi 
CT* nojiBipeH, Ha^iaBmiHca b-b 1 386 r,, Koe-KaK'B jijepacajCH, 

4* 



■■i 



t 



— 52 — 

nosa He saxyiiaiH ecpiniiTB ero nortcHie; ho exsa sa- 
AjMajH aro a^o fb 1569 ro;^ na jofijaHCson celirb, 
eABa pimHaHCB cjhtl 3aiiaAHji> PocdD cib nojBmeft, sax's 
cei^iacL xe craiH hoatotobluitbcji aieiieHTH Kb pasioze- 
Bin pyceBo-aaiLCsaro rocyxapcTBa. Tasiomeme odsapysH- 
jocb acHO vb HOJOBHH^ XYII croxbiuL. Hapo;^!^ npHaeajTB 
Ha noMOi^b BocTOHHyD Poocii), h naerb sanaAHoi PycH 
npHCoexHHHjacB vb nei; ho ho Morja npHCoeAHHHTbca 
Bca saaaxHaa PycB, Karb xaiarb sanaAHo-pyccEii napoA'b. 
06HapysHjocb, ^to oH'b soctoko noujaTSJica sa coDsi ci 
Ilojbnieft. OH'b norepaji ho^th bco Bucmee cocjOBie ceoe, 
noHTH Bce cpeAHee, norepAj^ hotth cbod Bipy. Oicasa- 
jiocb y Hero cjiHAiKOifb HHoro sanaAHO-pyccKHX'b h jihtob- 
CKiiX'h jK)Aefi, Hcnop^eHHux'b IIojLHiefi h xaHyBniHX'b k^ 
Hefi Hasa^'b. Bopb6a ero sair&M'b Cb Ilo^ibmei 6uja esi^e 
cja6te, noMou^B Pocciu Hysna 6iua eii^e CHJibH^. Oea 
ABHJacb opH EKaxepHH*]^ II, ho Tor^a chjibho saoioaeHO 
6ujio A'^ficTBHTejibHoe Hapo;i;Hoe CTpeMJienie b'b coe^HHeHiH) 
ci> Pocciefi, a AHnJOMaTin, B:b ocodeneocTH IIpycciH u 
AecTpiH, jijaL&e coBcbifb 6ujo saspujra ero. Bdk craiu b^ 
HenpaBHjibHoe nojioxenie s^b OTHomeniH vh paBA'^^Mi* 
UojibniH, KOTopofi pacnaAeflie na pyccKyio h noJibCEyeo 
^acTb 6ujo CTporo HCTopHqecBHM'b h HeMHHyeMUMb. IIo- 
jioacenie 9to, BuroAHoe IIpycciH, ABCTpm, OBasaJOCb ne 
C0BciMi» 6e3BLiroAHUM:b H noJiaKaMi», ho oho 6ujlo BecbMa 
HeBuroAHo PocciH h t^mi fiojrie aanaAHo-pyccKOMy na- 

pow. 
BoT'b BasH^flmie MOMeHTu HCTopH^ecKofi mwdRH sana^- 

Hoit PocciH. Ona npeACTaBjaerb cJLifljiom\e BaaHiflmie 

nepioAu: 

L PasA^jieHie pyccaaro Hapo^a Ha ji,vb hojiobhhu h ao-\ 







— 53 — 
nETTKH 3ana;i;Ho& Poccin o6pa30BaTB CBoft ^ocy;^apcTBeH- 

II. Coe;i;HHeHie sanaOToft Poccin ct jIhtbok). 

III. Coe;^HHeHie jHTOBCKaro 3a^a;^Ho-pyccKa^o KHame- 
CTBa ct nojBineK) nocpejniCTBOM'B ^HCTO-BH^niHaro corosa. 

IV. CjHTie 3ana;i;HoS PocciH ex noj!ri»nie&, h pacna;i;e- 
Hie pyccKO-nojiBCKaro rocy;i;apcTBa. 

V. HenpaBHjTBHoe nosjiH-feSraee pasBHTie pyccKq;-no.iB- 
CBaro Bonpoca. 

Bt ^eBHia HCTopn^ecKia BpeMeea cjraBJiHe atHjrn y Be- 
jH^ecTBGHHaro JtyHaa, BocniTaro bi nicHHX'B y Bcixx cja- 
BjiH'B. Kor;i;a HeHSBtcTHsS Bpari noTicHHJt mxi* OTCK);i;a, 
OHH CTajH pascejTflTBCfl Ha 3a^a;^•B, na cisepi, na BocTOKt. 
BocTO^Haa b^tbl nxt, HSB'i^cTHaA hotom'b no;!;^ HMeneM'b 
pyccKHXt cjaBflHi, nepenijra Kh ApyroS npeKpacHoft pi- 
Ki — Kx ^fffenpy H pascejiHjacB no o64hm'b CTopoHaMx ea 
H ]i,SLj[bme Ha ciBepi ^o 03ep'B ^y;^CKa^o, HjEMena h jra- 
;^o«CRaro. 

HpeKpaCHHS, no3TH^ecKifi J^Hinp-B h npeKpacHHfi, noa- 
TH^ecKift nyHKT'b na Eewh — KieBt cjyasHjH CHMBOJiOMt 
ofiie^tHHeHia Bcixt cjaBaHo-pyccKHXTb njeMent. Bt npn- 
OT^npoBCKHXi cTpaHaxi, Kaaajocb, Morjro na ;i;ojrro o6pa- 
30BaTBCfl MorymecTBeHHoe, i^BtTymee cjiaBancKoe rocy;i;ap- 
CTBO CB fioraTOBD i^HBHJTif3aii;ieft. BroMy 6j[aronpmTCTBOBa- 
jiH, KpoM^ npHpo;i;HHXTb ;^apoBaHift oiaBaHO-pyccKHX'b n^e- 
MeffB, (|>H3HqecKia yciosia h coch^iiCTBO. Cxpyn ^ninpa, 
ynocHBHiia na cefii pyccKia jio;i;kh bi qepnoe Mope, ecTe- 
CTBeHHO upHBo;i;HjrH pyccKHXi K-B ycBoeHiro rpe^ecKoft n;H- 

jiH3aii;iH no Ha^ajraM'B npaBOCJraBHaro BipoHcnoBi^iiaHia, 
IB cpoAHHBmaroca ct cjiaBaHCKHM-B w^om'b. IIpH ho- 



1 



~ 54 — 

KHX'L Kx HaMi» H paHBDie RSLCb ycBoanmiix'h axy ipiBHjH- 
sai^iK), oHa Mooa uepexo;^HTb h k^b HSiWh CKopo h ycninmo, 
ocoSeflHO noTOMj, ^to Morja nepexo;i;HT£> na po^HOMx Ha- 
ineM^B mus/h. B% Hauajt BTopoH no^oBHHLi IX B'bKa Hamn 
CJaBUHCKie nepBoyqaTejH cb. KapHj^it h MeeoAift, cocra- 
BHBfflie Hamy cjiaBiiHCKyH) aaSyKy, nepeBejH na cjiaBaH- 
cfiift asHK's ct rpe^ecKaro CB^meHHoe nHcafiie h oaB- 
wkfLmiE 6orocjiyate6Hua KHHrn. 

HpHSHaKH 6ucTparo pasBHiiii 3toh ii;HBH;jH3ai];iH h bo- 
o6iii,e 6ucTparo pasBUTia pyccKOH acH3HH mh A'^ficTBiiTe;ib- 
Ho H BUfljiWh B^ KieBt CTb nepBHX'B BpeMeHi yTBepac^eHia 
s^icB rocyAapCTBeHHaro uyHKxa, a oco6eHHO uocjii Toro, 
KaKi BejiHKift KieBCKift KHJisb H BejiHKiH pyccKift qeJIOBiK'B, 
CB. Bjia^^HMipt, npHHMj^ (989 r.) npaBOCJiaBHyK) Bipy. 
ToproBJia, DpocBimenie h HCKyccTBa sa^cb chjibho npo- 
ii,BiTaK)T'B yate b^b XI CTo^ixiH. 

Ho HCTopia TOJbKO KaKi 6h naMiTHja 3to c^acTjiHBoe 
HanpaBJieHie pyccKoft cjaBaHCKoft 3kh3hh, a A'iScxBHTejiBHO 
noBepflyjia A'^-^a coBciM'B HHaqe. 

H flosTH^ecKifi ^Hinpi, h BejiHqecTBeHHBiS Kies^ cTa- 
jiH TepiiTB oSteAHHaroin.ee sHaqenie h cjrymMJiH 6ojiBine h 
6oJibnie pa3i»eAHfleHieM'B atoS pyccKOH atHSHH — na bocto^- 
HyK) H 3aaaAHyK). CjiiAyfi)iii,ia upu^HHu npoH3BejiH 9to 
pa3'Be;i,HHeHie. 

Kib BocTOKy OTib ^Htnpa, KaK'B H^BicTHO, THHeTca orpoM- 
Haa paBHHHa, e^Ba upepuBaeMaa KacnincKHM'B MopeM'B u 
ypajibCKHJifB ropHHM^b xpedTOJifB h nepeKHA£iBa]oin,aACA b'e 

A3iK). B^ H'k AP^BHk BpeMeua, O KOTOpUX'B mu rOBOpHM^, 

aTO 6ujio 6e36pea&Hoe, BOJiHyH)iii.eeci£ Mope, TOJibKO BOJiHyBO- 
jiu,eeca He OoraiUMH: HHBaMH h co^HbiMH namiiTAMH, KaKX 



— 55 — 
TenepB, a pasHUHii asiaTCEHMH HapoAHocTAMH, BOTopuA, 

KaEX BOJIHU, BSj^UMajHCL Ha dTOH'S llOpi B'E BH^^ TJH- 

HOBi, aBapi, ue^eH'feroB'B,nojioBja,eB'B, — He roBopaMto ;i;py- 

THX^B, 60JK']^e HHpHHX'b HapOAaX'B, H HaBOHei^'B — ^HeBflTUH, 

yaacHHfi Ba;ii — Taxapu. 9to nope ne hm4jo KpyiuxTb 6e- 
peroBi y saua^a, hh doJbniHX'b ropi, hh Apyrnx'b npe- 
rpa^i. Bojihu ero hs^b rj[y6HHi>i AsIh cbo6oaho npuKaTU- 
BajiHCL Kb JI^Hiflpy H pa3pymaj[H Bce, ?to ctpohjh 3;i;tcB 
pyccKie cjaBane. npoTHBi» axoro Mopfl nysno 611^0 ycxpo- 
HTL SHBofi 6epei"b, cxaTL pyccKOK) rpy^BK) npoTHB'B nero, 
H pyccKOH) rpy^bK) aan^HmaTB pyccKyiD seiuio. Ha aTOTt 
BejHKig HO^^BHr'B H noHiJiH pyccKie cjEaB^HQ. 

CaMo G060K) pasyMteras, ^to npH btoui hmi He Bcer^a 

6UA0 JJSfl6E0 Ay^aTb paSBHTiH MUpHLIX'b, pOCKOniHUX'b 

6;iar'B i^HBHJHsai^in: nysno 6ujo npesAe Bcero cnacaTB 
cjiaBancKyiD Ay my h cjiaB^HCBoe rocy;i;apcTBeHHoe rbzo orb 
asiaxcTBa. Box^ noqeny Hcxopn^ecKaA »H3hb pyccKHX'B bo*- 
cTo^Hofi cxopoHU JI^H^opa flfiJLvoQ BpeMA oxjiH^a^acB cy- 
poBOCxiio, oxcyxcxBieMi H'ba&Huxi npo^iueHii i^HBHjHsai^iH. 
Bnpo^eM'B, cjL&BHECKoS js,Yurk sa^cb neHBuie 6uj[o onac- 
HOCTH, qiMX cjiaBflHCKOMy rocy^apcxBeHHOMy xijy. Pyc- 
CKSuai i^iiBHJHBai^A 6£iJia h wb t% ^peBHi^ BpeMena HeH3- 
H^pHuo Bume asiaxcBod. G^aBflHcsaa Ayiua Mooa b'b rjiy* 
6hh^ CBoei ocxaBaxBCfl ^hcxoid. AsiaxcxBo 6uao chjbho 
^ojEBKO (f^HSHqecKOK) CHJioK). npoxHsx Hero HyacHO 6UJ[0 
6ojiBnie san^HmaxB rocy;i;apcxBeHHoe pyccKoe x4jo. Ho 3xo- 
Mj yace Moa&HO cy;^HXB, Kas'B necnpaBeAJUBEi 3ana;i;H0- 
eBponeficKifl cysAeaiA, oco6eHHO nojiBCKiA, o6:b asiaxcxB^ 
pyccKHX'B Kx BOcxoKy orb JtHinpa, xomx, qxo ohh ne- 
>eco3;i;ajiHCB bx xaxapx, noxepajiH cBoe cjasiiHCXBO. He 
•OBopHM'B yace toacb, qro iipH sihx'b cy»;i;eHkxi He oi^'i- 



— 56 — 

newb BejHKift, HCTopH^ecKiS noABHr'b pyccKHxi bocto^hoS 
CTopoHU Jl^ainpa, saAepacaBniux'B Ha cbohxi njieiax^b Ha* 
njiiBi asiaiCTBa h cnacnrnxx opb Hero Apyria cjiaBanCKk 
HJieHeHa h, Mosera 6utb, A^se bck) 3anaAHyK) Enpony. 
B-b aTHXi cyaAeniaxi eni,e xa nenpaBAa, fiy^To aaiaTCTBO 
Morjio nepeco3AaTB pyccKoe cjaBflHCTBO. HanpoTHBTb, b-b 
HGTopiH MH BHAHMi, ^To OHO Bes^t ycTynaeTB pyccKOMy 
cJiaBflHCTBy, HTO pyccKoe cjiaBaHCXBO ofija^ajio HsyMHTaib- 
HOH) CHJOK) npeTBopnTb B^ ce6a asiaxcKie ajeMeHTH. Oaho 

MO^HO CRaSaTb pyCCBHX'B BOCTO^HOil CTOpOHU. B'b B'l^KO- 

BoH 6o]ph6i CB adiaxcTBOMii ohh HHor^a KaRi 6u 3a6uBa- 

JH CJiaBAHCTBt B% APyrHX'B 3eMJiIX'B, H KOr^a, BOCTOp- 

secTBOBaB'B Ha^'B TaxapaMH, noBepsy^HCB jhi;om:b kt* .3a- 

na^y, TO OHyTHJIHCB ItSLK'h 6U B'B HeAOyM^HiH, Yfljk HCRaTB 

cpe^CTB'B Ki BOscTaHOBJEeniK) H A^bH']&&ineMy pasBHTiio 
CBoefl ii.HBHjH3aii.iH? H ecxecTBeHHO fiujio ne^oyM'i^BaTB. 
IIpAMO nepe^'B hhhh na 3anaAi BpaacA^finan Ilojibma sa- 
cjiOHHja co6oK) ApyriH cjiaBAHCKk Hapo^HocTH H noRpujia 
CBoeiD i]^HBHj[H3aii;ieH) Aaace pyccRyio bsmjik) r^b sana^y ot'b 
^Hinpa. PyccRHHi ne^iBSH 6ujo BOBCTanOBJiHTB CTapua 

CBfl3H CB APyrHHH CJaBflHaHH, — E)SHHMH H SaHa^HUMH, 

H BX eAHHenin c'b hhmh B03C03AaBal!B h paBBHBaxB npo* 
CBimeHie, HCsyccTBa, peMecja, ToproBjro, a fleofixoAHMO 6h- 
AO RH^aTBCfl no CToponaMx, to kb asoBCROMy, to r^b 6aJi* 
TificROMy Mopro, h 6paTB ee hsi qyaaxi pyKi. Botb 
oqepRx cyAb6H pyccRHX'b na BOCTOHHOft cToponi fi^wkupsi. 
PyccRHMX Ha BanaAHoft cToponi npe^CToaja OT^acTH 
Ta »e pa6oTa, ^xo h Ha boctohhoS. H HX'b cb s)ra ;i;a* 
BHjiH aBiaTCRiji napoAHOCXH, oco6eHHO RpuMCRie xaxapEi, a 
crb cJ^Bepa y 6aj[xiacRaro npH6pe2Cba 6uajh njfifiKm h jih- 
tobcrIh njieifena, cb RoxopuMH To»e nysKHO 6u jo b%a&tbca. 





wr^^ 



— 57 



noKa ycTpoHJiocfc MHpnoe coaHTejiBCTBo. Ho btotb Tpy^-b 
(Jhjtb 3AicB emfi cjoanie, — 3a hhmi npe^liCTOflJi'B emje ho- 
bhS* Ha jork a3iaTn,u OTpisuBajH h sana^HUX'B pyccknx'B, 

iCaKl H BOCTO^HHX'B, OT'b CBOHXl, pOACTBeHHHX'B CJaB^H- 
CKHX^b n^eMGH^B, 0Tb ROTOpUXl HMO& TOSSe HB jerKO 6HJ0 

noj[yqaTB os&uBjieme cjiaB^HCKofi shshh, a na c^Bep*]^ hsi- 
3a jHTOBi^eB'B H jLSLTumei BurjAAHsajiB pu]];apcRie, h%- 
Mei^sie opABHa, KOTopue rposHjH ne tojbko 4)H9H^ecROK), 
HO H HpaBCtBOHHOK) CMopTBio. HaKOHOi^'B, npflMo Ha 3ana- 
A* rpo3HjiH TOK) H APjrOK) 6i;^oft nojasH, xoth cboh, ho* 
jCBOHBinie jaTHHCttyro n,HBHJH3aiiiiH), jaTHHCKyro b-b ofinrap- 
HoitB cMHCJi'^ — no Ha^ajiaH'B pHBicRaro npasa h jiaTHHCRoii 
Bipu. IIpoTHB'B Bcix^ BTHXi BparoBi sana^^HO-pyccaMi 
HyaHo 6uj[o 3ain;Hm,aTB ne tojxbro rocy;i;apeTBeHHoe cBoe 
t4jo, ho h cjraBflHCRyBD hjh JHTOBCRyBD CBOH) Ayniy. 3a- 
AaTO 6Hja cjroanie, Tpy;i;H4e. Otts Toro h piraena ona 
fiiwa s^icb 6ojiie Hey^aqHo: h ^ocy;^apCTBeHHOCTB ne mo- 
rja npoHHO ycTpoHTbCii, h ;i;yma cjiaBaHCRaa chJilho ho- 
crpa^aia. Orb Toro-xo 3A'£cb pyccRHMH h jHTOBUiaMH ocTa- 

JHCb TOJIBRO RpeCTBaHO, He^OCTyEHHe i;HBHJ[H3ai^iH, a Ha 

Koro Morja jBjificTBOBaTB ona, Ti hotth Bci nponaJH ^la 
pyccKaro h jHTOBCRaro Hapo;i;a, no RpaSHeft Mipi, He Jier- 
KO npe^BHAiTB, Ror^a ohh ohhtb ri neuj B03BpaMTC«. 

BoTh o6cToaTejibCTBa, npoBBBe^raiH pasAijenie o;i;Horo 
i^ijTBHaro pyccRaro napo^a na ^Bi hojiobhhh— BOCTo^Hy© 
H sana^^HyiD. 

PasAiwieHie 3T0, xom cna^ajra ^hcto BniniHee h mhmo- 
jexHoe, CTajio o6HapyaHBaTbCJi onenb pano. IlepBoe odna- 
pTsenie ero oraocHTca ro BTopoMy ^ecaTHJiiTiH) Xl-ro 
1 1. Koi 9T0My BpeMOHH pyccRaa »h3Hb BKiCTaBHjra ^b-S 
J aocTH, ROTopHxr HpoRpacHO ofiosHa^HjiH coCoBO pasjiH^ie 



( - 



— 58 — 

aa^aii pyccEtix's Ha BOCToifib h Ha sanaj^i^ ot% 

Mu pasyu'iteirb 6paTbeBi MuTHCJiaBa h ^pucJta 

:THCJiaBi> — spaSpug BOuxeib, aesaabinifl noKoa 

ipHog KU3HH, sHauiniH 0AH7 ApysHsy H A'^i 

K) Bc^ dxara, Ha^HpaBinid ee Aii^e He m-i naj 

ai'O. ApOCJiaB'L — TOJlOBtKl MHpa, JCTpOMTeJTb 361 

MU& ch HajKOK), saB^saBinifi cba^u ho^xh c 
pouefiCKHMH ABOpaHH. 9th-to ABa pasJinqaiiixi 
. B'b nepBug pa^'L pa^A'^HJiH, Bi CEasaHBOi 
»atAy coSoK) pyceftyro aeMJBs: tto ifb BoeruKy ( 
la, TO npuHsj^eacajo McTucjiaBy, qT6 st-h aaaaj 
aay. UpaB^a, sb caHou'L CKopOHt BpeueHU, uoc 

McTiicjiaBa (1035 r.), paa^tjieHie 9to (Suio yna 
'CCKua seujiH o^^hsb nojOBHUx jl,a§apa e 
A* BJiacTbBJ oAaoro .3pocJa»a. Ho pasA^Jiflaie ( 
.M-feqeao h craio yame h 'lame ofiaapjaaBaTw 
.0 oCiHapyaiaBaJiocb ae past bi> (kt^bC'b ?epHB 
lasiefi ci KieBCBHMH. Bb KOHiti XI cTOJixia 
iji'& XII, jy^miS, pyccKi^ •iejioB'!&K'&, BjaAaaif 
txt Maoro Tpy^ajca a^ia eAaaeaia a 6jara i 
o3 3eHJiH. Oa'B apocjaBajica a aeoCusuoseaa 
lAaita aaA'B soiieBauiEaHH-uojiOBitaua, a Bayi 
iTpoeaieui pycCKoS aeujia. Oai iipasusaji bc 
lib 6jaro pyccKoS aeujia Btime jhihuxi Buroj 
lAaBavii Bi 9Tou:b apaa'^pi. Oco^aao aopasu'. 
■oifh aeo6uKi!OBeHHOui Kaan^ to, 4to oai cep 
iTHJca ppocTBist, CiAHuxi JiBajCJixt, Ha6JK)A 

aaBtmaAi n^iawb sa.6js)jifiih, ^xotSw Kaaatec 
) o6uacajia baobi a capoii, ae npHTicaaJia 
ai A&^@ ^ saKoau Toro upeHeaa uaeci uocia 
'paffiA^BmiA Haeuuuxi AEOAefl oil uecbHa JerB 



pj-r- 



-~ 59 — 

o6paiii,eHia hx^b bi pa6cTB0. Ho nocjii Bjia^HMipa Moho- 
Haxa eAHHeHie pyccKoi 3eMJiH Bce 6ojiBiiie h 6ojii>ine. pa3- 
pymajiocL. 0;i,hh hsi ero noTOMKOBt flepexo;^HJiH na boc- 
TO^nyH) CTopoHy JI^H^iipa h ycTpoHjn cHJibHoe cys^ajL- 
cKOe KHflacecTBo; Apyrie fiojiie ycHJHBajiHCL na sanaAioT'B 
jl,ffbnpa. ycHJiHBajHCB h saxi^Mi cjhjihcb EHAmecTBa ra- 
jfluiKoe H BOJiLiHCKoe. fiies^b ua^ajix h 6uj[i ao xaKOH CTe- 
neHH ii6j[0K0H'B , pa3Aopa nes^y KHii3i>flMH, ?tob^ 1169 r. 
oh:b b3ati» 6}iAT> BogcsaMH cys^aJibCBaro khhsa, AH;i;peA 
BorojsoScKaro h ho^th ofipaui.eH'L Bt pa3Ba;iHHU. Cx rfext 
nop:B OHi yae HMKor;i;a ne Mori> B03CTaflOBHTL CBoero rpa»- 
AaHcsaro 3HaieHiH, a coxpaHHJii sa co6ojd tojbko pejm-* 
rio3Hoe BHaqenie *). Cx xix'b nop'b BocToqno-pyccKaa jkushb 
aomjiSL pasBHBaTBCA cbohm^b oco6um:b nyxeMX. Saua^HaH 
Pocck npeAocxaBjena ChiASL ce6i, caHa AOJiacaa Oujia 
ycTpoaxBca, oco6o, cbohmh CHjiaMH. 

nonuxEU K^b axog caMOCxoiLxejibHOfl ^h3uh OHa cxaia 
ofiflapyasHBaxB o^eHt pano. B-b neft em,e bi XI cxojiixiH i 
CTajiH o6o3HaqaxLCfl Asa rocy;i;apcxBeHHux'E nyHKxa — bx i 
BtjiopycciH H Bt qepBOHHOH PycH HjiH rajiHii,iH. 3aM4- '^ 
HarejLHO, qxo bx o6ohxx axaxt nyHKxaX'E Ha^nHaBOX'B aM- 
CTBOBaxB AB^ KHA^ecBifl jiuhIh, OCHpOX'bBmk H KaBx 6u 
6e3AOMflHa Bii pyccKofl seMJii: bi nojioii,K4, HsacjiaBHHH — 
aoxoMKH paeo yMepmaro cxapniaro cuna BjiaAHuipoBa 
HsacjiaBa, 6oj[ie HSBJ^exHue hoa'b HMeneM'B BcecjaBu^eS, 
H PocxHCJiaBH^H rajiHii,Kie — jioxomkh xasace yMepmaro 

*) 3Ha^eflie 9to piano 6pocaeTca b-b rjiasa h TenepB, oco6eHHo 
BecHOK), Kor;^a bu BHAHxe, ^to Ty^a co^Hpaeica KaKi* 6s secL cjiaBflH- 
(r** MipTb, H eme mnpe, bbcb npaBOCJiaBHHH, — Kor^a bh BH;^HTe paa- 
t na, OTA'^JiBHHJi rpynuH, ho Bct ont npoHHKHyxH oahehb pyccKHMi, 
n )cxaBHHMi ^yBCTBosTB — djoLaroroBtHieMi ki KiescKOH CBaxuHti 



— 60 — 

npH SH3HH 0Tii;a, cxapmaro cuna ^poc^asoBa — R 
IlyHKTB C^opyccsiK ciajTb paHtme o6o3Ha7aTE 
H Boofime Btjopyccia CKop'te oiSHapyatHBaia pags 
Kara nosaro Haiaia. 
B^opyccu (aasBaHie oTb fi^jioli cepsHrH h 6i 

pamRdBUS'B mSQOK'B) CJTb nOTOUKH ^tpeBHHXl 

K ;tperoBH<iefi. Kpbbhhh Hacejrjura, no naraeft 
jritTonHca, npocTpaHCTBo otl t£x'b M^CTHocreft, i 
xafOTca BepsoBBa ^bhhei h J^H^npa ffh buh^qi 
jeHCKoS ryfiepHia, h — mm'h no 3thm'b piEain 
qffrejLHoe npocTpancTno. Hmh Haeejent Chji b( 
rojiLBHRi Bt HUH^nmHX'b rySepHiast, BHTe(!cRoif, 
H MorHJieBeKofi, oSpaayeiiua BeptxOBtaKH bthj 
H Be uajioe npoCTpaHcrBO bo oC^HirB CTopoi 
wh BUHtniHiix* ryiSepHiaxi — csojeHCKoS, bht 

BCKOBCKOfi Z-h OflHOft CTOpOHH, H CUOJieHCKoK H 

CKoft, CI jpyroS. BBepxy 3Toro xpeyrojibHHKa 
naHflTBUxt BpeMeHi cyn^ecTByeri RpiiBH<iCRi9 
CMOJieHCKi, aaxiiTb no ^b^h^ Toae ex jipeBHiftn 
MeH-B — ropofli Hojioasi, a vh cepejHHi MesjQ 
H JI,H{iDpoHi ropo^ffc XI BiKa — Mhbcri. Ha ni 
m, ^tpyrosTB yrjiy Mea^y ^HinpoMt h IIpHneTbio 

npHMUKaJIH Kb AperOBH^aHl, y KOTOpUX'B B'B 

6uji'h ocoiSeHHO HSBieieBi ropoji C^yiiRi, a Ta 
ae, HOKBO AyMaTb, Cuji'b en^e 6o^e jpeBHiil ro 

POBI. KpHBHHH H JperoBHia, sipOflTHO, He ¥H01 
BHJIHCb H noTOMy CKOpO ClHJIHCb Bl OflHO BJeMfl 

coBi. Tenept h y UpHBeTH Tanie »e fiijopyccu 
^BHBu B BepxBaro JI^B^Bpa. 

HirB COHB'jtuiH, ?T0 TaK»e Cl JlpeBsMBtHKl, 
MHTHHX'L BpeMBBt KpiBH^B H JlperOBHIH, T. B. 



r 



— 61 — 
CH pacnpoGTpaHAJiHCb Ha Sanaa's b'b npe^'i^Jiu BopxHEX'B jh- 

TOBI^efil H ATBJirOB'B. H Bt JUTOBCKOfi H B'b ATBHSCKO& CTpa- 

Hi ecTb He Hajio pyccEHX'B nasBaHii piKi, — nasBaniS, 

iCaKl II3BtCTH0, CaMUK^ yCTOfi^HBUX'B, CBMUTb HeUO^^aTJH* 

Bail Ha nepeM^HU. HasBaHiii pbis.'b B'b JIutb^: HeB'^sa 
HiH HeBAsa, GBJiTaii, Pocb — Ha3BaHiA pyccEiA. CaHUA 
cJOBa, — BHjifl, BHJibHa, BnjieHEa hjh BHJefisa nanoMH- 
BaDTi pyccEiA cjioBa: B!bJHa, BOjna, julr Bejiia, BejEUEaji. 
B'B fiTBiiascKofi CTpani p^eh — Bo6p'B, Hapsa hocati Ha- 
SBanifl cjaBflHO-pyccsia h HMiDTb coHHeHHua p^eh b'b 
BocTOHHoS PocciH. EcTB B'b 3ana;i;H0*pyccEHXi HasBaHijix'b 
piKi H M^CTHOCTeS js^SLSne npflMbifl ysasaHui, ^^to paace- 
leaie 6tj[opyccoB'B b7» BepxHe^uTOBCEyK) h htbrss,ckyjd 
CTpanu mjio hsx yEasaHHUX'b i^eHxpoBi E'bjiopycciH. TaE'b, 
pisa JI^Hcna, tohc, ^to ^ecna, npaBaa, Bna^aDHiaA bi 

ffiKBJ Cb jiBOft CTOpOHH, MaJIO TOrO, HTO HOCHTTb pyCCEOC 

laaBanie, ho Morjia nojyqHTb Tasoe nasBanie tojibko otl 
Toro, HTO 6biJia ci npaBoi CTopoHU y spuBH^efi, paacejEflB- 
muxcA Ha ]Dro-8ana;i^'B on ^bhhu Bume BnaAOHifl B'b nee 
jl^HCHU. To^HO Tasse n usx o^jiacTH ;i;peroBH?eH bi rj[y6b 
flTBflscEod aeMJiH Be^^ex'b i^^Jiui pa^'B nasBaHifi CJaBJiHO- 
pycesHxx. Oco6eHHO Ba»HU bi> aiOM'b OTHomeHin Tasin 
BasBaeia M^CTHocTeS, B:b sopni soxopHx^b ecTb cjobo — 
Xopora, ?t5 na npocxpaHCTBt TaEHXi dojiOTHCTUX'b h 4^- 

CHCTUX^b U%CT!b, EdEl 0Tb BepXHeft IIpuneTH H fl,0 HO- 

ikbA jiofijiHHCEofi H cij!i;j[ei;EO& ry6epHiH BcerAa mhofo 
SHa^Hjo. TaEOBU HasBani^i: JI,oporH h jsfiLxe CTapua ^o- 
pora y Cjiyii,Ea, ^opry»a y IlHHCEa, ^opoaEH na HapBi, 
Xo^i^H^HH^b (ao HOJbCEH ^poFH^HH'b) Ha Byri H MHOSe- 
ci; THX'b noAo6Hux'b nasBaHiS. 
^ vccEoe ujLeuHi ci rjiaBHHW'b cbohmi ropoAOM'b 



— 62 — 

Djoi^EOH'b, noBHjBwoMy, Ha^a^o otfocofi^aTJica otb s.pj' 
[xt pyccEHxi ofijiaCTeB cb caHaro fia^a^a caoefi rocy- 
ipcTBeHDOCTH. H ^[peBB'ifiniili noioiiKift KHflSb ForBO^o^'i, 

!H3BiCTHarO npOHCZ03U6Hia, H KH£3IiA 3T0fi CTpaHU Ria- 

luipoBa po;(a, b&^eh&e et, Hsxc^aBa BiaAiniipoBnqa, BC% 

>?TH BpaXJlOSaJH Cb COC^J(HHHH pyCCKHUH RB£3bflHII, BU' 

leajiH npoTnBi ce6s ickiufl KoaiHi(iH Hst, h xaEi Ha- 
rbJCH HHi, ?To (JujiH He pasi aaTo^aeiibi bi Kies'it, icaRi 
leeiaBt — BHyK^ HsflCjasa h cmh-b ero Fjii&fii, a b* 
[32 r. laxe B<r6 oojioiiBie KHasbs 6uxh sadpasa b sa- 
iieeu n-h I^aptrpaAi. Ho h BopoTHBinHci. hbi sroro sa- 
tieHifl, noiOKRie BH;i3bfl ae oCpasjaHJHCL, a TaRse Bpan- 
tBajH E CbupyrHva sBHSbaua, a nexxy co6od ao toio, 
ro nojioBKax o6JiacTb pasSitjaCb na MnoacecTBO uajiuxi 
laatecTBT. k laRii ocjafi^a, ito b'b nepBoS ^eTBeprn 
III cTOJiiTJH 66jibiiien ^acTLD no^^HHajracb CHOJieiiCKHii'B 
iRShaa-b. Oco6eHHO Ea.s,&b}i,xvi-BT, 6iisi, pyccRiiU'b eharbjih'b 
jifliTO 6HJ11 naMSTeirt ynomaHyTufl BcecjaBi BpflHHCJia- 
ii'B. npexaaiii oRpysHjm Bcecjasa CacHoc^oBHuuii oco- 
tBBOCTAHH. £ro BHBUBajiB . qapoji^eH'B, 6ucTpo BepeHOCri- 
HHCJi ct o;tBoro uicxa sa APjroe, Bce SHanB^BHt, cbo- 
i6bhui BpeBpamaTbCa vb nwrnjiaTO awbps — BoiBa. Pas- 
lAHBazacb Aane TaBHCTBeaHoCTb BcecjiaBa: ero c^htr^h 

JXAeHHUM'b OTb BOJfXBORaBJA, BH^[OIi;HU'b OCoGeHBJH) CBJ[y 

E. aSBt Ha qejrb b b% npHRpuBaBineit ee noBHSRi. 0?eHi> 
jpoaTHo, ^TO y BceeaaBa npoero firajii frkiopyccidfl roji- 

H3X-3a qero ate nojoi;Rie RH^sba tblkl Bpa»ji,OBaJifl ch 
yjTHva BHASLHUH H BUSMBajiB wb BHxi TaRys Bpasjy? 

ro ACBO BHJtBO BSl A^fiCTBiii rjaBflJlftniHX'b BS-B aTHXt 

laseS— oTi^a BcecjaBOBa Bpfl^BCJiaBa HsucjaBB^a, canoro 



M 



r 



« 



TT' 



•«l 



— 63 — 

BcecjraBa h CHHa ero TAi6a, BcecjaBH^a. Ohh nanajiiajH 
Ha ^aia ofijiacTH, jboj^hje orry^^a njninnHxt h sace- 

jajH HMH CBOH) CTpaHJ. ECTL MHinie, ^TO CTOJIBHHft TO- 

poj^t rji'fe6a — MifHCKx BecL sacejeni Chj'b pa6aMH. O^e- 
BHAHO, nojToi^Bie ehhsbh hh^jth 6ojn>my]D nys^y b'b jtk)- 
pxi H sa^HpajH nxi, r^;^^ tojilro mofjh. Ho jifiTRe sthmx 

C&MHMIb OHH B'b A'^gCTBHTejBHOCTH He OTpHBaJTUCB OTl 

ApyrHxi pyccKHXi, a nanpoTHBi 6ojie h 6ojie cjiHsa- 
JTOCB. ^ase njTRinu CBoefi npaBocjaBHoS i^epKSH nojioi^ide 
BHasLH sa^iyBiHBaJH HHo^;^a y;i;oBJ!eTBopaTB nocpe^CTBoifB 
rpa6esa. TaB^, o;^Ha7BAU BcecjaB'B norpafiaJTB Cujo ;i;a«e 
HOBropoji;cKyro, co^ificKyro ^epK0BT>. Ho pn^OMt c% TaKHMH 
He^eoTHBHHH ^^'i^jTaiTH pasBHBajHCB B'B nojToi^KOfi CTpant H 
jiBjenia, CBAsuBaBmiH ee cb ocxaJiBHod Poccieit KptnKHMH, 
AOCToftHUMH yaaMH. HoJioi^Kaji seMJia BM^CTt co bccbd Poc- 
cieft rjy6oKO ^THJia pyccKHX'B MynenHKOB'B-KHHseS Bopnca 
H TjLi6a.. B'B nojroii;Koft scmj*, h Boo(5ni;e B'B fiijopyccKofi 
CTpaH'6, 9TH HyneHHRH ^(ame 6ojrBine homhhjihcb, ^l^wh b% 
Apyrext ofijiacTaxx. B'B 9Toft cTpani Bcer;i;a 6hjio mhofo 
H AO CHX^ nop'B He Majo coxpannjocB i];epRBeft B'B naMATB 
CB. BopHca H Fjiifia, a bt* XH b'^k'S b'b Uojoi^k* npo- 
cifljH BeJTHRiA no3;BHacHHii;u n npocB']^THTej!rBHHn;u hrx ho- 
Joii;Karo RHJisecsaro po;i;a, cb. IlapacReBifl h EB^poamiH. 
CaMoe pa3j^po6jreHie na MHoria RHaacecTBa h ocja6jeHie 
nojioi^Bofi BeMJiH noBeJTH Kb BamHHM'B, nojresHHM'B ^ dy- 
Ajmfiwh ^0CJfe;^CTBiaM'B. Bijopycci-a chjibho ROJiOHHSKpoBa- 
JiacB B'B JIhtb-S h c6jiH2KajiacB cb neS. Bx na^art BTopoft 

DOJOBHHBI XII B. Mil BH^^HMTb, ^TO 0;^HH'B H3X RHA3eS HO- 

louRaro po^a Bojro^^apB rji6oBHq'B, rhh3b ropo;i;eD;Kifi 
(6 Rt Cjryii;Ra), TaRi c;i;pya:HJcyi ch jiHTBHHaMH, ^to hh^^'b 
t: vh CBoeifB BoftcR'l H ;i;ame BoitHU Bej'B jthtobcrhu'b 



— 64 — 

cnoco6oH'i>, T. e. eanaAaa ho^lk). Gt* Toro ace BpeneHH h 
no^TH j^o HamecTsiH TaTap'B mu bhahh'b MHoro^iHejeHHua 
Hana^eHifl JUiTOBUj&B'h Ha ncROBCBifl, HOBropo^CEia h ]s,SLme 

TBepCBifl MiCTHOCTH. Sa^HpaTLGA TaB'b XaJBEO B'B pyCCBLS 

o6jacTH JHTBHHH uoTJUi He HHa^e, KaBi ^epos's Bijiopyc- 
ciH), cj[%AOBaTeJBHo OHH 3;^icb CujiTi yse cboh Jiv>]sji, HHa^e 
He HLOTjm 6u npe^npHEHMaTb ^epes'B nee TaKHXi CM']^J[£ixrB 

nOXOAOB'B B'b TXj6h PoCCiH. B'B BSL^SijA XIII B'i^Ra MU H 
BHAHM'B, ^TO BaBOfi-TO HOJOI^Bii BHa3B Bja^^HHip'B He T04BK0 
CQOBOeH'B CO CTOpOHH JkTBH, HO HHtOT^ HO Ji^BJiU^ HHSe 

AHHa6ypra pyccBia bojeohIh, nep'&^^BO A^icTBOBaBiniH sa 

OAHO CB JHTBHHaMH B'B fiopB^*]^ CB J[HBOHCBHMH H']^BmaHH 

H, ^To eiii;e Basn-le, bhasb stot'b HMiex'B BaByx)-To BjacTB 
j^ase Ha^n'B OT^^ajieHHUH'B HacejieHieMi JlHBoniif. TaKHU'B 
o6pa30M'B, BO BpeMOHH TaTapcRaro paarpoMa mu bhauitb 
B'B EijopycciH ABa HanpaBJOHia: o^ho hs-b hhx'b npHTa- 
THBaeTB ee B'B pyccBOMy BocTORy, B'B CMOjencRy, Apyroe 
TflneTi ee Ha sanaA'B, b% npe^i^u JIhtbh, h no^roTOB- 

jaeTTb B'B COeAHHOHiH) CB JlHTBOft. 

GyAB6a nepBOHHofi PycH h bha^oS en h^cbojbbo noxosa 
Ha cy^B^y Btjopyccia; ho saR'B Bcer^a, xaR'B h B'B to speMa 
jijbjLSL wb MaJopocciftcBog o64acTH pasBHBajHCB MeA^eHH'ite 
H npo^H'be. PoA'B PocTHCjraBHHefi cha^jt'b BpiQ^e B'B CBoeil 
seMJii. HpoTHB'B Hero TaRse BoeBajH sieBCRie iCHasBa; ho 
He jierRO cb hhm'b 6ujio 6opoTBca OTRpuro. 9x0 6uj[h 
6oJLhmev> ^acTBK) ohohb A^'POBHTBre BHasBa, h ntBOTopue 
HSi) HHX'B sa^yMKBaJiH mnpoBie njanu A'^flcTBifi. B'B bohi^% 
XI B^Ba oco6eHHo BU^BHEyjEca coBpeifenHHR^ h, no TorAam- 
neny HH^HiiD, Apyr^ Bja^HMipa MonoMaxa BacHjBRo Pocth- 
cjiaBH^'B. Ohb saAyMUBajEB saceJiHTB cboid CTpany Ajnat- 
CRHMH 6o;rrapaMH, nopasHTB nojaRoei h orpa^HTB ot'b 




— 65 — 

HHSi pyccsyfiD aeMJiK), u, HaKOHei^'B, noAo(>uo Bjia^uMipy 
MoHOMaxy, hath mcthtb sa pyccRyH) sbmjik) BoveBHHKaM^ 
nojEOBi^aM'B. OH'b OAyflieBJieti'& 6m% BOSBUiueHuuMH qyB- 
CTBaHH H nojiarajti, ^to erd coc^ah — Kumh sojiuHCKiSi, 
JtaBHA'B HropeBH^^, h khhsb BieBCBifi, Cbatohojik'b Hsa- 
ciaBH^'b, 6yAyTi paAOBaTLCH ero ispeji,upiHTifiwh h ^aAyrB 
eMy cboh noJCBH, a caMK 6yAyT% cnoBOttuo charts ^OMa n 
BecejiHTECH. Ho ne TaBOBU 6ujh 3th bhhsba. Ohh BHAiJH, 

9T0 Bl TO BpeMJI, Kan's Cb BOCrOKa HXI A^BHTb CHjIOK) 

CBOHX'B Ao6j[ecTe& Bja^HMipi MoHOMaxi*, fiuBiniH Tor^a 
nepeflCJiaBCKHiTB KHAseifB, c% saaa^a 6yAerb hxi a^bhtb 
Tose AodJiecTHLiS khasb BacHJBKO. Oco6eHHo ero 6oiiJCii 
BOJUHCRiK BHASb, ^aBHATi HropeBHq'L. Oh'b saAyMajL'b h 
coBepinHJii (1096 r.) cb coraacm KioBCRaro rhasa Cb^ito^ 
nojiKa HsflCJiaBH^a cTpaniHoe aao^'i^iiHie, — BOBapHo aaxBa- 
Tflj'B H ocji'i^nHJi'B BacHJiBRa PocTflCJiaBH^a. 

SjiOA^jiHie BTo npOH3Bejio BejiHRyK) CMyTy wh cpeA*]^ khu- 
sefi, HO HO paspyniHJio rajHi^Rod rocyAapcTdeHHOCTH. IIpo- 
THB% npeoMBHRa BacHJiBKa, BjaAHHipKa, RieBCRie rhhsbh 

XOAHJIH OTBpHTO H TailSe m^JEJHH rpyUnaMH, HO TO^e 

6e3yca%mHO. BjaAHMipRO y^epa^aj's h ocTaBHJi'B upeeMUH-* 

KaMI CBOe BHHSeCTBO 0?6HB CHJTBHIilH'B. KHUSeCTBO 9T0 

oco6efiHO ycrpoHJ^B h ycHJHj'B npeoMHHR'B BjaAHifipBa, 
.9pQejaB:B Ochomuokx. OH'b yBejEHVHJi'B 6jiarococTOHHie 
CTpaHu; pacHiHpHJi'b cbok) BJiaeTB b'b jik)6jihhcroS CTpaH*]^. 
Mejucie bhhbkh rajiHiiiRie cha^jih no Byry, m, BpecTB*]^, 
JI,oporH^HH4, BpaHCKi. MorjMi;ecTBO JfpocjiaBa OcMOMucjia 
laRii BOCn^TO B'B HBB'j^cTHOM'B, nodTH^ecBoifi npoMBBe^e* 
mn — CJiovk o nojiBy HropeB'b: „Th, fipocjaBi, hoauh- 
paemB cbohmh acej'ilteHUMH sojiBaMH RapnaTCBia ropu, sa- 
nHpaemB sopoTa ^yHaa, sarpa^^^emB nyTB BenrepcROMy 

.5 



y 



— 66 — 

KopojK), sannpaeniB Bopora ki Eiesy h xajieso ve^emb 
TBOU crp^u**. 

Bnpo^eifB, dTo Moryin;ecTBO flpocjaBa h Boo6in;e raxHi^* 

RHXX KHASefi — PoCTHCJaBH^efi He 6IUO TSiKlt rpOBHO, BaStb 

Basajocb nodxy. Ohh crilho oqsbSasjlh ce6a OTHoineHiaxH 

KB SanOAHUlfB COCibAJfli'b, Crb KOTOpUMH TO 6HJ[HCb, TO 

/7(py»Hj[HCB ^ po^cHHjrHCB, KaR'B, HanpHM'l^pi, <rb BOHrep- 

j CRHMH H aOJbCSHMH KOpOJAMH. JI^pys6a H pO^CTBO BpeAHlH 

\ (iojBine caMuxx dHTsi. Ohh bhochjh ciOAa ^jxia na^ajia 

j SHSHHy npOHSBOAHJH p03Hb Wh CeVLlA KHASeCROfi, HOpOlR- 

1 AftJH npecTynHHA cbhsh, noAopBaBmifl cosepmeHHO Ha-* 
/ cj'i^ACTBeHHHa opaBa rhasbS. dTHH'b uyreH'E h mvji6i> 
^poA'b PocTHCjaBH^en ri ROHi^y XII B^Ra. Ila^eHie ero 
* coupoBOSAaJocB H pa8CJia6j[eHieM'B bc^x'b rajiHi^RHxa^ Bepx- 

HHX'B CHJTB. SapaSHBKHCB T^MH SO ^JSHMH Ha^ajaMH 

SH3HH, rajiH^ane pasBHjiH y ce6ji CHjrBHoe 6ojipcTBO, ro- 
Topoe 3a6Hpaj[0 bt» cboh pysH BjacxB. TaRHMi odpasoH'B, 
H rajHi^RaA rocyxapcTBeHHOCTB cRJOHJuacB r'b naAeniE), 
noAo^HO 6^jiopyccRofi. Ho ei flBHjacB noAAepsRa, ROTopan 
Ha jifiJLVQ npoTflHyja e^ cyn^ecTBOBanie. Qouepsaa npa- 
Hijra HS'B coct^Hefi — bojuhcroS o6jacTH. 
06pasoBaHie BOJUHCRaro RH4i»ecTBa nwbevb caMys) t^c- 

HyX) CBA3B CB HCTOpH^ieCRHH'B SHa^OHieifB HpH-lipHDeTCROfi 

cTpanu. EieBCRie RHfl3BH xopomo noHHMajiH sna^eme axofi 
CTpanu. Eni^e Bja^^HHip'B nocaAHXB cxapmaro CBoero cuna 
CBATonojiRa B'B TypoB*]^. Hocji nero ho^th RajR^u^ Ries- 

CRlfi RHA3B paSCaSHBaJKB CBOHX'B CEIHOBOH HJH 6j[H»afiniHXrb 
POACTBOHHHROB'B HO IIpHHeTH. B^b XII CTOltTiH 06pa3O- 

BajacB jijkjLBJi cHCTOMa RHAsecTBi^ no IIpHneTH H jfjBUihme 
Ao H^Mana, y FpoAna — RpaiHAro Torj^a sanaxHaro npe- 
A'bjva pyccROfl rocyAapcTBOHHofi somjiHp EHHSbfl cha&ih 



— 67 — 

Bi ^epHofiHjt, TypoBi, ^aBH;i;'E-popoAKi, IlHHCKi, nocjit 
wb CjroHHH^, BoJusjoBudkCKby FpoAHi, rjiik ao chx's nop'B 
coxpaHflK)TCH ;^oporie ocraTRH naHATHHRa pyccRofi Bipu 
sj^h (TB XII B., ocTaTKH njepRBH CB. EopHca H TjjMsl Ha 
Kojioaft, — ea RpyToirb fiepery H']^MaHa. 9thmt> nyTeMi 
ideBCRie RHiiSBa ;i;ep»aj[H. RaRB 6a RjiiDq'b h r'b B^jopyc- 

CiH H £*& HepBOHHOS PyCH, MOrjIH npOH3BOAHTB BJlljIHie 

Ha Ty H Apyryro. 9Ta yMHaa Teopia ocjafijajiacb sHa^H- 

Tej[bH6 TbWh, ^TO RieBCSie RHfl3Bfl ?aCTO M^HflJTHCB. G^B 
HHMH BM^CT^ M'bHflJHCB H HpHDeTCRie RHflSBH, HJllt »e 

ynpaHHjiHGB h eine 6ojsie paspymajH 9Ty oaopy Eiesa. 
Kor^a s6 Kiee^ norep^jTB rocy;^apcTBeHHoe SHaqenie, to 
najo coBC'&M'B H SHaneHie npH-npHnercRofi crpaHu. 
Ob ocjiafijEemeifB KieBa h npH-npnaeTCRod cxpaHU, bo- 

JUHCROe RH^aseCTBO eCTeCTBeHHO CTaJO yCHJIHBaTBCA. K'B 
BOHUy Xn B^Ra S^^CB BUJ^BHHyjiaCB JIHHIh MOHOMaXOBH- 

qefi ^epesi McTHCJiaBa HaacjiaBHqa. Ror^a ynajrn* poA'B 
rajiHi^Riixi RHAseSf, rajiH^ane npHSBajiH BOJiUHCRaro Kunza 
PoMaHa McTHCJiaBH^a, h BOJUucRoe RHa»cecTB0 cjimjiocb 
cb rajiHi^RHifB. HepBBrH'B nocjii^^iiCTBieM'B dToro cjiflHia 
6aj[a 6opB6a PoMana dpothb'B JiHTOBCRaro njreHenH ht- 
BAFOBi, ROTopne uocjrb droro cjviHHm bxojsjijie, RaK'B 6u 
yrjOMi, vb ^oBoe, ^aJlH^RO-BOJIHHCRoe RHa»ecTBo. Tor^a* 
TO cocTaBHjacB HSB^cTHaA noFOBopRa: PoMane, PoMane, 
AypHO acHBesiH, JLnTBOlk opemH! PoHani rbtuwub atba^ 

r0B%, SaHHMaBinHXCfl UOHTH nCRJIE)^HTej[BHO SB-i^pO^OBCT- 
BOIFB, H, B^pOATHO, SaCTaBJTAJK'B HX% ofipamiaTBCA R^B SOMOTe- 

j^jtix). BM^crb ci stoh 6opB6ofi cb ATB^raMH, CHjra ra^ 
iHi^ieaA yBaxH^HB&iacB bi HiiH'^^niHeH j[K)6jihhcroS o6jiaGTH 
H saBASUBajtacB (5opB6a rajiHi^RHX'B RHAsed cb ho^bck^mh, 

HaSOBei^RHHH RHASBJIHH. Bb CaHOMB Ha^aJT^ XIII CTO- 



i * 



— 68 — 

ji^tIa PoMaHi raJiHi^Rid h naJi wb 6wrwb bo BpeMJi 9Toi 
6opb6£i. 

SSecTOBifl BHyTpeHHia h BnisiHia chjtu nojsflaJLVLGh wh 
TSLnmiKowh BH^asecTB']^! uocjtk cuepTH PoMana, h oho na- 
xojsjiJLoch B'B 6cj[Linofi onacHocTH. Ho OHO iuAQ emjd bbt 
Aojrro no;iji;ep»aHo cjvbjijfomjiiwh o6fSi;sowh.' 

Bx TO spoMA KaK^B uojs^ npHnoTCKofi CTpaHEi o6pa30- 
BaJOCB BOJUHCEoe BHA»ecTBO, (uuBmeecA cb rajHi^sHMi, 

^JIHSKanmafl B1^ BO^HHCRHlfB BHflSBAH'B BHJi3KeCBaA 'B'&TBB 

MoHOMaxoBa po;^a— PocTHCjaBHqH yTBep^JHCB na j^wb- 

npOBCROd BOAHOft CHCTOM'^, B'B CMOJeHCB'6. OhH, KaK% UU 

SHaeifb, AOCTHFJH rocnoACTBa Ha^'B BksopyccieH. Ohh ase 

OTEJEHSaJIHCB H Ha HySJI^U raJHI^RHX'B RHfl3eH. PoCTHCJEa- 

BHqH jer&jiH B'B hhm'b Ha noMon].B. TaBrB McTHCjraB'B 
y^^ajioft 9Simjua,sji'h npasa uajoji^THAro ehhsa ^aHiiijia 
raj[Hn;Raro. '3aiinjAm,B,jn> oh'b ero 6e3'B najii^ieaRauj^aro TaKTa, 
HO Baa&Ha 6ujia, axa cbasb GMOjQ[eHCRHxi EHflseK c:b ra- 
jhi^rhmh. 9thn'b nyxeu^b rpaHHn,H 06010.% BHuasec^^B'B — 
CMOJiencEO-fiiJiopyccRaro h BOJiHHCRo-rajiHi^^aro— momh 6h 
cABHHyTBca, H Mor'B 6u BBipa6aT£iBaTBCfl ji^JiJi Bceg sana^Hofi 
PocciH OAHH-B pyccRii rocyj^apcTBCHHafi nyHRTi. 

Ho... naxjHHyji'B y«acHHft agmthh Bajii — Taxapu — 
H cnecB Bce, hto ctpohjih pyccRie rhasbh, h na boctok^, 
H Ha sana^'b ot'b JI,H'bnpa. Bes^'i^ nyasHO 6hUL0 xaR^s 611 
coBepmeHHo bhobb ctpohtb pyccRyro ^ocy;^apcTBeHHocTB. 
Caifoe MOAJieHHoe h npo^Hoe cosHAanie npoHCxoji^HJio b% 
BocTO^Hoft qacTH PoccIh, cocpe;^OTOHHB^^efl bi XIV b. cboh) 
rocyAapcTBOHHOCTB B!B MocRBi. Ho sa noAo6Hoe se CTpoe- 
Hie BSfljiHCB Tose wh sana^Hod PoccIh, OAHOBpeMOBHO h 
B'B FajiHiUH, H vb BijopycciH. 



— 69 



^TEHIE IV. 

Onepsi cocTOflHia sanaAHoft Poccia nocjiib TaTapcKaro pasrpoHa. BoscTaHo- 
Bienie rocjAapcTBeHHocTH bi» rajiHAKO-BOJiHHCKoiii RHusecTBt JaHiHiioMi 
PoMaHOBHHeMi. C6jiH»ceHie ero ci sanaAom. Heo6xoAHMOCTi> noAHHEniBCfl 
BaTUD. HoBoe c^JiHHceHie.CB sanaAOX'B. GjiaBa J[aHiHJia. Taiapu paspymaioTi 
loryn^ecTBO rajiHiuco-BOJaiHCKaro EHflsecTBa. IIojraTHHecKafl Teopia Taiapi. 
PaaopeHie rajiHi^KO-BOAUHCKHxi Kp-ibnocTeft. Boftna ci coDSHHKaiiH rajiHit- 
EHXT* KHflseft H Tpe6oBaHie rajHi^Karo BoficKa. Bucipoe ocjiadjienie rajiHi^KO- 
BOJoiHCRaro KHflseciBa. PasApoCjieme ero. noA^HHeme oahoA nacTH ero 
IIoiBBrl, coeAHHeHie ocTajrBHofi ei JiHTOBCBmrb BHflacecTBOMi. OnepKi hcto- 
pifl JiHTOBCEaro BHaacecTBa. IIpH^Hu 6ucTparo BosHHKHOBeHla juTOBCicaro 
KHasecTBa. Bepiaaa JiHTBa. Bucxpoe c^AHaseme ea cb Fjclio. Hasnaa JIh- 
TBa HJin SKmjab. 0($CToaTeJ!i>CTBa, BusBaBinia ee na nonpan^e acTopBHecKoft 
AtareaBHOCTH. TeBToaCKifi h asBOHCRifl opAoaa. Hit, noceaeaie ao coc^a* 
CTBj CB JlaxBoft. HcTopia sthzb opAeaoBi>. HpaaiiBau hxi acTopHHecBOft 
A^aTeJiBHOcTa, pejiariosaufl a aai^ioaajBHuft. J^aajieaie aa aaasBiDiD JlaiBj. 
j^BHaceaie dTofl nocaiAHefi aa loro-BOCTOK'B, bi pyccKia o^JiacTa. 06pa30BaBie 
JEHTOBeBO-pjccBaro rocjAapcTBa. 3aH^HaTeJiBaiftmi6 aaasBa aaToacBie ao 
reAHxaaa. Hxi noaaTHsa. Jtynaiift hcxoai hbi TpyAaaro noaoseaia. G6jkh- 

aceaie ci pyccRHaa *). 



Mh BH^iJiH, ^To noJcoi^Kifi rocyAapcTBeHHuft nyHKrt 
noTepajTh sna^eHie eiE^e ^o TaTapcsaro HameCTBk. Gho* 
jteHCKit nyHKT's, HM'J^eniifi SHa^eaie noAA^p^HBaBiiiefi ciuu 
H ji^a, B-]^j[opycciH h A-ia raj[Hi],so-BOJ[UHCKaro KHAacecxBa 

*) Kpoii* yRaaaHHHXT. co^fflHeaift tr. JamBeBHHa a AtooHOBa^a, 
MOJKEo HaxaTB o5i 9tbx<b BpeMeHaxi*: ^npaaoseaia bi naroxy n 
mecTOMy BHaycaairB naHaTaHBOBi pyccsoi ciapaaH vh sanaAaHxi 
ry6epBiax'B auaepia", asAaBaBmaxca H. n. KopaaaoBHH'B h botomi 
n. H. EaTa)mBOBUM'B. BajiBaa (ascJi^AOBaaie o BajeacBaxi a BOo6n;e 
JiHTOBCKaxi ApeBBocTax-B) Bpo^eccopa B. r. BacajBCBCKaro, H3a. 
18Y5 r.; „0^epRi acTopia BanaABo-pyccRoft i^epEaa", H. HacTOBH^a, 
tactB Bepaaa 1882 i. 



— 70 — 

H, noBHAHMOHj, o^tnuaBiiiii craTB o6mjiiWh cpexoTO^ieirb 
js;iR BceS 3ana;^HoS PoccIh, c^ TETapcsHM's HamecTBieMi 
TaBse jTpaTHji^b wro sm^eHie. Ho He yxpaTHJo ero ra- 
j[Hii;RO-BOJ(nHCKoe KHflsecTBo. Oho h bshjocb xenepB co- 
sj^aBaiB rocy^apcTBeHHOcTB dana^HoS PoccIh. TaTapcsoe 
HamecTBie nopasHjo h ero. Ho HaJopoccificKaa somja h 
MajiopocciScRoe njeMA mooh BUHecTH iiHoroe h ji^ohto. 
B% MaJopocciH hh^tq ne Tepaer^ shshh csopo, hhhto 
He norafiaer-B 6HCTpo. FaJHUiKO-BOJHHCKoe KJraaecTBo npo- 
cym^ecTBOBajio nocj^ xarapcKaro HamecTBiA esi^e i^'kioe 
cTOJ^Tie, en^e i^'&JEoe CTOJi^Tie eo6Hpaj[o orojo ce&i sa- 
na;i;HO-pyccKia chih. 9thm'b crojaiTHHifB cymecTBOBanieM'B 
OHO oco6eHHO 6HJII0 o6ji3aHo Heo6uKHOBeHHOMy sanaj^HO- 
pyccROMy ^ejiOB^Ky, JifiEmxy PoMaHOBH'iy, rajHi^RO-90- 

JEHHCROMy RHflSD. 

^aniHj'B snajcB, ?to xaTapcRaa rpoda, paspasHBrnancH 
B'B 1236 r. HaA'b boctohhob Pocciefi, npn^jnisac^PCH h 
R'B dauajifloi Poccin h co^HpaeTCH nopasHTE TaRflce h ee. 
Oh'b p'i^mHJica hphhhtb hpothb'b boa M^pu. Oh^ yxsep- 
AHJi cboh) BJiacTb Bi RioBi, H nopy^ujE^ saHi^Hn^aTB ero 
OTTb TaTapi xpa6pMnieMy CBoeny BoeBo;('&, SHaHOHHTOMy 
^HMHTpiBD, nopasHBmeMy CBoeH) ;^o6JIecTBI) jifiTBXi TaTap-B, 
a cau'B OTnpaBHJiCA b:b BeHrpiD y($£s;i;aTB RopojH Bejiy 
coeAHHHTBCH d nHHi ji,jin hpothboaMctbIh TaTapaHi. 
Ho noRanicxi owb y6tacA&J[^ HecroBop^HBaro coiozwiKa^ 
TaTapH vb 1240 r, HaxjKHHyjin na sanaAnyiD Poccii), npe- 
BpaTHJiH vh rpyxy pasBaJiHH'B cjiaBHui KIob'b, ABHnyjiHCB 
Ha BojiiHB, B'B PajiHi^iH)) TaRse paspyniaH ropo;i;a h hb- 
P']^;^RO HCTpe6i[AA Bce HaceJienie hx'b. Qsurbwh TaxapH no- 
mjiH js,BJihme^ o6orHyjH RapnaxcRk ropu, pasopHJEH Benr- 
piK), jsfiuvbe Joi&Eua cjaBancRifl rocy;i;apcTBa h no E)SHofi 



— 71 — 

OSpaRHi EHH^niHefi PoCCiH BOSBfUtTHlHCB Vh BOCTOHHyD 

Poccii). 

J(aHiHj'&, sanpavaBmifiea bo Bpeiui sroro pasrpoHa wh 
sana^HUfl o(SjacTH IIojifcinH, BOSBpaTHBniHCb wb onycTO- 
meHHoe CBoe rocyAapcTBO, jifiimewb 6iurb saHHTBca npeac^e 
Boero yAOBjieTBopeHieMOb Hacyn^nofi norpe^HocTH, — bobco- 
d^aHieifB paapymeHHaro. HysHo 6uxo npesie Bcero co- 
5paTB pastfisaBinidea Hapo;('B h o6cTpoHTLca. oojihth- 
^ecKHxab jijijax'b HeBorxa 6hm is, j^y^BUh. Ho paHLme hjh 
no3«e, Heo6xoAH]io 6ujio onpeA^HTB cBoe nojHTH^ecBoe 
noj[OseHie. Bq& to Bpevji b'b eBponefiCKOMi mpb ch npH-* 
&tBKod BHaMeHaTaibHoft ^acTH Asie 6eijio jsfioe Bia^HBrB: 
Ha BOCTOKi TaiuipcsiS xaHi, aa sana^'b -^ pHMCKift naua, 
ncM^ujaBBiift xaay jsfl.xe saMt^asie 3a pasopeme ero B^p^ 
uuTb jsjbtelk — noMROBi, MopasoB'b, BenrpoB'B. Aaniuy 
nysHO 6hj[0 BU(5paTb o^Horo h3i bi^x'b ^(Byx'b BJia^^HS'b* 
TaTapcBiS thwh BHymaJTb evy eorecTBeHHoe oiBpan^enie. 
Owb odpaTHJCJi Ha sana^'b h djiibth cxajKi scKaTb chjh. 
Uekxf wswh H nanoD npoHcxo;i[HjiH coB^Hi^aHia Bofini 
npoTHBx TaTapi, BiH^amH Jl^aniHJEa BopojeBCKHitb b^H" 
i^ou^B OTTb nanu h bh^t^ o^'b ynm s^epRBeft. GoBiH^aHiiet 
dTH jHa nepBHd paars He' hobojih jch corjiameHiiD, 603% 
coMHiHifl, noTOMy oco($eHHOi ^to yniji i^epRBefi noKasaJiacB 

CJUHfllEOH'B CTpaHHOI) AyXOBSHCTBy H HapO^y raiHI^BO'-BO'- 

iHHckoiiy. O^eHB b^poatho TaBace, ^to ^aiedHjTB Bnijn» 

HeCOCTOHT&IBHOGTB UaHCBOfi HOMOH^H. Ho nOBy^a ^pOHC- 

xoxHJtH 3TH coBini^aHui cb HanoK), TaTapcBaa cHJra, sasi 
XoraAHBaDTCfl, no Hay^emD canoro nanu, npej^flBHja 
B'B ^amHJiy cboh opaBa Ha ero noA^HHeme. ^Jljaft FajH^", 
npHciajTB CBasaTB AarnHJiy Eaxufi. JlflA TajiH^i, t. e. ^aft 
KB ynpaBieme TarapavB caxEifi sanaAHHft nyHBrB rocy- 



.J 



— 72 — 

j^apcTBa Jl^aHitfja, nyEKm, soTopuft 6u nepejf,% jrHi^oirb 
Bceii EBponH cjiyacHji^ no3opHUM'b CBHAi^TejBCTBOH!^ ^a- 
HiHjroBoft noEopHOCTH TaxapaiTb. IIoHaTHoe jijkxo, iSAWb 
9T0 ^OJSHO 6ujo nopasHTB o6pa80BaHHaro, Morynj^ecTveE- 
Haro, HSB'&CTHaro aanaj^y flfiEinjiR. „He ^aM'b FajiH^a^, 
CKasaJT'B JI.aHiflfj'B, ho b-b to ace BpevA, 663'b coMHtmn, 
noAyMaji'E: ^a ne fh^e) Tasse noMomiH h otb sana^a. 
noBTOMy — noS^y h noKJOHrocB BaTHK)". 

C'B BeJIHKOK) 60JrBD B'B Jl^JSA OTnpaBHJICH Jl^aHiHJI'B TffB 

EaTUH). Mo»Ho 6ujL0 osH^aTB C66£ BCAEaro xy^a, js,a.«je 
CHepTH, HO ejuBa jm ne xyse CHepTH 6uj[[o ajx ^aninjia 
noRJOHHTBCA BapBapy-asiaTHjy. Uomojuhbhihcb ^OKa h B'B 
KieB^ H npHroTOBHBniHCB B'B cvepTH, ^aHiHJT'B aepemejE'B 
sa JIJH^np'B H HanpaBHJCA ^epes'B CTenH sb BatHH). Asi* 
aTniy noHpaBHjracB Tasaa noKopnoCTB MorymecTBeHHiftniaro 
pyccxaro khasji. „^ypBo, ?to fl,o chxi nop'B He npi'lsaKaji'B, 
HO xopomo, HTO xoTB TOHepB HpiixajiB; HBeniB jh nanix 
HanHTOKx RyMEici?*^ CBasaji'B ^aHiHjry EaTHft. „He hhjt'b, 
HO ecjiH Be-iHHiB, 6y;^y hhtb". — „Ileft, TenepB tu nanra-^ 
TaTapHHB*. FopBEa 6Hjra ^aniHjy Taaaa ^ecTB, no cbh- 
fliiTejiBCTBy jiiTOHHCH; MyHHTejBHO 6hjio fl,j[a Hero Bce 
9T0 BHHManie Bapsapa. Ho B'B npaETH^ecBofi »h3hh 3TorB ' 
HosopHud Ho^eTi npHHecB ^aniHjiy BejHByio nojiBsy. 

Kor;i;a oh'b sosspaTHJicji naaaj^'B h pa3HecjHCB CJiyxH o 
BHEManiH B'B Hetty BaTHA, to b(A coc^ah nanepepuBi 
cTajiH HCBaTB ero fl,pj7&6u, — EopojiB HOJBCBifi H TOT'B se 
BenrepcBig BopojiB Bejia, BOTopni npe»A6 ne sejraj'B 

6BITB C0K)3HHK0M'B ^aHlHJa. ^aHlHJI'B 6uJL% CTpameH'B HH'B 
B'B C0K)3^ Cfh TaTapaMH, TaB'B 3BIIB0 eU^e naUHTHUBfH. 9X0 

BHHManie B'B ^aninjiy sanaAHHx^B codkjsjdi yBjeBJO ero 
CHOBa, H emfi 6ojiBme npeasHHro, B'B c6jTHaseHiiD c% sana- 



k. 



r' 



— 73 — 
XOM%. HanajHCB chobe coB^n^iHiA c/h nanoD, h HasoHei^i, 

J^aniHJI'B ;^'6SCTBHT^LH0 KOpOHOBaHli 6hljrh XOpOJieBCKIIBC^B 

Bi^fli][OH% OTh nanu. Bnpo^eM'B, ]ifiMmji%^ BaKi He ;i;yMaJi% 
nojBBOBaTLCA 0OJD3OMI Ch TaxapaMH upoTHB'B sana^a £b- 
poBS, xaK^ onfiTb yBH^ijii, ?to nejhan no^araTBCfl h na 
noMomjB saoa^a npoxuB^ TaTap'B. Euy CTajo hsb'^ctho, 
rro Bfh sana^Hofi Esponi hhbto ne cjyniacTB nancKaro 
npHSUBa H^H wh BpecTOBud noxoA'B npoTHBi TaTap'B. 
MoaseT<b 6htb, euy HSBicTHO 6ujio A^^e h to, ^to nana 
np93UBaJ[% jTHBOHCEiH op^^eHi H ^iipyFHX'b rocyAapeft Boe- 

BETL PoCCifi). HeSaBHCHMOCTL CBOID JifimSJ'b CTapaJCJI TO- 

nepB cos^aTB coficTBenHBrim cpe^^CTBauH. C;b aTOio i(tjiBR> 
oh:b ycepjDCHo cxpoHH BpinocTH fb cBoeu^B rocy;^pcTBib 
Ha cjiy^aS 6opB6s cb TaTapaHH, soropyio CBopo h Hanajri. 
nojBsyACB (Jes^apHOCTBiD 6j[HaKaSmaro TaTapcsaro npaBH* 
TaiJi Kypeucu, oh:b ntcBOJiBBO pas'B nopasaj'B TaTapcsie 
orpflAH, BpaBaBmiecfl bi ero sHji»ecTBO. Ycnix'B fb 
dTQu% A^jrk eme 6oj[ie BOSBejrnqnj'B Jl^arnHja h Moryni;e- 
eiBO ero ;i,ocTHrjio, noBH^cHMOHy, Bucmeft CTenenH. To 

BOeHHHHH A'ijiaMH, TO MHpflUUH JI^OrOBOpaMH H pO^^CTBeH-* 
HHMH CBHSflHH OWb ^^aieKO paCnpOCTpaHHwI'B CBOE) BJiaCTB 

H BjiiAHie Ha iBTsy, ao BojBOBfiificKa, GjOHnua h Hob* 

ropojpca, BQTOpUMH BJaA^%, nOA'B BepXOBHOK) BJaOTBK) 

JiHTOBeKaro bhaba Mnn^^OBra^ cuwb Jl^aHiHJia Ponan'B. BjeIh- 
m> Jifi,miijLtk nojijiiiTiUM&ch ^sjne OT^cajenHaH Simyj^h. Ha 

nOJBCBHXl BHJISeft ^aHIHJ'B TaB'B Bjifll'B, ?T0 OHH CaMH 

npHsnaBajiH ero rjraBofi Bcixx bo* cok)3hiix'b noxoxax'B cb 
HHiTB. ^aninji'B Ha^ajTB oBaauBaTB npauoe Bos^McTBie h 
Ba 6oji^e ;!i;ajiBHiil sanaA^) — nouoraj'B cb <cbohM'b BoScRoifB 
BenrepcBouy Bopojno b'b ero 6o|)b6% cb aBCTpifiu^aMH, h 
eHjiBBO nopaauuTB BHRManie sanaAHO-OBponefii^eB^B, beb'b 






— u — 

cofioK), T&vh E cTpofiHocTbE) H Boopyzesiem CBoero 
Boficxa. 

Ho Ha niA osasaiocb cHOBa, tto hbttoshu e sanaA* 
BtM ciasa ^aaiEja, e sanaAHua caaait ero, e Aase co6- 
cTDeflHua ycHjia cosaatl e aaniBTHTB caMOCTOaTeibHOcrt 
CBoero rocyx&pcTBa. Ha uicro fiesAapnaro KypeKcu bkuke 
Kb 1261 r. AapoBHTHfi: h sHeprH^ecKifi TaTapcaifl bosxb 
Bypyosafi, n norpedosaii y Xt°iiua yace ne OAaoro ro- 
pofla, a craai TpeCoBaiB cpHiia oahopo roposa, t. e. 
KpinocTH, 8a jtpyrRirb. TpeSosaHie npeA'&flBieHO tuxl 

HeOBHAOHHO H tfb TaKOD rOTOBHOCTBD ttOHJiJBipmATb STO 

ciijan, VK HeotfxoxHHO 6iuo noA^EBETbca. Eparx e Bip- 
nak Apyr& JfimoM, BacHnxo, Kaa&b bojuhcuA, cran 
McaoMBSTb 3T0 a»CTOKoe TpeGoBaaie, cjiasara TaTapaiti 
Aia pasopeHia OAuai ropoxi sa xpyran. Yitijijis oaehi 
BBAHufi Topoxh, 4o6H)(ufi popojTB JI^BiEja B ero pesE- 
xeHuia,— XojH'B, &iarox&pa xHTpocrfl'BacflJ&Ea e xorax- 
JKBOCTK xpafiparo rapHEsosa. 

nojiHTEBa TaTapcaaa nonua fjiAhme. YEuvioatKm, wbci- 
Hua cpexcTsa JlfimoAA, Tarapu p^tnuuHCb yaHHTOSHTb 
emfi H Ty cEiy ero, xaiy» oh'b mrtun ffh coDSHEtazi- 
cocbjsflvb, „Tu Bami Apyn, o6%aBBjai eny xaTapu, nofi- 
ffirh Ch TBOHEE BoScsaiiE EaxasUBaTii Hainero Bpara, 
BeHrepcaai'o sopojA". ^asiEJi uoauajrt cboe BoSesa 
Boesaib coDSHHZib BeHrpoBi. Sar^irb: ,tu Hami ApyrB; 
nofiACHi BoeaaTb Eamen) Bpara, jraTOBcsaro KBaaa", lasse 
consHHsa AaaiHJa. ^aEiHJi xoJxeHi 6aja, psaTb cotScTseH- 

BHHR pyRaHH E 8T0TI CODBTb. TOXe J^aJIOCb H HO OTHO- 

mefllD Kb nojibm^. Aaaiurb Beaiorb xoiro nepezHTb xa- 
KBXi crpaAaaift. Bi 1264 roAy owb yueprb, a m hehi ncaopj^ 
> fipara H B^pEEiS Apyr^t Bbckuko. 



— 76 - 

dTHiTB cnoto6owh rajmii;BO-iiojniHCRoe KHJisecTBo, ecM 
mpasEThca no npocry, 6imo coBepmeHo saiiaAHO HJierso 
yse xorio pacnacTBCx* dToicy noHorjiH h BHyrpeHHia He* 
ycrpoftcTBa ero. Iloeii cx^pni J^aHisja n BacHJiBsa, ra* 
jHQKO-BOJiHHCKoe BEHacecTBo fSB^bajioch na cj%;(7K)in;u[ 
iiacTH: JIbbooi h OKpysaBinui ero o&iacri xocTajiHCB CTap- 
ueKj cHHj AaHiHJia, jIbbt; 6exscBi& oxpyirB j^pyromy CHey 
QlBapHy; ojmtL ?acTB BOinHCBaro BHxxecTBa ci r. Bja* 

AHMipOlfB - BOJOIHCHBHl tflUa BO BJiaxtHlH HaCJbXHHKOB'B 

BaciJiBBa, ApyraA— Jiyi^Kaa o&iacTB— bo Bjia^'^HiH TperBxro 
cuHa flflmsLJia,, McTHCjaBa. 
B% nepBofi nojioBHH^ XIV ctoji^tui poA'B rajOD^KXX'B 

KHflSefi CTaXB 6HCTpO BHKHpaTB, H OROJO COpOKOBOFO TO^a 

KIV CTOJ^TUi He ocrajocB hh o^^hofo hs'b hhxi. K)ro« 
sanaj^HOJi ^acTB axoro o6iDHpHaro XHflsecTBa, o&iacTB ra^ 
iHipcaa aaBoesaHa (Siua b'b 134Q ro^y hojibckhh'b Bopo* 
xeiTB KasHMipoxi; o&racTB 6ejacKaA AOCTajiaeB MaaoBei^- 

KHM'B BHflSBAMi; BCA OCTaJEBHaJI ^BCTB — BOJIUHeBaJI HOpe- 

nua no HacrtACXBy B'B jhtobcbhmi& BHaaBAX^B ^epesi JId- 
6apTa, cuHa TewxHEOBa, nopoAHHBinaroca Cb aia^Hxipo* 

BOJHHCBHX^ BHASeCBHKB pOJ^OlTB, TdBEXl 06pa30Xl, 67- 

jQri^HocTB sanaxHoS Poccih c^^ana Ha pysH ^SHxib h vxm* 
isawb o6pa3owB jhtbheexi. 
Mbt bha^h, tto en^ 3B,jifljiTo Mp TaTapcsaro HamecniA 

JDITBHHH C&SHSaJHCB Cl fiijIOpyCCaXH H npOZOAHJH B'B 

Bocfo^raLyD PoeeiD lepess hx:b CTpany, Bas'B cboh jdah, 
no3AHifiiHia sana^Ho-pyccBiii jeiTonxcx othochtb b'b bthx'b 
BpexeHaxTB h oeHOBanie jcHToicBoft rocy^apcTBeHHOCTH vh 
HoBropoxBi jBHTOBCBOxi H j^ase vh UojiOBjA. CoBpexed- 
Has Eaysa noBa^iBaerfB, ?to sth BSBbcfnn^ HeBftpHEm bo 
MHorm wcTHocTaxi, He jHHieHH oAHaao ocHOBanifl h 



L.^' 



"■"1 



— 76 — 

TpefiyKXTb Tkitb (kuibinaro jtBaumia, tto wt namavb Apes- 
sHxi pycesHX'B jr^TonHcazi HecoHH'iHeHi nponyOBt hho- 
VEX'h asvtcTiiL h ;iase BKeni fi^opyccsHZ'B SH^sefi. Ho 
H B'B sTHXi jiTonHCflxt eoTb jKaaasie Ba to, tto jbtob- 
CEaji rocyAapcTBeHHOCTb BoasHEja ao TaTapcsaro naine- 
ctbIa. Eiqe ao laTapcKaro HamecTBiH, BHesHO b'l 1235 
ro;ty, npioGp^tjb fioibmyB) CEJiy JHTOBCEifi shasb Mhh- 
XflBiTb, CTOJiHii,efi EOTOparo bi Ha?ajjt TaTapcicaro ara 6bji'b 
HoBropOAorb JinTOBCKift, r^^, no ao3f.wb&aawb ji^Tona- 
cait-b, KHflSKJTb vh emfi 6oiie pasHee Bpeux h oien^ 
iH^tOBra, PuHrojbfft. 

TaTapcRoe HamecTBie, nopa3HBinee pyccKHxi wb io»ho& 
lOBHui aanaxHoS FoccIh, npKABHHyjo hobua vaccu hx% 

JHTOBCEHHt UpeA^.iaH'b H ABHO BUSUBaJIO ISTBy ABH- 
TbCa Ha BDrO - BOCTOK'B H yXBepflHTL CBOD BJaCTt EAXb 

iHH pyccKHHH, npeACTaB^ABuiHHH TenepL jerayn AO($Hqy 
Aase pacnoioaeHanHu npRSHaTb nax'b cofJosa jihtob- 
jo BJiacTb, ?To6a hm'^tl b'& ae& aan^HTy oTi TaTapt. 
'leADHeHie HestAy 9thhh hobuhh CHjauH— jhtobcehhe 
pyccKHHH H ycTpoflcTBO BHR HOBoS sanaAHo-pyccBofi ro^ 
tapCTBeHHOCTH noABHrajocb oveHb fiucipo h jerKo. JIht^ 
&u BepxHefi JIhtbu, AaBsie coc^ah pyccszx'B, oco6eHHo 
ler^ajiH bto a'^o. Ho vb XIII ciojiiTui ciajH npoABs- 
rbCH sj, aanaADo-pyccKHurb aocojiemaicb emfi hobuh xr-^ 
scKtfl CBJU, yxe 6oji^ VHcrua, Henie sHaRouua pyc> 

HHt, — CHJtU HHXHefi JIUTBU HJH 3&itJ)l,lI. 8tOTI HOBUfi 

QjiUBib JEhtbu BuasaHx i5eix'b ae TOSbKo TaTapcsHU'b pas- 
aHOHi PocciH, notiyxAaBniHH'b zBii;HHKOB'b HanaAaib aa 

^CHJieHBUXl pyCCKBSb, HO H HOBUHl 6if,CIBieWh CaUHXl. 

TBHHOBi), — noce.ieHie»rb y tiajiTifiCRaro npHfipexba jy- 

BBO-paiiapCKHX'b, H^HeitKHXl OpA^HOB^b ~ JIBBOHCKarO H 



— 77 — 

I 

flpjocRaro, HJiH He^eHoci^eBi h RpecTOHocn^eBi (HasBaeifl 

HaniHBaeMux'B Ha ifj[aiii(ax'&). 

JlHBOHCRid opABH'B ocHOBajCA B% 1202 P., npyccKtfi Wb 
1227 r. Bi 1237 r. o6a op^^ena coe;^UHHJ[]icb u CTajH 

^^HCTBOSaTb npOTHBl JIhTBU 3a OAHO Cb AByX'b CTOpOH'B. 

Sna^eHie hx'b b'b HCxopHHecsofir cyAB6i jHTOBCRaro Hapo^^a 
E BCOH 3ana;^Hofi Poccin o^eHb sejiirRO. Mh xojraRHu Hi* 

CKOIBRO OCraHOBHTbCa Ha HCTOpiH dTHX'b O^JSfiEOWh H OpH- 
CMOTp^TBCA Tffb OCHOBHHlfB HX'B npHHE^HnaH'b. 

HsB^CTHO, ?T0 OHH CHJioH) Me^a o6paii^aj[H B'B xpncTiaH- 

CTBO HJJIfildSl H JtHTOBCRlJI DJIOMeHa. yU0Tpe6jieHie CHJiU 

AM ntjieS B^pu BCTpiHaercfl h b% HCTopin jtpjrHxi xpH- 
criaHCBHX'B BipoHcnoB'&Aanifi, RpoHii jraTHHCRaro, ho Bcrpi- 
^aercji RaR'B pi^Koe, cjy^aiHoe ABjeHie, He BUTeRaion^ee 
h3:b Ha^aJi'B sipu h orB Toro tfojiBmei) ^acTii) despascy^- 
Hoe, HOJiinoe) neynopjiAo^eHHoe. jaTHHCRHX'B xyxoBHO- 
pin^apcRHX'B op^enax^B SToro HHRas^ nejiBsa CRasaxB. 7 
HHx^B ynoTpe^jeHie HaTepiaJiBHofi chju js;ui njbxetL vbfu 

6UJ[0 CTporOK), BHpa60TaHH0K) CHCXeMOH). Oho A^ftCTBH- 
TaiBHO H BUTORaJO CTpOFO, JOFH^HO H31 Ha^aJTB JiaTHH* 

CTBa. TojiBRO JiaTHHCTBo MOSOT^B upoHSBO^TB dTO cirbnie- 

Bie ^XOBHHX'B H SOHHBEX'B HHTepeCOBl, HOfieCHfilXl H SeH- 

HurB vjbzei. Oho BupasaerB xaRoe CM'&meHie kb sxajb 
naoii — xyxoBHaro n HipcRoro BjaAURH, BBrpasaerB ero vh 
iesyHTCTB^ vb ROHRop^^axaxi. Oho BHpasHjio ero h b'b ;^*- 

XOBBO-pHI^apCRHX'B Op^eHaXl, flBHBHIHXCA, RaR'B HSBiCTHO, 

BO BpeHOHa RpecTOBuxi noxoj^oBi, Ror;i;a bca Enpona nua 

Ha BOCTORl CTb MO^OlfB H BpeCTOMnb HO^I^'B BepXOBHHLHl 

BowTejUiCTBOM'B uantf. B% axH-To speMeHa u noA% bjiIa- 
HieiTB 9thx:b H^efl o6pa30Ba JHCB o6a cRasaHHue naHH opAena, . 



■1 



• 78 ■ 



jHBOHCsit opAeHi lUK He?eHocn;eB% jqpexxevB coiScTBeHBO 
fjta JIhbohui. Ho ohi bb awbjeh T&Boro 6<Ubiaoro sBa>[e- 
HL&, Rairb npyccsiS hjh TeBTOncEifl opxeHi, BumeAinlS cb 

BOCTOKa. 

BX XH CTOl^TiH 9T0TB noci^AHift OPXBBX o6pa30BaJCA 
Bb lepycaJHiit cotJcTBeHHO ;iia san^HTu h npHSp^HJa nH- 
jHTpHHOBi, ornpa^JKBrnHXCa Ha boctoki. Eorxa A^a 
KpecTOHocn^Bi crajB iutoxb na Bocroitit, obi nepecenHjca 

"' "'ILliH). ^OlSpUHH CBOflCTBaVH CBOHXl VJeHOBl H X^- 

■HJocepAifl OBI spioCpij'b oco6eHHoe pacnojroneHie 
1 repiiaHCKiirb HHoepaTOpoBi. Uaxo no ma^y m, 

aroro opxeea ciaJiH Aasaib hh^hIa bi paBHSSb 
SI Esponu. Hi^KO.iLEO xaKHXi Htrbaifi a&ho 6u.io 
> repxaHis no coci^AcrBj ch Ilojtbinen, h sartirb «b 
Qoj&mt, B% c^Bepo-sanaAHOfl ea qacTH. B% 1227 r. 
HBiandft noxBKh, vasoBei^Kifi kbasl KospaA'^. B^a- 
BOTOparo ^CTo onycTom&iK coc^McTBeHnae npyccu, j 
Ji dVOTb opAeHi Kh nocaieniK) b% llpycciif, bo- 1 

AajEHOBHXHUH'B npeAOGTepeaWHiaiTb ApyseS. Upyc- 
PASH'^i Kaai HU yxe cRaaain, BCsopib coeAHSHJca 
lOBcsHirb, B o6a ctoae dBeprnqao BecTH nponaraBAy 
ifiajrriftcEKsi fiamecKBxt cTpanaxt. PmiapH Hart 
i^BpoDu cxa^H crpeiiHTfcca ffb 9Th CTpaBU h Bcry- 
)i o6a opAesa. 
BTBH npH^HHU, BUSHBaBmifl STO pejRrioSBoe abh- 

npOTHVb •IJACKBXh H JHTOBCEHX'B UieTtetPh. 3TH 

la Bi TO BpeHa Gaza eABHCTBeHBUHH asH^HHKaKH vb 
i. npH CBJibHoici poiRriosHOHi oxBBjeHiH Esponu 
uena EpecTOBUXi nosoAOst, obh ae Hom He o6pa- 
[S ee6s BBBHaniA h Be BUSBaTb npoTHBi ee6a pe- 
lott uponara^u. Bnpowiiib, sposA ^HCTO-paiBrios- 



— 79 — 

HHXi npH^HHi, nponaraH^a 9Ta BusBana tfuja h noMep- 
sana Taiuse h MipcKHHH uo6ys;2^eHijiMH. Hsb^ctho, hto no 
fiaiTificfiOKy npH6pesBiD ;^aBHO Bejiacb ToproBu, oco6eHHo 

HeSAJ H^^MeU^BHMH FOpOAaMH H HOBFOpOAOHX H IICKOBOH^E. 

HiMO^u He Morjin He saM^THTB, KaRia y;^o6HiiiA Hicm 
fiM noceiema Haxo^^aTca na BTowh npH^pesbii, saHATua 
rpyfiuMH ASU^HHKaHH. PejeriosHoe osHBJieHie noAaJio hm'b 
DpespacHHil hoboa'b jTBep^UTB dxkch CBoe ToproBoe h Ha-* 
i^ionajibHoe rocnoACTBo. OxToro mu BHj^Hirb, ?to bii o($a 
opAena 6ojLhme Bcero BCTynajH h^mi^u, jijbl h cairs op;^eH'B 
KpecTOHOci^BB'B y^pesj^eH^ 6hji:b vb OaJiecTHHi co^crseHHO 
J^fl HiHi^eB'E. TaBHSfb o(Spa30Ki, pejiHriosHafl JiaTHH* 
exaa nponaraHAa cjiHJiacb wb o^ho ce H^HeniBOiD Ha- 

I^iOHaJILHOlD, H 06t CTaJH yTBepiBAaTL CB06 rocnoAGTBo 

y tfajTiftcKaro* npH6pesbH h jieriH cTpamnoiD TArocTbD na 

SHBIDHX'b SJlfbCh ^yXCSHXt H JHTOBCBHX'B HJieMeHax^b, a 

^epesi nja% h Ha sana^Hofi PoccIh. 

Sana^Hofi PoeciH npKmjocB HCBynaTB Tenepb cBofi CTa-^, 
puft HCTopHqecidft rptx'b. H^crojibko BiROB'B pyccsift Ha- | 

pOXh SHJTb b6jIH3H JIHTBHH0B1&, JtaTUHieS, dCTOB'b, HO HpO- 
CB^HJTb HXl CBOen n^aBOGJ[aBHOK) I^HBHJ[H3ai^ieiD H AOS- 
J^jaHCHj HTO dTO A^^IO B3AJH B'B CBOH pyKH JaTHHflHe- 

HtHi^u. Biipo^eifb, 8T0 rpix'b HeBo:ibHufi h e^sa jih Mor'b 
6iiTb Hcnpa&ieH'b Ba^jaroBpeMOHHO. Me;i;dieHHOe 03HaR0]i- 
lenie npHdajrTiiicRHx^b a3U9hhrob'b ce' npaBocjaBHOE) pyc- 

CROD ^HBHJ[H3a^ieH) npOHCXOj^HJIO He OrB HenOABHSHOCTH 

npaBooiaBifl, vb soTopoS ero MHOrie ofiBKHflDTi, a orE\ 
loro,* HTO npaBOCjafiie, ^ysAaacb, no ochobheim's CBOHHrb 
npHHi^HnaH^, HacHjia, no Heo6xoAHMocTn pacnpocrpa- 
Hueicji THxo, ueff^eHEo^ Hesan^THO. Bee Hec^acrie pyc- 
CRaro Hapo^a Bib dTOM'b, xaRi h vh xpyrHX'B cjy^iajiX'B, 




1 



— 80 — 



zaKJifO^BJ&^cn jbi toitb, tto psiAOWb c^ Euwb mvLBjTb co- 

ei^j^H^ He pa85opHHBue aa cpeACTBa, pasBHeaDo^ie cbod 

: 2KH3Hb dHCTpo H BuxsaTiiBaDii^ie y sero ero neAJieHHyiD 

/ pa6oTy. 3to ase Heciacrie noAapiuo nsLWb ucropiK) h npyc*- 

{ CKHX'B H •IHBOHCKUX'B pHUapeS. 

JIhTBHHU, BApyrS BCTpeBOSeSHUe XaRHMH »eCTORHMH co* 

dbjmujif BCTyoHJU c% hhmh wb 6opi>6y Ha »H3HB-Ha 
CMepTb, Bas^Hj^aa orb BHXGb h cbod JisuqecKyi) sipy, h 
CBOD JiHTOBCKyK) Hai^ioHajibHOCTb, H HaKouei^ eBOK) rocy- 
AapcTseHHocTb. Ho chjiu opaohob^ 6ujih HeHcronpiiCH, o€B'&- 

SULIHCb H yCHJIHBaJIHCb HOBUMH BUXOAI^aMH H31b BanBAHOH 
EBpOQiJ. IIpHTOH'b, Ha HX'B CTOpOH'J^ 6aJL0 npOBOCXOACTBO 

BOopysOHia h BoenHaro HCsyccTBa. JiHTBHHaMi Hpniujiocb 
HO Heo6xo3;HHOcTH Ho^aBaTbCA icajio do Majy nasa^^'b h 
HaABHraxbCH na cbou, BepxHe-JHTOBCsii h saT^ii^ sa- 
naAHO-pyccKin napoA'b. 8to BUHyaisAeHfloe ABHSseHie 
f jHTBHHOB'b (yb ciBepo-3ana;i;a na dfo-boctori eni;e dojiie 

ycRopHJio o6pa30BaHie j[UTOBCKO*pyccKaro rocy^apcTBa -h 
napoAHoe o^'beAHnenie jiHTBHHOB'b h pyccKHxi. 

nepBUMH H 6ojiie bhji^humh ctpohtiuiahh jthtobcbo- 
pyccKoS rocyAapcTBeHHOCTH 6hijiyL cji^fljiofn^ie jHfOBCKie 

ynoHUHyTuS yse naMH MnH^oBrb, c^^aBmiftcH hs- 

vbCTBUWb^ KaSlCHJbH£I& JHTOBCBIh KHH3b, B^ 1235 V. IS. 

BO BpeuH CBoero KH^iaKeHin ao 1263 r. ^ajiOEo pacapocTpa* 

HHBmiu CBOH) BjacTb B% npo^'l^axi Bijopyccin. BjacTB I 

ero H3i» HoBropoj!(Ra apocrupajacb a na c^Bepo-BocTOK'b ^ 

HO J[,BHHi, Ha HOJOUKyiD o6jacTb, H Ha nrO'SanaA'Bv Ha j 
CTpany UpHneTH-^IlHHCK'b, TypoBi. SaxBaTHBaaa ona xase 

H CMOjencKyH) o6jEacTb. TasHM'b o6pa30ii'b, y«e MHHAOBirb | 

RpOM.b ^HCTOfi jIhTBU BJSLflikjL'h BiAwb TblHh HpOCTpaHCTBOM'b 



— 81 — 

B&iopycciH, KaRoe orpaHH^HBaeTCJi P^rehh: ^bhhoh, ^h^- 
npoM^b H UpHneTLH). Bee 9to npocxpancTBO fiucTpo Bonijio 
vh cocTEBi HOBaro jiHTOBCKo-pyccKaro ^ocy;^apcTBa. 

flfiLJiie. nOCJI'^ J[fiSiJlJl,B,T1iJliTHVLXT» CajTb^ BUSBaHHHX'B 

nocjvk CMepTH MHH;(OBra is. Bu;i;BnraBniHx:b to coBepmeHHO 
o6pyciBiniixi jhtobcehx'b RHJiseH, RaR'b cua^ MnH^^oBra 

BoflmejlRl, HJIH RHHaKHSmiH B'bnOlOI^Rt RHA3B JlHTOBCKiS 
ToBTHBHJ'B, to peBHOCTHHX'L il3II?HHR0B'B, RaRHlfB 6aJl'h 

JHTOBCKifi KHaSB Tpoft;^eH^b, BHCTynHJTB Ha HCTopaqecEoe 
nonpHii];e bobuvl jiHTOBCRifi RHAa^ecRiS po;i;i, ;i;aBiniJi uik- 
jhS pji;i;t ;^o6J^ecTHHXl jHTOBCRO-pyccRHx-B rocyfl;apefi. 
nepBUVH H3ib HHX'b 6(iJH ;i;Ba 6paTa, RH^acHBinie npeeM- 
CTBeHHo: BHTeH'B, MysecTBeHHO OTpasaBmid sanaAHUX'B 
BparoB'B jHTOBCRaro rocy^apcTBa — jinBoncRHxt h npyccRHxt 
pimapeft H nojiaROB'B, h SHaMeHHTHH ycTpoHTejB jihtob- 
CRaro rocy^apcTBa FeAHMHHTb (c^ 1315 no 1340 hjh 1341 r.), 
ROTopHH CO Bcero acHOCTijo nouajL^ aHa^enie pyccRHxt cpuit 
wh ero rocy^apcTB^ n yMHO nojiLSOBaJCA hmh ^jia 6opL6u 
Ch BH^niHHMH BparaMH H A<^a BnyTpeHnaro 6j[aroycTpo&- 
CTBa. B'h ero RHaaceHie rpaHHmi jHTOBCRaro rocy^apCTBa 
SHa^HTejBHo 6iij[H pasABHHyTH Ha c'J^Bep'B sa JI^BHHy h Ha 
nro-sanaAi 3a UpHnerB. 

Bci.dTH RHfl3B|[, BSJSBIirie BX CHOH pyRH CJJl,h6j BSLUSLjSr 

Hofi PoccIh, CTajH Bi nojosenie, ^obojlho cxo;i;Hoe cb 

BOIOaKeHieMl raJIHIllRO-BOJIBIHCRHX'B RHA3efi. UOAO^HO HMl, 

OHH jsfiJix,B.u 6ujm 3an];Hiii;aTb cboe) caMo^uxnocTB to ot'b 
TaTapt, to ot'b 3anaAHo-eBponeHii;eBi. Bopsfia ci> TaxapaMH 
. y HHxt, Bnpo^eM'B, duja o^ent c^acTJHBa; ohh ho^th 
BcerAa nopaasajiH TaTapcRia noa?Hii];a h HHRor^a ne sesjih 
Ha^^B co6oS TaxapcRofi BjacTH, hto o^enB noMorajio hmib 
pacnpocTpaHflTB cbok) BjiacTB Ha;i;'B sanaAHO-pyccRHira o6jra- 

6 



— 82 — 

CTAHH. Ho ^To Eacaercfl ao 6opf.6u ci sanaiBo-eBponefi- 
CKHHH cHJiauH, TO oHa HM^JTa A^JieKo He cTOjib fijaro- 
npiaxuue pesyjiLTaxu. iHTOBCEie ehasiiJi, no^ofiHO ra jhubo- 

BOJIblHCKUHI., UpKXOJI.aAK Bt STOUl CJiyiat Kb BUCJH BCTJ- 

naii, wb cikiKy ei aaoajLHOft EBpouoB, nOMapBTLCJi c-b 
Hefl Ha jaxHHCTB'i. TaKt MHSAonrb, pesKOCTHUg h Hory- 
u^ecTBeHHuS ABHraxejib jiHTOBCEaroaamecTBa, iipRHyxAeH'b 
6ujii noHTH oAHOBpeHeHHo eh ^amBJiowb rajHttKH)n> xpy- 
sHThca ci nanoio. B'b 1252 r. oHt uphhaa'b juithhctbo 
H KopojieBCBiS BiHeitt. IIoji.o6humi> nyreM'B AyHajii H,a;TH 

H TeJltlHHHi; HO OBI He C% pUItap^HH yCTpOHJIt CJl^JKH, 

KaKi MuuAOBFt, a oSpan^ajui Efh caHuuii nanaifL, OTEpu- 
Bajit uepefl^ hhuh JlaxBy K^a jarancTBa, x. e. JiuxoBCitie 
KHH3i>H p-JbxaajHCb jtOBycsaxb jiaTHiicrBo BX CDOCHii rocy- 
^lapcTfib ch xtsiT., "1x06111 HsGaBHTtaa OTb Hanaj,eniS pu- 
itapett H yBHiTOXHTb cauyio upHqHHy cyiqecxBOBaHifl sxt, 
uojiJi'b ce6u. Ha A'^Jit OAsaso bukojiujio, qxo axuHi uyxeiTL 
jiHXBHHu Dona^aJiH noA'B 6oj[i>iuyfo ein;e BJiacxb puiiapefi. 
MuBAOBpy, HaupHM'hp'B, npBxoAH-ioci. BpiisBaxb uxi Ha- 
cjii;[HHKaMH ero sBaateoTBa. To octl: ycBoeflie jaxHBCKofl 
i[BBUJU3aii,iu rpo3HJio a rocyAapexBeBHOBi mfiejibio JIhtb^. 
B'i, axoMi oxqaflHHOMT. nojoaieBiH, JHioBCKie B.as3ha psajiH 
Bct ysii, coejtHHJiBHiia hxi ct> aanajom, oxseprajiH xr- 
XHHCXBO, KaK-b 3T0 cjiijajTb Toxi Ke MHHjOBi-b, H uuxa- 
jiHct OKBBUxb u BoCTaBHTb BfJBie Bcero aauiecKifi jihxob- 

CKia 9JeMeBTT.. Ho B 9THM% ByxeHCB JiHXBa BeMHOrO BU- 

HrpuBajia. PuiiapH BaKHflUBajiHeb aa aee ci yABoeHHoio 
CHjoH), a MSJK/iy xim HesojibHO 3aRpaji;QBajocb co3HaHie, 
iTO JiHTOBCKoe asuqecTBO He xox&sn, cjyatHrt ochobok) 

^BTOBCKOfi HCXOpiiqeCKOfi X113HH. Co BCtxt CXOpOHl ^yB- 

CTBOBajfocb xpzcTiaHCKoe BjiaHie, Koropoe nopaaiajo a 



r^ 



— 83 — 

yHH^Hatajio JHTOBCKoe asH^ecTBo. Rd% sthx-b aecTOKHxt 3a- 
Tfj^Eeuik jHTBHHaMX 6ujn> ojij^wb 6jraronojyqHuft bu- 
xo^^t, — HesaittiTHoe, jerKoe h 6e3onacHoe Tor^^a a Ja Hxt 
rocyjuapcTBeHHOCTH cfijEHatenie h cjHTie ct 3ana;i;H0-pyc- 
caMH. K^ 3T0My BHxofliy M HanpaBHjracB hx'b HCTopia, 



TITEHIE V. 

OwpKi BHyipeHHaro, asHHecKaro 6HTa JIhtbu. JlHxoBCKaa MHGOJioria. JIh- 
TOBCRifl 6o2RecTBa. KanHD:(a. .AsuHecKaa JiHTOBCKaa iepapxia, KpHB3-KpH- 
BeflT3, KpHBefiTH, Bafi^BJiOTH H BafijueJioTKH. JiHTOBCKie npas^^HHKH. BaacHoe 
SHaHeaie Bafl;^eJIOTOBt. TpyAHOCTt paapyniHiB BHpa6oTaHuyio jiHTOBCKyio ch- 
CTeMy pejiHrioaHyi) (JanaTHHecKHMH MtpaMH. BjiaronpiaTHoe oTHOfflenie bi 
BTOM'B cjiynai ki jiHTBHHaMi pyccKHxi. IIpH'iHHH, coA'tfiCTBOBaBmia cdJDiate- 

HilO JIHTBHHOBl) CI pjCCKHMH: XapaKTepi npaBOCJiaBia, TOTOBHOCTB pjCCKHXt 
UO^HHHHTBCa JIHTOBCKOfl rOCyAapCTBGHHOCTH, HCTOpHHeCKaa 6jIH30CTB K'b JIHT- 

BHHaMi dijopy^coBt, noJiHTKHecKia nodyasAeiiia aHTOBCKHX'b Knasefi yaa- 
JaxBca 113% ^My^H na joro-BocTOKi., ki* 3a^a;^Hofi Poccin. flcHue h nojiHHe 
CJ'fe;^H pyccKaro CKJia^^a khshh bi JThtb*. HojiHTHHecKianocji'fe^i.CTBiasToro — 
pyccKoe HanpaBjieme anTOBCKoft HCTopin. JtpeBHie npHsaaKH 9Toro — o^pyc-fe- 
ffie ApeBHMniHX'b aHioBCKHxi KaaatecKHxi) poAOBi. OjiBrepAt — npe^CTaBH- 
lejiB pyccKaro HanpaBJieHia Bt nojiHTHnecKoft 3kh3hh jiHioBCKaro KHaatecTBa. 
yBejiHHeHie ero Baa^^-fenift bi sanaj^nofi Maaopoccia h Baiaaia na BOCTOK'b OTt 
J^i^npa. Cnaa pyccKaro aaoMeHTa bi JIhtb^ npn newb. IIpHSHaKH pasA'^^aeaia 
xes^y pyccKOK) h atMy;i,CKOio JIhtboid. BatniHia Tpy^HOCTH h BHyTpenHia 
CKyTu Bt JlHTB-fe Hocai CMepTH OaBrep^a. flrafiao, KefiCTyTt, Bhtobtb. 06- 
CToaTeaBCTBa, no^yAHsmia flraftay HCKaiB 066* coiobhhkob'b na CTopoai *). 



Mh BwjifkAii, ^To jiHTOBCKoe KHHatecTBO, c^i-iaBffleeca 
rocy;i;apcTBeHHHM'B n.enTpoM'B BceS 3ana;i;H0H Poccia, o^y- 

*) aHTOBCKoS MHeoaorin 6oate noapo^Hufi cbo^'b CBi^'^Hit bi 
V rias-fe BToporo xona HcTopin Poccin ^^ H. KaoBancKaro, a b:b 
HuiHaHiH Kt 9T0H laaB-fe (22) yKasanH BaatHifiaiie hcto^hhkh no 



— 84 — 

THJOCt cpeOT HeojoiHMHTB 3aTpy;(HeHifl. B'B Heui otffla- 
pjxi(,aocb ecTecTBeHHoe ace^&Hie coxpaHHTL cbok) jhtob- 
HoGuTHOCTb H pasBHBaTLCfl no ea Ha^ajaui, ho 
HesosHosHo: XHTOBcsifi HSB^ecKifi 6urb jiojiateHi 
PHfinyrb h nepecoa^^aiica Bt xpHCTiaHCKid. Ho na 
uitAHeut njTH^BTBa 6iiJia Hesuy £bhoe> cuepTiH), 
IN pui^apeft, EOTOpue rposBJE vB6e3.bS) Be tojibeo 
lofl, HO H HapOAHOfi a rocyxapciBeBHog xasbh 
ro KHawecTBa, h Meauy SHSHiio eo CTopoHH pyc- 
EH3Hiio, KOTppaa Tome noxo^HJia Ha CMepxt, eeja 
•ocyjapcTBeHHOCTH, to mjt jiHTOBCKaro jiauiecTBa 

KOTOpOfi CTeneSH, SM JIHTOBCKOfi HapO^HOCTH. Mh 
TTO JHTOBCKie SKSZhS HOJCB BJtiflHieU'b dTWXT, 

•eS Kojrefia^Hci Bt CBoeS ho^htke^. To b-l hbzx 
ajiacE peBHOCTL s't CBoeuy poAHOuy flsu^ecisy, 
MUOHfljHCb Ha CToposy sanaAHO-eBponeflCKofl Jia- 

]lHBHJIH3ai;iH, TO C6jlH«aJBCI> c-h pyecEHUH « poA- 

•.•L HHUU shshId h avhioio. Ho E03e6a.mE He uorjiB 
ctoahbH h xoJirOBpeHeHHU. HyxHO 6bU0 bath 
ly zu6o oxHOBy HanpaBJtefliro. Raxoe jthCo oaho 
iflie AOJisHo 6ujio BsaTB Bepxx. lUsoe xe na- 



ijMery, HBOCTpaHHue h pjccBie. HicKOJuno nofiomrrauiti 
ri& ecTfc BL HeiaBHO Biimexmeirb covHHeHiH P. TpycHana — - 
KpHCiiaHCTBa bi npnCajiT. cTpaai, Heiepd. 1884 r. 6tK.j- 
ic^HiH JIhtbh ecTL TniateiiHoe cofipame ssBtcTifi, — 3to 
H. BopE«BCKaro: IIpaBOCJiaBie h pjccKaa Hapoj^Hocrt bi 
II. 1851 T. Jtpesme BeniecTBeBBue uaM^TssEH s o^pasim 

naiMTBHKOffB HOSHO BHjiTS BT. IlftHaTHHBaXl pyCCKOH CTa- 

aisaco Kpaa Himepm, b3i. 1864—74 r. 6 BmiycKOBi. O 
1 JIhtbh ct naiMnei ecib oco6oe co^sHeme: Sieiso — 
SjiaXBciaB'b a nepsoe coeABHeHie Jbtbh ci Hoiunefi. Hscj^:- 
[. CHspBOBA. OAecca 1868 r. 



pri^ 



86 — 



npasjeHie bbbjlo Bepx^b? Ey^a HanpaBHjacB JiHTOBCKafl 
HCTopia? 

Hto6h bha^tb 9T0 HanpaBJienie h onjinHTB cpaay ero 
npo^HOCTB, fl,jiR aioro nyacHO npHCMOTp^TBca KXBHyTpen- 
HeMy 6uTy ^sH^ecKofl JIhtbh h o^pe;^•kIHTB, KaKOMy BJcia- 
Hii) ero ocofieHHocTH jierqe Bcero MorjH no;i;qHHHTBca. 0% 
aioK) nijiijo Mu H o6pani;aeMCfl TenepB k'b ndcjviflfiBSLEm 
BHyTpeHHaro 6utsl JIhtbh h rjaBHHM'B o6pa30Mi» asu^e- 
CKOH JHTOBCKOH pejHriH, OT-B KOTopoft CojBine Bcero H 
aasHcijo pimeme Bonpoca o fiyAymeft cy^tfii jHTOBCKaro 

JiHTOBCRafl MHoojioriA HOCHT'B Ha ce6i ABHBre cj[']k;i;u 

H OyfiOKOH ApeBHOCTH, H yCHJieHHOfi pa6oTH[ <|)aHTa3iH, T. e. 

CJIi;^a ;i;peBH0CTH h yeJUHneHHOCTH jHTOBCKaro napoAa. Ona 

coBHimaeTi Bi ce6i h BHcinia, OTBJie^eHHHa noHaria 

JCpeBHiflniHx^ pejinrift, h BupafioTaHHyro, saKOH^eHHyE) 

' BHiiHHOCTB rpeKO-pHMCKaro asBiqecTBa. 

/ JIhtbhhh, KaKx H cjraBiiHe, mwkjLJi noasTie o BepxoB- 

hom:b cymecTBi, KOTopoe Bce co3;i;aJio is. bc^m^ ynpaBjaeTi. 

9to BepxoBHoe cymecTBO y pasHMxt jehtobckhx'b njieMeHt 

Ha3UBaj![0CB pasHUMH HMenaMH, nanpHM^pi: IIpaMKHMaci, 

HpoKopHMaci — npe^onpe^ijieflie, cyfl;B6a, BHinafiTocx — 

orem 6oroB'B. Ho sTOMy BepxoBHOMy cymecTBy y jihtob- 

i^eBi He 6hjio BiipafioTano, kslkl h y cjiaBaH'B Cfiapory, 

ofimecTBeHHaro 6orocjiy3KeHiH. Oho no hxi. noHariaMt xmjlo 

Ha HeSecax'B, b'b BejEHKOJiinHOMt ^Bopn,*, HSt KOToparo 

Ha6jirofl;aJio h ynpaBJiajio BciMi MipoM%, ho 6ojifcnie Bcero 

HaaasjiiiajiocB noKoeicB. 

Cx noHaTieM^ o TaKOMt cymecTBi nepaspuBHO CBasH- 

acL Btpa Bt sai^pofinyK) acHSBt, h CMepTB HejoeiKa 

HiTBeHHO o6cTaBjaJiacL oco6eHHo TopmecTBennHMH ofipa^- 



L 



— 86 — 



HOCTflMH. JIhTBHHH BipHJH, HTO SE rpofioiTB OHH 6y^T^ 

HacJIa»;^aTBca jryqniHMH 6jaraMH 3toh xhshh, 6y;^y'rB 
HMiTL Bct j[H)6HMHa HMH BemH H — Bepxt fijaaeHCTBa 
Hx-B — 6jj[jrh rocno^CTBOBaTB na^'B HiMn;aMH (BipoBanie 
no3^Hiflfflee, BHpa6oTaBnieeca no^^'B BJiaHieM'B 6ijifiTBm 
OTh HtMn;eB'B). BcJIi;^cTBie xaKoro BipoBania y jihtbhhob'b, 
npH norpefieHiH yMepmaro, casarajHCB BMicTi ex ero Ti- 
JOM'B jyqmie, jiK)6HMHe npeAMexu, ;^pa^o^iHHOCTH, jry^- 
maa .5oina;i;B h ^aace ne pi;i,KO jyqmift cjryra. JTro^H 6^^- 
HHe, He HMiBDiie ^to nepenocHTB cb co6oh) sa npe;i;ijiH 
rpo6a, yTiniajiH ce6a TiMi», ^to sa to Ha tom-b cwkrh 
HMX Jtevne 6jflfiTb bsoBth na CBflin,eHHyH) ropy, 3a koto- 
poBO Haxoj^HjiocB 6j[a«eHHoe atHJHme. 

KpoM-fe BepxoBHaro, HesH^^HMaro cymecTBa, jhtbhhh npH- 
SHaBajH fiea^HCjieHHoe MHoatecxBo fioroB-B h 6orHHB, koto- 

PHM'B C06cTBeHH0 OHH CjyaCHJIH. Bojlie BHAHHMH H, eCJIH 
TaKB BUpaSHTBCa, HOnyJiapHHMH HSB JIHTOBCKHX'B 6orOB'B 

HepKyHacB — 6orb nefia h seMJH, rpoMOBepaen;'B, caMKiS 
nonyjapHufi jHTOBCKifi Son, coBepmenHo ToaecTBenHuft 
CB pyccKHMB nepy hom-b; HoKJiycx — 6or'B a;i.a, h Atphm- 
nocB — 6orb bojsji. KpoMi sthxi fioroBi., 6ujiil Henc^HCJiH- 
Mue 6orH, qacTHHe, nocpe;i;cTBOMTb KoiopuxB o6oaajiHCB 
Bc4 BaatHiflmie njaneTHHe npeji;MeTH, aTMoc^epH^ecKin 
ABjienia, npoHaBeAeniH bo;i,bi h seMjrn, ;i;a»e CTpacTH. JIht- 
BHHB-aBH^HHK'B He MOFTb mary cxiJtaTB, nTo6u ne na- 
TKHyTBca Ha KaKoro HH6y;i;B cBoero 6ora h ne BHpasHTB eMy 
TaKB HJH HHane CBoero cjiyaenia. 

FjiaBHoe MicTo asH^ecKaro 6orocjiyaeHia y jihtbhhob'b 
6hjo TaKX HasHBaeMoe Pomhob9, hto ananH'TB m^cto ho- 
Koa, fijiaro^ecTia. Pomhob3 b'b ^upeBHiflnua BpoMena na- 



— 87 — 

i;hjiocb Bi HpycciH, a sorAa t&u-b noce^KXHCb puitapH 
paspyniHJiH ero, oho nepeHeceao 6hjio b* ffiMynt s-h 
iMany. Kor;ta ate h cro^a ctojih npoHHKaTB Hiimu, 
itH0B9 CTajo no;(BBraTBea BBepxi no HtiiaHy h Bt no- 
h^nee wpe\ts HaxoAHiocb bi BnjiH'ib, npu Bii&nemH bi 
jiiio BmienKH, fa^ bi HacTOAn^ee BpeHA ctoht'b Jtaroa- 
i saee^^ajiiiHHfi co6oph, wb eojorojbh^ Koroparo u 
[epb HoaasuBaDTrb SHpnH^H HS'BflsuiiecEaro JiHTOBCtcaro 
HB0B9. Pobhob9 ycTpoaJiocL wb pomt y 6ojbinoro ae- 
la, o6uKHOBeHHo ny6A. IIoa'b axHU'b Ay^ox^ craBajH 
[ HAOia; nepEysa Bt bha^ Rp^nsaro Hyac^HBU cb KpeH- 
n. B^b pysl; no oah; cropony ero cxaBHJH noEJiyca bi, 
li 6eBo6pa3Haro crapHKa, jepaamaro lepearj: ^aao- 
lecKift H KHBOTaux'B, a no ^tpyryio — ATpaMuoca bi 
I'll DHoniB, A6p«ani,aro ^antEy ch boaoS, npnapuToft 
inoHK; BT, ?amE% naxoAHJiacL zuia. 3irtH TaExe noH%- 
jHCb H c6eperajiHCB Bt nn^ CBan^enHaro XS^A. BnepejiH 
pKyHa ycTpofljrea ajiTapt, na KOTopoin ropiji neyracae- 
3 CB£iii;eHHufi ofohl — 3nH^E>, }i^a noAA^pacania koto- 
•0 spyroirb Bcero CBAiii,eHBaro uritcxa KJiajHCb Ky^RaMH 
)Ba wh VTicsi 12, npnroTOBJifleuu^ ofisKnoBeBHO na 
nili Toxb H as'h Ay6oBaro Aepesa. IIo o6*hmi cTopo- 
th pacnojtarajiBCb xoHa atpei^oBi. Bee naEOHen.t cb^- 
sEoe uicTo oKpyxajiocb ct^hoh), AepeeaHsoH) hjih Ka- 
[HOio, HaAt BopoTaMH ROTopod, y rjiasHaro sxoAa, ycipoa- 
h fianiHa, rui xiijcb rjiaBHuft xpei^b. Bo ofijtacrau'b 
It nouas.'h 6uj[H ueHLmis CBan^enHQa H^cia h HOHb- 
I Corn. 

l/sa cjiyxeaia CoraHi y jhtbhhobi (Snjia ajkiaa iepapiis 
imm> R xpHi^'b. rjaBHua spem nasuBajica EpHBs- 
[BAttTa T e. apei;^ atpeiioKb. Owh mtapajica cb co- 



6ss)neBleu% 6ojihmoi TasHCTBeHHocTH hhsiiihhh xpeiiaHH, 
6aji'b CeaateHHufi h ptjKo Koay m-b npocTuxi eiiepTHtrxi 
y^aBaJiocfc ero BUAtTt. Oh'b bhj'e B'b csasaflHoS fiauH 
6iLmai, Ha6j[iDAaxB Teieaie SBts;];^, onfex^iajn, BpeHena 

TOX^, KOTOpUA JKTBHHLI C^HTalH UO jyHHmTb H^k^I^airfc 

n'ofiuKnoBeHHUM* HeA'&ixH'B, H npaaABH^HBiH'b j[HeMi y 
Hus'b 6ujia n^THHiia; utiiie — rJiaBHufi spem saBHuajca 
Hapeqeaieii'b bojh 6oroBi, c;yxf6nfix% npHroBopoBi a bi 
ocoSesHO uasEHxi cjiyiaax'B, xepTBODpHHomeHieHt. Ko- 
CTtOH'L ero OTJH^ajica otb oduEBOseHBaro (S^uut noacoH'B, 
ono^caHsuu'B ceuL paai ceuL, t. e. 49 paai, h Eoina- 
Eon's, uoxoxHin Ha caxapHyn rojioBy. Uoji^i EpHB3-KpH- 
sefixu 6ujH EpHBedTU — spei^u, Tasxe 6e3»eHHiie h 
Taicne naiSHpaeBiue. Obh aasoAHJiHcB nps KpRBs-KpHBefirg, 
a TaicKe ynpaB^JH pejiHriosHUHH A:fejiai[H h cyAoirb no 
oKDYraHt, ofijiacrauii Ibtbu. Huae EpHBefix's 6ujh BaS- 
. OhU XaEKe HaXOAHJHCI> npH EpHBd-npHBeflT-fc, 3a 

ipH EpHBeSxaXl H OXJt^AIiHO, Bt U&ZUS.T> nyEETaS'B 

SaBHMajiBCb OBH o&BHCHefiieM'L Bapo^y B^pu, yqsjtH 
teHHocxu, cyAHja A^a, pa3H0CH.iH noBejdiHia upasa- 
m, co6HpajiH cBi;(4Hia a jjocxaBjraiH hxi chj. 
oxu giJJiH, xeaaxu h BsfiapajiH KaE'S KpuB3-KpH- 
TaKi B EpHBeSxi. 3x0 Cujs cauuS UHoroqacjieH- 
caHu^ cHJiiHug Rsaccb JHXOBCKHXI xpei;0B'&. Ohh 
noABHXi Ha xo hjh Apyroe p^so Bjpyri Recb Ha- 
lauiqaioTL, qxo boShu, EoxopuA oC'haBJiajn, vepes'L 
^axBut xpen,ti oxjiHHajiHCB Beo6uEHOBeHBoio cxofi- 
H ateexoEOcxiK). 

> u&Rnj CoseexBaHB 6ujih 6orHHB, xasi b bi spe- 
b co&aoBiH fiujifl «eBii(HBU, xaEi BaanBaeuuA saii- 
I. 8x0 Cujia A^BBifu, Eoxopaa atecxoEO HaEasHBa- 



r 



— 89 — 



iHCB, HueHHO, CMepTBD (cosuKeflieifB ifjiH yxonjieHieMib bx 
KiniK^^ c^ KaMHAMH, ci» EomKOE) IS. HflfiBtiTOJo dwhefi) 3a 
HapymeHie i;ijiOMy;i;pijE[, OfiaaaHHocTiH) nx]b Shjio no^Aep- 
JKaflie HeyracaeMaro orna na atepTBeHnHK-fe 3HHqa. Ecjih 
no He6pe]KH0CTH BaflA^joxKH oroHB noracaj'B, to BHHOBuaa 
cosHrajiacb, a oroHB BOsacurajiGA, ao6£ithh h3% EpeMH^, 
KOTopHft ;i;ep»aJKb b^ pyKi HepKynacb. 

JiHTOBCEie npa3;i;HHRH ;(oboj[bho noxoaiH na ;i;peBHie cja- 

BJBHCKie. BeceHHift npa3AHHK'B — CyTHHKay wh nepBuxi 

AHaxi anptja hjih b-b KOHu;i MapTa, t. e. bi Hana-rfe nep- 

Baro jiHTOBCKaro M'i^caii.a. npa3AH0Baj[acB BCTpi^ia BecHU. 

JiBHii;H CB nepBBiMH jryqaMH cojiHiiia BHfiirajH na yjiHii;y, 

npo6']^raj[H c^ nicHAMH h xjEonanieM'B bx Jia;i;oniH ;^o EOHi^a 

I A^peBHH H laEHifB ace nopa;i;BOM'B BOSBpam^ajHCB Hasa^^B 

I H ^xojsjsjni B'h flf)ua.j bi EOTopuxi MOJ[o;i;He jnoji,M ycTpoajiH 

iswh nHpmecTBo. HpasAHHET* Pacca, t. e. pocH^coBepmeHHO 

noxoauH na AP^BHe-pyccEiH — KynajH. BaTiMi, npa3AHHEH 

Haqaja h EOHii.a aKHHBBi. HpasAHHE'B ;i.i;i;oB'B, — oceHBi)^ 

noHHHOBeHie yconmnx^. HaEonen.'B npa3AHHR% KojEa^HU, 

coBepmeHHo cxoahhh cb ;iipeBHe-pyccEHM'B npa3;i;HnE0Mi 

Kojia;^!! H BupaacasmiH xy ace mbicjib, — Epafinin u^^ejsfkji'h 

MpaEa, xojio;i;a h na^ajto CBixa, TenjioTBi. 

f H3Tb 9Toro spaTEaro oiepEa asuqecKaro jiHTOBCEaro Mipa 

Mo»Ho yase bha^tb, ^to 3to 6uja nojiHaa, CTporo BHpa- 

6oTaHHaa CHCTCMa, EOTopoft HejB3a 6uao pa3pyniHTB p*niH- 

TeiLHHMH, (|)aHaTH^ecEHMH ;i.iftcTBiaMH 6e3'B TorOj ^to6li 

He BHSBaTB CO cTopoHH ea nocJiiAOBaxejeS OTHaannaro 

coapoTHBjieHia. 9to h onpaB;i;ajiocB na Aiji-fe bt» 6opB6i 

JHTBHHOB'B H pHi];apeft, Bi 6opB6i, EOTopaa nojiHa caMuxi* 

HeHCTOBHxi atecTOEOCTeii h 6jaro;i;apa EOTopoS H'fejirja 

o6jiacTH npeBpamajTHCL b'b nycTHfla. 



— 90 — 

ropasflo xeme mosho 6ujjo paapyraHTb 3Ty CHcreMy vk- 
poBasiS a ofiu^aesi HenpHTaaaTejhHUM'b, HesairitTHuini, 
HeAJieHHUHi BJiiameut Ha nee. TaEoe uHeHHo Bjlsate 
apOB3wmsii na iHisy pycciue sanaAHofi Poccin. PyccKoe 
opaBocjiaiiie He AonycsaJio uipi Rpyrust, i|)aHaTHqecKHX'b, 
IIpaBocJiaBHue pyccicie shjih ce61i MesAy .iHTBofi 6e3'L 
opHTaaaHiA yBHiiTosHTb ea B^posBHifl, a 6e3i pas^paace- 
niu nepecosAaBajiH ee bi xpHCTiaBCByK). JIhtbhbu t^ui 
jier>ie noAAaaajiHCb aTOuy BjianiEo, qiK) oho ho rposBJio 
rH6eji>iD Hxi rocyjiapcTBeHHOCTH, HanpOTHBi, pyccxie cauH 
noAAaBajmcb HXi rocyAapCTeeHHOCTH. 3to o6cTOATejiiiCTBo 
oco^enno Morjio ^ifieTBOBaTt na jHTOBCKHX'b KHaseft, ko- 
Topae Bi c6jH»eeiH c-b pyccKn«a BHAijia aajion coSctbgh- 
Haro MorymeCTBa a aaxOAajEa namy AJra CBoero hccto- 
jiE)6ifl. Majio TOi'o: K% sroHy cCjKxeBtD noGysAua hx'l 
canaa aauieema JiHTBa— aCMyAt. 

Mu BHA'i-aH, QTO BjiacTL EpHBd-BpHBefixu 6uja o^eHb 
a. Obi 6lijii u AysoBBufi, a uipCROg BepxoBHUfi: 
. Ob'b eh^'B sipBhia cpeACTsa A^ficTBOBaTS Ba Beci> 
> a HaopaBJTflTfc ero no CBoefi BOJii, 9to fiHJit cbo- 
OAa aaua, EaK'b H^Koropue nacaTejn a sau^qaDT^ 
lOACTBo. Ero BjacTb 6uj[a Taac&ia AJia Beiusaro ah- 
aro saasa. dxouy kh£3D ropaSAO CBo6oAHite 611IJ10 
BAajTH on KpHB9-apBBefiTu, Tio6jiBaie st saDa^HO- 
ouy HapoAy. Kone^HO, KHasta a-h rh Bpeueaa en^e 
rpuBajiacb on, ^»yAii — napoAa; HaQpOTHBi, ohh 
c% aes) 3a oaho a ABHram cb co6oh) aa loro-BOCTOKi 
aaAByiD Focciio H,^ua rpynnu atuyAHaoB'B. 3fiHy- 
— ^BCTiiie asuiecKie jhtbbhu, ctajiRaBaacb ci pjc- 
[, uorjiH qyBCTBOBaxb cBoe pimcoe orja^e a sasoAHi . 
y. Ho 6opb6a yaii^Toxajiacb, 6jiapoAapa flOcpeACTB ' 



— 91 — 

BepxHefi JIhtbh h pyccKHXTt 6ijiopyccKaro njeweHH. 06a 
9TH HjeMena — Bepxee-JiHTOBCKoe h fiijopyccKoe, cb neaa- 
naMaTHHX^ speMeHi) atHjin bx codkjtfiTB^ h o6•Be;^HH;lJlHCL. 
HiKOTopiie nojiaraiOT'B, ^to ;B;peBHee HasBanie diJopyccoBi 

KpHBH^H — npOH30inJIO OTh TOrO, HTO OHH BM^CTi CI JHT- 

BHHaMH noAHHHeHH 6ujiH o;a;HOMy BepxoBHOMy acpeny, jh- 

TOBCKOMy KpHB3-KpHBeftTi. CaMO CO60H) pa3yM4eTC«, ^TO 

JiHTBHHu Bi) CBOD o^epe^B TaK«e JierRO mofjih noA^H- 
HflTLca xpHCTiaHCTBy, Kor;i;a oho pacnpocTpanHJOCB MejK;i;y 
KpHBH^aMH. Bjiaro;i;apa 9T0My c6j[H»eBiK) Bepxne-JiHTBH- 
HOBt H d'fejropyccoB'B, 6opB6a Mea^y hhctod jIhtbok) h 3a- 
na;i;H0H) PycBK) ;i;ijiajiacB neBo'sMoatHOK). 3tMy;i;HHib ciai- 
KHBajica CB PycBH) ^epe3'B BepxHioro JiHTBy, bi Koxopoft 
cpe;i;H cbohx'b ate jhtbhhob'b npHBBTKaji'B k% pyccKOMy 
eRjia;i;y schshh h cpo^^HJiJiCH cb hhiucb. 

Bee 9T0, 6631 COMHiHitf, MHOrO C0;^ifiCTB0BaJ[0 TOMy, 

qio 6uTb JIhtbh fiojie h 6ojiie CKJraji;HBaj[ca no pyccKHMi 
Ha'iajiaMX h nopa^KaMX mnd^n. JIiTOiraci];Bi npyccKaro h 
jiHBOHCKaro opji;eHOBi» sAwkTUJiii, ^to ^npa BnTeni h re^H- 
mhh4 cHjra jiiTOBCKaa Bospocja ot'b pyccKHxx h bccth cb 
HHMH Boftny CTajro Tpy^^nie. PyccKie ;i;aBaj[H 3Ty CHjry jth- 

TOBCKHM'B KHJI3B«M'B ^HC TOJtBKO CBOHM^ ^HCJOMX H CBOeH) 

j^ofijiecTiH), HO H rfeui, ito iiepe;i;aBajH jHTBHHaM'B CBoe 
BOBHHoe HCKyccTBo, Hay^HjH cTpoHTB H 3ainiHni;aTB Kpi- 
HocTH. HiKOTopne HLWb pyccKHX'B AOCTHraJH Tor^a me BJijs,- 
Haro nojioacenia, — 6HBajH nocjiaHHHKaMH h npaBHTOJaMH 
ofijacTefi. Oco6eHHO npocjraBHjca npn Fe^^HMHEi ^aBH^i.'B — 
npaBHTejB BaatHMraaro jmioBCKaro nyHKTa na loro-sa- 
na^i, — Fpo^HH, ^ejOBtKi. pyccKift. Cbohmh no6i;i;oHOC- 

lUMH JljbjeiMIl OH'B mHBO HanOMHHaeT'B ^OBMOHTa nCEOB- 

'Karo H fljaace AjeKcaHApa HeBCKaro. Oh'b nopaatajii Hin- 



» * 



-^ 



9JILK0 Bh CaitOft JIhTB^, UO SfiXe B'b nCROBCEOfi 

iipocb61 ncKOBu^efi, b bi. caHoui hctohhhk^ 
3Jta AM JIhtbu — Bi> EpaBj^eHOypriH. CrpaineH^b 
Tassce H ooJiAEaMt. Bi cj'ijiyiDiD.eH'b XV cio- 
6Hyi) ejany npio6p^'L pyccKitt khasi. na Bojuhh, 
teTpoatCEiil. PyccHaa SBSHb na ctojleo DpaBJie- 
imBTb, QTO HHorie hsi bhs'l, ocolSeHHO bi £Ha- 
0A% u cpe^H BeiBMosi, He TojibEo ycBOJiJiH pyc- 
, HO H npaBocjaBByK) Bipy. X^xe emfi nps Mbh- 
■B ero BoBmeiEi He tojibko opHHajii npaBO- 

H HOBamecTBo. Eojiiinafl lacrt cuHoeeS TeAH- 

1 HpaBOCJaBBiniH h nisEOTOpue ua-h ehxi nepe- 
Ke sa cjyxfiy ei MocEOBCEOuy EHflan. 

aBHo It ptmHxejitHo cj^AOBaat pyccKOMy sa- 
npeeMHHKt reAHMana, OjLrepAi (1340 hjih 
7). IloAt ero BJiaci-B nepenrjiH BieBcsaA h bo- 
5jiacTH. Oa-h noABRHyjii cboh BJiaAtBis a^^ko 
ph. Ohh npuHUKaJH Kb Moaaficsy b n&xe Ki 
QoAt ero HOKpOBHxeji.CTBOM'i 6u jh HoBropoAi, 
Bepb. Oh'b ABa pasa aceHaii 6ujii na pyccEux'L 
— BBTeficEofi MapiH h TBepeitofi ly jianiH, 6ajFh 
It HpaBocjaBHyB) Btpy 3aA0Jiro xo CMepra FeAH- 
peA'b CBoes) cHepiiB) npHH^t ji,&xe csHHy. Upn 
KiS aiUKh cTa.rb asueoui Bucmaro jsTOBCRaro 
Aaace ^sueoh'b rocyAapCTBeHHUiTB. He noA-ie- 

^HJIO, 1T0 Bl JUTOBCEOirb BB^XeCTB^ HpHSHaHU 

pyccKaro Hacejienia Apeflaie pyccEie aaKOBH, — 
paBAa B ycxaBi cb. KiaAHuipa. FyccBoe, npa- 
iiepeco3A&Bie JIhtbu BU3Bajio oAHaxA'' BSpmrt 
ro .iHTOBCEaro aau'iecTRa. flauqecwe «pei(u, 
; 3iuMii iiepecosAaBieii'b u joawb 6u ciaES Ojii>- 



— 93 — 

rep;ty sanpoci — asH^HHKi owb hjih xpncTiaHHH'B, y6i- 
pjH, B'B nsmsLJvk ero KHaaeniif, BH;i;aTt HMt he My^enie 
H BaMyHHJTH Bt BHJTBHi (1347 r.), Ha ropi, r^* KHni 

TpOHI^Kifi MOnaCTHpt, TpOHXl npH;i;BOpHHX'b — peBHOCT- 

HHxrb iipaBOCjaBHKix'b: AhtohI^, loaHHa h £BCTa(|)iH, moiii;h 
KOTopiixt noHHBaiOT'b Bt BujTbHi »e, Bt CB. ;i;yxoBOM'B 
MonacTHpi. CoBciins hhoA xapaKTep-B HMiji'B ;i;pyroft BspuBi 
BHJieHCKaro jiHTOBCKaro asH^ecTBa, — bsphb'b npoTHBx jia- 

THHCKHX'B DponOBi;i;HHKOB'B xpHcxiaHCTBa — (J)paHIi;HCKaH- 

i^eBii, KOTopHxx yTBepAHJi'b BtEHJELHi H no;i;;i;ep»HBaji'& bojil- 
Moaa OjiBrepAa, ^a^ITOJ[B;^'B. 8to 6hj[o BOSCTanie ne atpe- 
i^OB'b, a jEHTOBCKaro Hapo;^a Bhjbhh npoTHBx He^rofiHwaro 
HMi jtaTHHCTBa. Be3noiii;aji;Ho saMy^enti 14 (j)paHi];HCKaH- 
ii;eBTb H paspymeno nLxrh acHjiHin;e. 

PyccEoe HanpaBJEeme jiHTOBCKofi »H3Hn npoHSBejio ^a^e 
KaKt 6h OT^ijieHie pyccKofi ^lacTH jiHTOBCKaro KnaacecTBa 
OTB KopeHHofi JThtbh — S&Mjjiji. Bx 3Toft nocjii;i;Hefl npn 
Oj[Lrepji,t ycTanoBHjiocB oco6oe ynpaBjenie. EnaatHJi^ btb 
HeS 6parB OjBrep;iia h ;^py^^, KeficTyi'B, HBBtcTHHft oco- 
6eHH0K) jiK)6oBiio H peBHOCTiro ki. asH^ecKOMy CKja^y jih- 

TOBCEOH a(H3HH. 

TaKHM'B oSpasoMx, jHTOBCKoe KHaaecTBo KaKt 6u pac- 
nsLjsjajLoeh na ^hcto jiHTOBCKyK) ^acTb h pyccKyro, h no- 
cjii^Haa, BTarHBaacL 6ojiie h 6ojiie bi atHSHB h ;i;ij[a. 

BOCTO^HOH PoeciH, rOTOBHjraCB H nOJHTHHeCKH CJHTBCa CB 

Hero. CaMi. OJ[B^ep;^'B yKasHBajr-B efi 3Ty ufkjih, xoTa cb 
CBoeS To^KH 3p4Hia. Ohi He pa3'B jijkjiB.JL% noKymeHie 
OBjraj^iTB Bcero Poccie^. Ho jrer^e h npome Morjo cjiy- 
HHTLca Hao6opoT'B, — BOCTO^Haa Poccia Morja oBJia^^iTL 
iafl;Hofi Poccieft. 9to h npoBH^ii^ BejHidfi pyccKift csa- 
[TejLB, MHTponojiHT^ AjieKcifl, npH3HBaBiniH Bcixi pyc-« 



— 94 



CRHX'B CTOSLTh 3a OAHO C% MoCKBOg. dxOMy BCEOp*]^ CTaJIH 

fijiaronpiflTCTBOBaTB h nojiHTHqecKia oficToaTejiBCTBa. Mo- 
CKOBCKoe rocy^apcTBO na ctojilko oKp^njio h Bu;i,BHHyjocB 
B'B rjaaaxi Bcixi» pyccKHxi, ^to Morjo cofipaTt rpoMaA- 
Hjaa pyccKLfl chjih, BCTynHJio b-b 6opi>6y Cb TaxapaMH h 
pasrpoMHJio HX'b, bi 1380 r., Ha KyjHKOBCKOM'b uojii. B% 
nepBHH pas's 6iiji'l cmut% nosopi* Taxapcfiaro nra k yHH- 
^ToaseHa BaacH^flmafl npH^HHa pas^'b^eHiii Poccis na bo- 
CTO^HyK) H 3a^a;^HyK). 

Me»Ay Tint, BHyrpH JIhtbh nocjit cMepTH OJII>^ep;^a 
na^ajEHCB pas^opii Meac^y acMy^^csHMK KHflSBAMn EeficTy- 
TOMi H cHHOMTb ero BflTOBTOMTb CB o;i;hoh CTOpOHU, H npocM- 
HHKOMi OjBrepAa, chhom'b ero flraftjOH, cb ;i;pyroft. Ot'b 
flra&Jiw, jifiofiHMaro cuna pyccKoft KHiirHHH lyjianiH, bh- 
pocmaro nojCB cujbhum'b pyccKHM'B BJiijiHiescB h Kpeiii;eH- 
Haro b:b upaBOCjiaBie, mo»ho 6bijo osH;i;aTB eiii;e 6ojL^e 
pyccKaro HanpaBjieHia, ^im nanpaBJieHie OJIB^ep;^a. Ho 
OHi noineji'B coBepmenHO hhhm'b nyxeM'B. BpaatAy^ ct* 
KeftcTyTOM'B h Bhtobtomi, SvaiiJio o6paTHjicji jvb SJi-fefi- 
fflKM-B HXi BparaM'B — pBin;apaM'B. HaKasaHHHM sa 3to Kefi- 
eTyxoMTb JHineHieM'B BejHKOKHaatecKaro CTOja, owb XHTpo- 
cxiBO B03BpaTHji'B npecTOJH, B3flJii B'B HJitH'B KefiCTyxa 
H noryfiHJT'B ero. Cnacca o;i;HaKO cuh^ KeHCTyxa, Bh- 
TOBT^, reniajiBHBiH ^ejoBiK'B CBoero BpeMCHH, cb kotophm-b 
fiopoTBca UrsL&jA npHxo;i;Hj[ocB eme Tpy;i,Hie. TaKoft ne- 
;i;aj![BH0BH;i;Hu3 nejiOB'^K'B, RaK'B ^raajio, BoopyacHBnriS npH- 
TOMi» npoTHBi ce6a H HiKOTopBix'B CBOHX'B po;^HHX'B 6pa- 
TBeB^B H pyccKiS Hapo^ii-B CBOHMTb coKsoMx CB xaHoiTB Ma- 
MaeMi BO Bpena KyjHKOBCKofi boShbi, ne Mor^B npH^yMaTB 
coScTBeHHHX'B cpe^ncTBi, ^Tofiii bhAath h3'b saTpyOTGHia, 
a no nepBOMy cjiy^a&HOMy BusoBy 6pocHJ[CJi HCRaTB HOBaro 



Wfl ■!■ *■* 



— 95 — 



coK)3HHKa npoTHBi BHTouTa Bi> cpe^t 6jiH»anniHX'b Bpa- 
roBi JKmjah, h Haraeji'B ero bt» uojtcKOM'B'rocyAapcTBi, 

B'B BOTOpOM'B 6uJia, B^E dTO BpeMJI UOJi()fl,B.il KOpOJieBHa HjSr 

Bflra, H eS npiHCBHBajiH Biiro^^Haro jKeHHxa. EjaroAapa 
BTOHy cjiyqaio, JiHTBa h nojbma coe;i.iiHHjHcii BH'j^mHiiM'b 
ofipaaoMt Bt o;^Ho rocyAapcTBO (1386), 



^TEHIE VI. 

FasA^JieHie cjiaBflHCKitx'b HapoAOBT> Ha Ast BiTBH — bocto^hjk) h sanaAHyi). 
FpaHHKU, nxt pasA'i^Ji^ioii^ifl. 3aAaHH HCxopHHecRofi xih3hh •sanaAHux'b cjia- 
BflHi. I],HBHJi]i3ai;ifl Mopasiu h Bojirapiu bi IX BtKi. HaojiuBt MaABapi h 
Hxi sHaMenie bi> HCTopiE sauaAHuxi cjiaBflHi. HciopHHecKafl sa^aia Hexm u 
IIojiBinH. reorpa(()ifl h axHorpa^m IloJibiuH. HcTopia o^pasoBanifl nojibCKaro 
rocjAapcTBa. JexuTU. PoAt nflCTOBi. MeHHCJiaBi} I. BojiGCjiaBt Be;iHKifi. 
OaadJienienojiBCKofi rocjAapcTBeHHOCTH. PasA'i^JieHie IloJibninua jA'i^Jiu. ycH- 
iienie nuiflXTU n ocjiadjieaie nojibCKofi rocjAapcTBeHHocTH Ha sanaA^, bi o6- 
laeTH BCJiHEonojibCKaro njioHeHH. BjiaAHCJiaBi JIoKeieKi. GocpeAOTOHeme 
QOJibeKHX'b CHJii Bi o^JiacTH MajioHOJibCKaro HJieMeHH. Ka3HMipi BejiHKifi. IIoa- 
HHHeHie jiaTHHO-repMaHCKHM'b HaiajiaMi. Sa^Beaie napoAHUx'b Haiajii*. J^bh- 
senie noJibCKaro uapoAa bI) pyccKin semjiH. ^ecTOKin cmjtu nocjit KasHMipa. 
KcTopH^ecKia cbhsh IIojibniH cb JIhtboio *). 



B'B HacTOJiiu;eMT» HTeeiH & naioxy b^b caMOMx KpaTBOM'B 
bh;^^ ucTopiH) UojiBinii flfi coeAHHeniA ea ex JIhtboh) B'B 



*) Ha nepBOH Kapii bi axjac^ npo^eccopa SamicjiOBCKaro noKa- 
saaii ApcBHifl cjiasjiHCKlA nocejieHiji h vh npeAHCJioBln s/h axjiacy bi 
xpaiKoicb BHA'i^ noMiii^eHH noflCHeHifl; a coBpeneHHoe pascejieme cjia- 

BJIHCSHX'b HapOAOB'b HOKasaHo Ha EapT^ M. G. MHpKOSH^a. ^peBH^A 

HCTopiji 'sanaAHHxi h DXHHX'b ciaBAHi, a TaKse Ilojibinn KpaiKO hs- 
AKKena vh coHEEeuva.'b A. 0. rHJib(|>epAHHra, — nojiHoe co6paHie co- 



[IV B. {1386 v.), T. e. flfl Toro BpeaeHH, sa ko- 
HU OCTaHOQHJIHCi. Wb pOSCEaSi BCTOpiH 3anaAHoft 
EjA^Mi BsjiaraTL HCTopin no.ibiiiii Bt cehsb cb 
) ;tpyrHxi cocijiHaxt napoiOBi,, Bt ocoSeHHOCTH 
cjaBflBCEHxrb njieueBi, h Ha^Heux Cb o^eHb ap^b- 

BpeMfl, R&Sb OJtBa B^TBL CJiaBflBl, DO'TteHeBBaA 

ro BparoMt, HanpaBHJiacb otb ^ynaa Kt ciBepo- 
— Ki JtBtnpy B olSpasoBajia pyccKoe roej^apeTBo, 
)eMfl, B.1B DpaBBJibHie CKasaTb, ropaajio paHtine 
euesH, Apyria BtTsH c^aBJiBCEaro BapoAa> JIbb- 
tBepxi no J^yHaI), no offfeHMi ero cToposain., s% 
> Oxpu BJiH 0;iepa, Jla^Q hjb 3jib6iJ, Bhcjiu b 
no STBUt p'ibsau'B et. caMOHj Cajiriltcitouy uopn. 
iTHHH aaaaABUHH cjaBflBCKHUH njieueBauH b 
iHMB (pyccEBHB) B^TBflHB 6uJm cj^xyioni;ifl, pas- 
a az-b, rpaaaitu: sa lori sajiaxa w neienirB, 
EapnaTCEifl ropQ, Aa-ume BOjruBCBm h jhoCjihh- 
[ora B Ji^ca, jie«aBiie no CTOpOHaifB sana^Haro 
Th se aa^HBa^acB A^JtBie siiBaa rpaBHiia: b3- 
Baui ATsarB, b ;^&3hme, aaKOBeicB, — Toxe B3- 

BaUl JTHTBBBa. 



:o H3I. 1868 r. 2 1. H 1874 r. 3 t. HciopU HoBimH no 
BiomeHa tn, paamixi Tomaxi HcropiH Poccih C. M. Coio- 
:h ciapM Bsjame sa pyccKom sauai HCTopin IIoibDiii — 
oaiCHaro rocyjapciBa C. BaaTKe, 2 TOMa, 1830 r. jpesueft 

XH3BH nojibDiH: nepKOBHo-BCTopH^. B CTaTscTm. omcaHJe 
fi npaBocflasBofi enapxin npoioiepefl JtaTOiiKaro, noroHi 
iHia AuBpocM, no»[aeBi, 1863 r.; jpeaEiSraeiix cyoje- 

npaBDCJiasia z pfccsofi HapoiHocTB bi TajiHiiiB, lyfiepH. 
i, cijuiei(Boft B jipfFBU ntcT&ocTflit npHBHCioHCBaTo Kpa.a, 
DXJiHHCB. Moxecia, ab& sHDjcEa, Sapmasa 1881—3 r. 



- 97 — 

SKifl sa^^a^H pyccRHrb cjianflH'B. 
., HTO staAa^eH saaa^Hog Poccin 
}6uTno& aH3Ha H rocyj(apcTBeH- 
tponu. T'^H'b 6oj^e sia sajaia 
xiaMHaH'L no tj eropony Kapnai- 
'Mt Bi oeofieHHOCTH npeaCTOH^a 
rocyiapcTBeHHocTt h napo^iHocTB 
tpHancKaro Hipa. ycn^niHoe pas- 

BHC&JIO OTL TOrO, Ha CKOJLEO 3a- 
lOirb COtipaTb CBOH GUJbl H Ha 
COXpaHHTb CBaSB Cb BOCTOHHUHH 

ipa HE Ha KaKis rpaHBii;ti, pas- 

cJiaBHHe coanajm norpefiHocTt fb 
, — noTpefinocTB bi rocy;(apcTBeH- 
epBOHt ycjoBiH cKasanHoft naHH 

Tia »H3HH bo BCiX'B OTHOHieHi- 

. ofipasoBajioct rocy;(apcTBo y hs- 
iwh rocyAapcTBeHHHe nyHKTU y 
MopasiH H £ojrapiH. fii, IX cto- 

BOaDTB BSJIHSOe npOCB^THTejILHOe 

lOHCnoB'^ABBie Ha poaHOMi cjia- 
e 9T0 HH^o HipoBoe BBa^eHie b-b 
HsaniA no na^ajtaHi BocToqHaro 
: Bcero Morja o6e3ne^HTi, HXt 

[ICRHU'B uipOHl H HX'L CaiHOGUT- 

iRoe SHa^ienie Tpy;ioBi naniHX'B 

HOpaBCKHXTt npOQOBiABHEOB'B CB. 

HaCToaniee Bpema j[Obo.jbho yKe 
nayK^ oiaejiHCEofi BCTopiH. Ero 
J4K>PB Bct sanasHHe cjaBane, He 



CMOTpa Ha jaTHBCTBO 6o.ii.mefi ^acTH ii:a imst. Ero xo- 
jjorao noHHua^ru ohk a bo BpeMena cumhsl aTHXb npOQo- 

B'kj(BHKOini. BoCTOIHOe BipoaCUOBtAaHie HecrfSHKBOBCHHO 

Cijcrpo paciipocTpaRHJiocL se tojbro Meatjty fiojcapaaH n 
MopaBaBH, HO H Meaciy jtpyrHjiH aana^auMU cjaiwuaMH. 
TaKi, Ha cfeBepo-saiiaA^ on MopaBOBi, oho paciipoexpa- 
HHjoei. Me«;ty qexaMH. B'b Kouu.'fe IX h iii. ua^ajri X irfeKa 
OHO pacnpoci'paHfljiocL h at crpaHt, cxtjasniefica HSBicr- 
BOK) uoToiTb noA'b HueHeuii IIojiBinii. 

H3B'6i;T1IO, 110 JiaTllllO-repMaHCKifi Mipt CH.ltHO BO:i- 

CTajii. npoTHBi pacnpocTpaHeaia BOcTO^iiaro B'hpoHcnOBi- 
^^aniji ueatjiy sanftAHUMH cjananaMH h iio;(aBJiJU'i. ero 
BciMH utpaMM. OSuEiiOBCHHo jyMaK)TT>, ^To OH^ cawt, 
CBOMMH cpe;i,CTBaMH, u no;i,aiiHJi'b ero y hhxi.. Ho mji jty- 
MaeMt, iTo jatHHo-repManCKitt Mipi e^Ba-JH ycntji 6a 

, Bl 9T0M^ TaKT. CKOpO, fiCJIH 6h CMy HC BOMOFJO WtsyK- 

mee, DocTopoHHee a Heo»H;iaHHoe o6cTo«'rejibCTBo, Ha ko- 
Topoe, CKOJfcuo HaM'B H3BtcTB0, Majo o6pan^aE0rB smiHa- 
Bi;i, Hexjty TinT, saiti obo Hii'itjio Bt 3tou'b cjiyqa'it p^- 
HiHtejibBoe SHaieHie. 

B'b KOBirfe X cTOJii™ Ch BocTOKa npeat KapnaTCKJfl 
ropu nepeKHHyjiHCL pojbih rjHBCKaro juremeHH, yrpu hjh 
uaA'tJipu, BeHrepi^u, ocBOBaju CBoe rocyAapCTBO Meat;iy 
KapnaTCKHUH ropauB, ^ynaeHt H no^iTH AO aipiaiHie- 
CEaro uop^. Benrepi^u pasopBa^H co6oio sana^Hux'B 
cjiaBflBS sa ;iB^ nojoBHHU, loatsyB) h cfaeepH y e) hjh 
no OTfloineHiio kt> HaM'B — sauajHyio, pa3o6mHJi« hx-b, h 
CHJibEO ocj[a6HJiH axHsi HOCjrtAHHXi. ji,.\a 6opb6u ch sa.- 
THHo-repuaBCKUHt MipoMi. Ho ohh euJ,e SoJilie pasofimnjiH 
H ocjiaCHJEH Hxi BpaBCTueHHO. Ci Ttxi. nopi AJia 3ana;t- 
H^x'^ cflaBflH'B npouajii boctok'b, jtaKi BtpoHcaoBiAaeie, 



— 99 — 

nopBRHa rnHBaa CBmh c^ io/Khumh h boctohhumh cjirba- 
bamh; -laxiiHCTBo y iihx'l 3aH>iJio M'tcTO BOCTOMHaro Bipo- 
HcnoBixaniH, a oh jraTMHCTBOMt qpeat iei)apxiK) 6iJCTpo 
crajiH upoHHKaTB H HliMeii.]Kie jiio;i,h, h HiMeii,Kie nop;j;i,KM 
SHSHH. Bopi>6a aanaAHTJXx cjaBiiHTE* ct jiaTiiHo repwan- '"'i 
CKHM'B MipoM'L CTajia BABOHiit Tpy;i,Hie,a BMtcrt cl riMt ' 
TpyjtH^e CTaJO h pasBHTie mx'b Bapo;i;Hoe h rocy;^apcTBeii- J 
Hoe. MopaBia najia bb to ;Ke canoe BpcMn, KaKTb iipini^iJiH 
BeHrpu. Cy^Bfia sauaAHWxij cjasHHt nepe^aHa Bt pvKK 
^exui H pHAOMt CL Hero Bt pyKii HojiBniH. 

BoT'B HCTopH^ecKoe snanenie m upHSBanie IJo-iBniH. Hst 
3Toro yate MoacHO bha'^tb, ;i,o KaKoft crenenH upeyBejiH- 

HBHO MHliHie nOJIilKOBB, TaK'L HaCTO H rpOMKO 3aflB.i;ieMoe 

HMH B'B 3arpaHHqHoft ne^aTH, qro ohh, nojaKH, upMSBaiiu 
6hti> ^nBHJIH3aTopaMH Bcero cjaBiiHCTBa, ^TO OHH npeac^e 
6ujiH 3THMH ii;HBHJiH3aTopaMH H 6yfl,yTh HMH, Kor;i,a ;i,o- 
6LK)TCfl HOJiHTH^ecKofi caMOCToaTe.3LHOCTH. Mh bh;i;hm'b, 
HTO TaKoe 3Ha?eHie ohh Mor.iH HMiTL tojibko MeatAy -^a- 
naAHHMH cjraBjiHaMH, Me»t;i,y OApoii hjth no niMenKK O^e- 
poM^B H JIa6oH HJH HO HijienKH 9jib6oh, r^'fe MBoro 
^HCjeHHua cjaBflHCKia njieMOH^,, otb tKapuaTB ao 6ajiTiH- 
CKaro MopH, ct IX BiiKa CTajH 6oJiie h 6oji'ie hshcmo- 
raTB B'B 6opB6i ex H'tMHiaMH H KpafiHe HymAa.iHCB bb 
po^cTBeHHOH cjraBiincKOH noMoui;H. Jl^Jin romnwx'B ii bo- 

CTOqnUX'B CJiaBaH'B UOJIJIKH ho MOrJTH MM'tTB SIiaMGHiil CB 
rfeXB HOpB, KaKB OTOpBaHU OTT* HHXB BCHrpaMU H .UlTHH- 

CTBOMB, jijsi H Meat^y sanaAHUMH cjiaBanaMn aro ij,Him.iH- -i 
3yK)ni;ee sna^enie, t. e. npeat^e Bcero oxpaueuic^ cjaBiiH- 
CTBa OT'B jiaTHHo-repMaHCKaro iiipa, ohh aoji/Khm Ohjih 
A'lvjiHTB CB HexaMH. UocMOTpHM'B TeHopB, KaKB HojiBnia 
BHBOjHHjra CBoe nasHa^enie. 

7* 



^r 



|, - 100 - 

w CTpana, vh Koropoft o6pa30Bajiocb nojibCKoe rocy^ap- 

GTBo, saHHHajia npocTpaHcrso boxhhxi CRCrein Bhcjh h 

[pa, oTh KapnaTCKHXt ropt Jto Cajxiftcitaro uopa. Ha 

i&xk rpaHHitu eA saxoAHJH sa Ospy, a sa Bocrosi 

Hpa^HCL vb ^aJH^iI), xojMCKyi) Pycb, aTMacHyn CTpany 

CsijiyKinia rjaBBna njeneHft B&cejisjai apcbhdk) 
wtmy: 

1) Hojflse HJH TOHB^e BejHfEonojflHe*), sexsj Ojtpofi 
BHCJofi, ffh BuabmBeS IIosHaHH b bi sauaAHofi ^aem 
oiiKofi H BapmaecKoB: ryCepnift. 

2) MaionoiflHe, y EapnaTCKHxi ropi, Bt BUH^niHeS 
aKOBCKoft ofijacTK, HJH sanajHofi FajiHiiiH h b'b kixhoK 
STH pa;ioHCKofi ryftepHiH. 

3) MasoBmane, Bt crpan^ cepe;i;HHBoll Bhcjiu, b'b bo- 
)qsofl ^acTZ ry<5epHi& BapmaBCEofi, mioiiKofi B B'B c%<- 
po-sanajHoft ^acTH xoiMCKofi oCjiacTH**), 

Bc% mxhcsia n^eiieHa, saK'fc h Boofiute cJiaBancKiA njie- 
Ha,' SHJIH BB AP^BHocTH oco(Jo, pasposHeHHo H ynpaBjfl- 
et> no nepBoCuTHUicB cjaBAHCEHHt sa^ajairB — o6ni;!iH- 
isTb. Ho CBHfl^xejbCTBy nojibCKHxi. BHcaxejieg, 6yxio 
eme bi V cTOjrtTiH crajiH coSwpaTt Bt ojtHO tttjoe 



') He hsaoSbo cvimBBaTb Bxt ct nojiHHaMH sieBCEBHH. IIoadKB 3to 
dJOTb coBepmeHBO npoH3B0jii>iio, nOTOMy loihno, ^to li s xpyrie 
HBanaci nojtfloaHB. Jsa paajiHiHinct h oTjajeHHrnt fliyn on 
ra n;ieKeHR cija aa oTtcpumxi idicTasi, nojijixi, s o6a Ha3Ba- 
^ nojiHHaxH 6e!fh Bomaio OTBomeBia ei nieiieHRofi 6ih30Cth. 
*) ^o CHS2 nopi coxpSHHJOcb pasjiHiie assKS, y »thii Tpexi nje- 
[X. MajionojibCRoe Bapt^ie — aro Bap^^ie, Aasniee aaiaio buh^bi- 
[y JBTepaTypHovy aoiicKony nsBEy; Hasoaenioe sap^^ie oMBvaercB 
iTCiBom asyKOBt; m, c; aejBKODOJibCBoe — owjOeHBocitij 
n, BanpHHtpi, BHicTO hylo — ^elo. 



rr 



Xir^ 



— 101 — 



3TH pa3p03HeHHi>ie rpynnu h o6pa30BaTb oaho rocy;i;apcTBd 
B!B BejrHKO& nojBin^ — jL&xiiL HJiH jiexHTU, OTKJA^ flasBanie 
noJiflR^, noTOMOKi» J[js[xa, h Ilojibina -^ Bjia^^Hie jeaxob'l. 
£to TaKie 6um sth jlaxh, 06% dTOWb wkrh to^huxi ii3- 
BicTii. no CMucjy pa3CRa3a Hamero j^Tonnci^a HecTopa^ 
HysHO 6u ATMaTBj ?to 3to Cujio co6HpaTej[BHoe hma 
BaiHKonojiAH'L H Ha30BinaH:B. Owb roBopHTi, ^TO y Bhcjiu 
cisH J[^XH, a Apyrie jiaxh ch^'I^jh Ha nojAXOb h Ha3UBa- 
J2CB flOJEJinaMH, HHue se Ha30BiaaHaMU. IIo MHiHls) ni- 
KOTopHxi nojiBCKHXi iiHcaxejieft jiaxH — duo He tojibko oco- 
6oe BJieMfl, HO u uosah^ upHnie;^niee b:b cxpany IIoJiBniHi 
noRopHBmee ce6^ Apyrii[ no;iBCKifl nJEeiiena h o6pa30BaB^ 
mee y bbx-b hojibckoo rocy;i;apcT^o. HecoMH^HHO, ^to 
CJOBO JiAXi» C7> HesanaMflTHBix'B BpeHOH'B BcerAa hm^jo 
oco6oe 3HaHeHie, osnaiajro ^ejtoB^Ka BHCMaro cocjOBia. 
7 HajopoccoB'B, HanpHM^p'B, OHO npnjaraJEOCB ho^th Bcer^a 
vh Bucmeiiy nojBCKOMy cocjiobIk) — hijaxt^. Bi xaKoicB 
se cHHCj^ ynoipefijiAeTCfl cjiobo hojiakx Hep^ARO ;^aace 
H nOJBCEHHH SpeCTBAHaMH. EpecTBflHe 3aHaAHofi raj[Hi].iH 

MB KpaKOBCEOH o6jiaCTH, CaMH — ^HCTUe nOJIARH, HOptjl^RO 

roBopaTTb, qiTO OHH — aBCTpificfiie no^waHHHe, a naHH — no- 
UBKH. 9toti» cTpaHHUH cnoco6^ OTJH^axB noj[BCRaro Rpe- 
CTBAHHHa 0T!B HOJiflRa — HaHa, coBopmeHHo HeB03Moa;Haft, 
BanpHH^p^, B^ PoccIh nemj^y napoj^oH^ h ero bhchihhh 
uaccaMH, ACHO H0Ra3UBaeT% j^slbbjok) r pisRyjR) pas^^jiB- 

HOCTB Me»Ay npOCTHM'B HOJIBCRHMI HapO^OM'B H HOJIBCROD 
OUflXTOlD. 

P'kRafl OTA^JIBHOCTB Wb IIO^rBHI^ BepXHIirO CJLO& OTh 

HfflKHaro A^Bajia bo3mo:rhoctb nepBOMy hb'b hhxi» o^ohb 
fiflcrpo u HiHpoRO pa3BHTBC^. Bcji 6jara h HHTepecu 
cocpe;^OTOHHBaJiHCB b:b neCojiBnioM^B Rpyry jiK>Aeft. Ha- 






— 102 — 

poA'B ocraiijijijca Ceai. BHiistaHiii h npHTOMi aapoji 
KiS, KaK-fc H Rct ciHBJiHCKie fiapo.t&T. -5erK0 6ijjio 
cTBOuaTi. HaAi- HiiiE^ H iBuraTh ero chjili 11.IE 
nt^eS. Oti. Toi'o iiojiiCKaa Hciopiji Dpe,i,eTaBJiaer 
■raKoe pa3!iooi5iia:iie (iornTHxi. oGpaaiioBi repoB 
nero.iHOCTB, anno HanoiiHHaiomHX'B jipeBHis peeu 
cft Hxi. repoaiiH H Kx-B padastH. Otb Toro nojitc 
cyAapcTiseHBOCTt coapt-ta u pasBHJiaCb fiucTpo, 
npoiHO. 

Jl^o nojioBHUH IX CTOJiiTi;i HCTO()i)r IIojtbniH m 
sicTHa. Bi. 3T0 npeMJi KHaatHJi. bt. net fiacHoc 
poji.1 noiie^a, U3T. KOToparo nocaijiHiii, otjth^j 
atecTOKOCTito, f>Hjx Cjato-Cij ciliAeui MwmaMH, i 
npecjii^tona-iH ero nCKAy, Ky;ta hh 6tra,ii om, or 
H oTi KOTopuxT, He MOFi ciiaCTBC!. ^a»ce Ha 
Bojite ;iocTOB'£puoE) CTaaoBHTca HCTOpia IIojibniH 
joBHHU IX CTOJitxifl, Kor,ia BcrjniijrB Ha ^OJI^CB 

CTOJIT. JIOAl. HaCTOBl. CofiCTBeElHO HSBiCTeH^ CHHl I 

SeMoBHTi, KOTopHii KKaHCH^ii CI 860 r. Ho a nocj' 
iiojiteKoe rocyjapcTBo bi Teqesie cTa Jitrt He ( 
KHBaeTL oiipefltjieHHaro HaiipaBjeHia. Hanpaiuei 
A'fcjaeTCfl flCHNMt ct. 962 ro,T;a, ci Me^HCjraBa ] 
992 r.). MeiHciaBi, c6jiH»aeTca eh ^exieft, mem 
qemcKOM KHJiauii JI^jGpoBKt h iipMHHMaeTi, bb 96 

XpHCTiailCTBO, — SpHCliaHCTBO JjaTHHCKOe, HO, nOBHJ 

upoHHKHjToe HapoAHEJM'B SJieMeHTOMi.. Ero specTH. 

CKOUT. 15or01)HJ,l, ripHpOAHwS ^BTh. 

mno fujjto jtvMaTf.. ito no^LCKan stHsni. n 
aBiieHie Hni:oArioe 11 hto no.iE,ma, bt. coioat et 
fo tiyAexi. p^Ti)i;:iTi. iipoTHBS IVpnafiiir fT; 
Ko BHiujio aiiaiiu. lepapxiji, ocoGenHO ironai 






— 103 — 

jTBepAHJacb B-B IIoJiBitti He Hapo^HaH, a HiMeE^Ka^; ^pes'fc 
3T0 ycHJEHBajiocL H fliMenKoe BJiknie. Me^iHcjaBx ctsla'l xjio- 

IlOTaTB KOpOJieBCKOM-B B^HII.'t J nt\uu. FepMaHCKiil HM- 

nepaTop-B BocnojiLsaBajica bthimcb cjiyqaeMi, wro6u yTRep- 
AHTB CBoe BJi-ame na IIojiBiny: owh i aspyniHji'B saxhro 
Me^HCJiaBa 6utb KopojeM'B. Me^ncjaeB c^eAi^ Hy;KHijM'B 
saj^ofipHTB OfTOHa I, nocjii cMepxH J^yfipoBKM aceHHjrca 
Ha HisenKoft KHuatH't 0;i,'li. Ho H OT'B axoro He xiojiymiA'b 
nojiBSH. KopojieBCKaro Bfenua ewy h xenepi. ne js^slw, 
Majto xoro, MeiHCJaB'B, kak-b BJiaA'txejB seMejiL 3a O^poft, 
KOTopwa HiMeuiKifi Hwnepaxop'B c^HxajiB cbohmh, ;i;ojr/Keni 
6ujL% npH3HaxB ce6a BaccajiOMB ero. 

no CRiepxH Me^HCJiaBa saBHCHMocxB Ilo^iBinH ox'b sa- 
na^HOfi EBpouBi CA'^^JajracB eme cHjTBnie: IIojiBma no;i;- 
^HHeBa oco6oMy noKpoBHxejiBCXBy nanu. Bx AOBepmenie 
Bcero, A^XH Me^HCJiaBa ox'b nepBofi atenii ^y6poBKH m- 
rnaBH, ynpaBjenie HojiBmefl ocxajnocB bt» pyKaxx h^mkh 
Oah h ea A'^Teft. Cjobom'b, nponajio cjiaBuncKoe okhb^tc- 
Hie HojiBmH, BBipa6oxaHHoe cbhsbbo cb ^exiea), h ycxynMJio 
Micro jaxHHo-repMaHCKOwy. 

Kt cqacxiH) UojiBniH, Mem^y H3rHaiiHUMH ^-fexBiiH Me^H- 
cjaBa 6hji'b HeoSuKHOBeHHuft qejioBiicB CBoejo BpemeHH, 
BojiecjiaBTb I, Be^HKia h;ih Xpa6pBifl (993—1025 r.), ko- 

. TOpHM BBipBaJlB 66 H3'B pyK'fc JaXHHO-H'feMenitCHX'B H BO^i;- 

HfljiB HapoAHoe ea sna^enie. BojiecjiaBB I sacxaBJuiB yBa- 
3KaxB ce6fl HMoepaxopa OxxoHa III, yHHqxoatHJiB saBiicH- 
MocxB CBoeft iepapxiH ox'b HiMeii;KOH h ynpoquji'B cboid 
caMOCxoaxejiBHOCXB xtM'B, ^xo, HaKOHOU.'B, 4,o6HJiaff KopojreB- 

CKOH KOpOHH H KOpOHOBaJTCfl 610 B'B 1000 TO^y. IIOJILCKOe 

rocy^apcxBO aocxhfjio npn Heai^B 6o^Bmoro MorymecTBa. 
BojiecjraB'B saBoeBa^iB qacxB Mopaidn, cnhphji-b BOJiHOBaB- 



i,.: .1 . 



— 104 — 

IDHSCA noHopaHi. H npyccoBi, hsAji BJiianie H Ha p 
csis }(ijia., — BoeBan c-h B^a;(iiHipou%, JIpoc^aBoiTb h 
]iocji'!k;(BioB> BogHy oTHHJii. y PocciH, Ha KopoTKoe Bpe 
T&Kb HasusaeHyio HepBeneKyio ofijacTt. 

Ho nasie Bt iiaTejiLHoCTH xaKOro no^tCBaro leioei 
EaK'B EoJiecjiaBi Be^HEig, hu bh^^hm'l jme coBepmei 
acHo HanpacHoe pasABoeHie, — lyKJOHenie ort npsMOfl 
^aiH 3aii;Bii;aTb cjiaBHHCTBo sa saiiaji,'^ h cTpeujeflie 
roro-BOCTOKy, Bt npe^^u HopaBCKJe h pyccKie. Dp© 
BUKU ero nura AaJiBine a, 6oji^ h 6o^e yciynaa si 
i^aH'L diHsaSaiHxi si ce&b cjiasHH'B sa O^poS, CHJibi 
H CBJibEie BaABHrajmcb sa. HeHyxAaBmHsca vb ehxi p 

CKUX% CJiaSAHl. 

Hocjt BojiecjaBa I-ro nojiinia ona-n. sna^taepb m. 
onpeji^ieHHoe nojoneaie, EOTopoe 6oJ[t>ineio ^acriio, 
TeneBie (mbdikou'l ctoAitia, €ujo ji^h sea aec^acrjiB 
K:b TpyAHOcraiTL €opi>6u c:b cocitAflmH H^ui^aiiii, op 
^esaiiH, pyccKHMH, ae paai npHfiaBJifljiHCb Bayrp 
uyru. IIoA'B BjitiHieui, B'i^pojiTHO, stoS uoihth 
HeonpeA^jeHfiocTH, TouHBmeg HapOAHua msu a 
laBmeg Hxt AaJi&nie u a^i>QI6 bi ciuaAX sanaA 
[egcKog XH3HII, nojbma oAsaxAu nonurajracB 6i 
SAaTL CTapuS Gutb, CBeprHyib JiaTHHCTBO H bosb 
a KTi aamecTBy. 9to fiujo b* XI b^kS npa Eo 
I II HjiH CMiJioBii (1058 — 1081 rr.), KOTopuS A« 
E> KpaEOBcsaro eaucKona CraHncjiaBa. Ho yne 6i 
[0 H crpaHHo BcnoHHHaTb Asu^ecfUH BpeHeaa. ^aT: 
CEOBa 6ujio BosciaHOBJieHO, caui EaieejiaB'B npHHi 
6iiJn, cnacaTbCH fiirCTBout Hal naibmH. Caa-h t 
HC^aBi KpHBoyCTuit eii;e pesHocTFie no^epKHBi 
icTBo H f,axe saSoTucH o pacnpocrpaneHiH 



W)Ft^ 



— 105 



Mea;^y coci;i;HHMH npyccawH. Ohi. BH^ijr'B Bt nejii jiyq- 
mee w-a CBoero rocy;i;apcTBa o6xeAHHaK)mee cpe^cTBo. Ho 
Bi Toae BpeMa pa^OMt ct 9tok) Miporo, o6i>eji,iiEsiv)mfiJO 
nojTBffly, BjLSLjijicjLSiB'h KpHBoycTufi ;iionycTHJii ;iipyryBD, ko- 
Topafl Ha noJTopa CTOJiixifl BBepr^a IIojiLniy b'b Kpafinee 
pascjiafijieHle. Owh pas^n'j^jiHjiib ee }iexjsj cbohmh chhobbamh. 
Ob dTOTo BpeMGHH (1139 ;i;o 1305 r.) HojiLina npe;B,CTaB- 
JLM2L emjd 6oJi4e neiajTBHyro BapTHHy, tj^mi Poccia Toro 
BpeMGHH, KapTHHy pa3;i;po6jeHia h BHyTpeHHHXt cmjrh. 
B'h Hen o6pa30Baj[oci> 6e3qHCJ[eHHoe HHOisecTBa mqjlkhz^ 

EHaSeCTB^, KOTOpna HOMHHaJI&HO HOA^HHflJIHCS EOpOJIK) 
nOJlBCROMy K OTHaJIHHO BOesaJEH KaB'L C% HHICB, TaK^b H 

Mea;i;y co6oh). 

Cpe^H 3THXI CMjTh Memjij KnaawiMH h npa cjia6ocTH 
sopojieBCROH BJiacTH, BepxHiS cjioi uoJiBCKOH niJiixTU no- 
jynaji'L oco6eHHoe SHaneHie, KOTopoe Majo no Majry ca4- 
jrajocL KaKt 6h ecTecTBenHHM'L, aaKOHHHM'B. Oho h ysa- 
KoaeHo 6hjio na jieH^iHHCKOMi ceftni Bt 1180 r. npn Ka- 
aHMip'b II CflpaBe;^JiHBOM'£, BOTopufi o6pa30Baj['L okojio 
ceda coBiTi, nocjiyaHBrniS na^ajiOM'B nojBCKaro ceHaTa* 
Bi TO BpeMA HOJO^eHO 6ujL0 nepBoe na^ajio h TaK^ na* 
3UBaeM0H H36upaTej[i>Hoit ({)opMt npaBJieHiji — oxifl^HeHieMi 
nocTaHOBJEeHia, hto6u noJULCKin npecTOJii Cuji^l nacjii- 
A^ewb HO npaBy nepBopo^CTBa. 

OAHOBpeMOHHO Ch BHyTpeHHHMi» pa3Cj[a6jieHieM'b, IloJibnia 
ocjia6lBaj[a h jidBui, Ma30Bei],Koe ujieMxr, 6ojrhe BU^aBaB- 
meeca cbohmm oco6eHHOCTaMH, BupaSoTajo cefii cboio ro* 

CyJ^apCTBeHHOCTE Ct CJia60H) TiHBH) nOA^HHeflHOCTH flOJIB* 

CKOMy KopoJiB), H coxpaHflJio 3Ty caMOCToaTejiLHocTb ;i;afflce 
,^0 Hauajia XIV crojiiTwi. Ilponajia m& IIojiLniH bi* 3th 
Bpeneua (XII b.), h ysae coBepmeHHO, CuLAedia. TaRk ace 



— 106 — 

noTep^ HOHeceHH 6ujivl nojiARaMH h HH^e, Me»Uy -Ita^oft 
H OApofl, r^i Ha cjiaBflHCKofi seMii ocTaBajocL ntMei^Koe 
6paHAeH6yprCKoe KHasKecTBo. Bx XIII crojiiTiif, Kpoaii 
CHJtesiH H BpaH;iieH6ypriH, H-feamH, KaK'B met sHaeMx, no 
npH3HBy caMHXTb noJF^KOB-B^, nocejiHJiHCB eme h bi Ilpyc^ 
ciH, T. e. Ha BOCTOK'B oTt BpaH^eH^ypriH repeal* He6o;iB- 

mOH npOMe^KyTOK'L flOJIBCKHXt UOMOpCKHX'B BJiaXtHift, KO- 
TOpUH eCteCTBeHHO AoiaCHH 6mJIH HCTOpHHeCKH M3C0XHyTB, 

6yAy^H c^aBJieHH ci o64hx^ CTopoHt niMen.KHMH cHjraMM. 
Bi» 3T0 Bpeara Hcitnia 6HJia xaKt 6e3enjBHa, 'ito ee noA- 
qHHHJiH ce6i H yupaBJUJiH eio ^emcKie KopojiH. 

H31 3Toro 6e3CHjiBHaro h 6e3noMoin;Haro cocToaaiH bm- 
Bejn» Hojibmy TiejioBiKt, o^ichl noxo^ifi na namero loasua 
III, KOToparo TOJKe uoatHo Ha3BaTL cofiHpaTejieM'b hojil- 
CKOft 3eMj[H, STO — B;[a;i;HCJiaB'L IV JIoKeTeK'L (1305 — 1335). 
Owb noA^HHHJL'b ceSi 6ojitinyK) ^acTb yj^ijiBHuxi KH^sen, 
;i;aBaJi^ y^aqHuft OTnopt OKpyaaioiDiHM'b BparaMt; ho h 
OH'B ji,ojm,ewb 6ujii> co3HaTi> 6e3CHjrie EIojTbniH, h co3Haji'B 
;i;a3Ke nopasHTejiBHO. Oh-b yBH^'iJi'B, ^to ch;ih HojiBniH, 
AO CHX'B uop'B cocpeAOTo^HBiniaca bx BeJHKoft HojiBmi, 

yuajH 3AiCB OTTb COCfc^CTBa CB H^MUaMH, qTo fleo6xoi^HMO 
C06paTB H OaCHBHTB MX'B BX ApyrOMl» nyHKT'fe, Ha HOBOMt 

MicTi. OH'B noABHuyjica AaJiBme ot'b HiMii;eBt h 6iHace 
Ki* cjiaBflHaMTb-gexaMTb h pyccKHMii, nepeHecB CTOJ[Hii;y m'h 
Tii'IiSAa (bb BejHKOH IIojiBmi) b-b KpaKOBi. (b'B Ma.ioiJOJ[B- 

CKOli 06jiaCTH) H KOpOHOBaJICfl 3;^iCB KOpOJieBCKHM'B BiH' 

i^O]^rB Bx 1319 ro^y- 
3a 3THMX 6e3CHj[ieM'B o6Hapy^H jtocb h ;ipyroe. He HM'ta 

JI,OCTaTOMH(>H OnopiJ HH B'B CBOGH BJiaCTH, HH B'B BHCHieft 

mjruxT'fe, B-iaAHCJiaB-B JToKexeK'B, na xeni^HHCKOWB ceflM'fi 
1331 r., upHSBaxB kb yqacxifi) B'B ynpaajieHiH h HHSUiyio 



^ 



r 



— 107 — 

ffijflxty. TaKHMt o6pa30M'B, K'b KOHi^y CMjTHaro nepioAa 
noJiLCKofi atH3HH Bcn HUuixTa BiJXBHHyjracB, nojry^HJra no- 
jiHTH^ecJciji npaBa. BupaataJio jih 3to noJiHOTy nojibCKoS 
aH3HH H caMo6HTH0CTH, 9T0 BH^HO Hsi* BHiueHsaoateHHaro, 
a eme acnie cefiqacL yBH^^HMTb. 

J^tjio BjiaAHCJiaBa 'JToKereKa Bipflo, jiorH^Ho iioXii;ep- 
atajt SHaMeHMTHft ero cuh'b, KasHMip-B Be.iHKift (1335 — 
1370). OflTb sacTaBHji'b MasoBeu.Kux'b KHfl3eM npHanaTB 
CBOK) BJiacTB, y^a^JHO BOcno;ii.30Bajicii cj!a6ocTbK) rajiHn;KO- 
BOJHHCKaro KHaajecTBa h, KaKt mii y»e roBopHJH, upu- 
coeji,iiHHJi'B Kt ce64 SHaHHieJibHyK) nacTt ero (1340 r.), 
HO Bi> Toa:e BpeMa ohi> flo;i;'!Bep;i;nji'B HiMii;aM'b ycTvufiy 
CHjieaiH H A^Ke «iacTH IIoMopLa. 9tot^ 4^aKT^ noKasH- 
BaeTi 3HaK0MyK) naMi», ;i;a9Hi0K) uo;i;aTJ!HBOCTr> UoJibinH 
npe;!,^) jra^THHO-repMaHCKHMTb wipoM-B, ^SLnae co cjropoHU 
jiy^iuMX^ DOJibCKHX^ rocy;i;ai)eft. 9to o6HapyacH^ioch upM 
KasHMipi ein,e acHie bo BHyTpeHHHXt A^^jaxt Uojibuih. 

KaKi> HH CTapajiacb IIoJiBraa HMiTt cbok) Hapoji;HyH) 
iepapxiK), ho 9to eft ne y^aBajiocb. Iepapxin eji bx 0ojb- 

niMHCTBi OHJia HHOCTpaHHOK), npoHHKHyTa 6HJia coBep- 

meHHO jiaTMHo-repMaHCKHMH Ha^ajiaMH h BHocHjia HXt 
MHoronacjieHHUMH nyTiiMH Bt tiojLCKoe o6mecTBo, t. e. 
B5> nojiBCKyro mjuixTy. Kb ycBoeniro HHoaeMuux^b »a^ajiB, 
noHaTifl, oSu^aeBT*, ;i;a5Ke o^eacAH, nojibCKaa nuuixra uo- 
6y»;^aeMa 6Hja TaKace cbohm'b pbmapcKHMi. ycTpoflcTBOMi. 
HH03eMHue pKiij,apn nacxo uocTynajiH Bb mi.cjio hojii.ckhx'B 
puDiapefi. ELHoseMiioe pHii,apcKoe MCKyccTBo 6\mo cihei- 

KOMB SaMaHHHBO H CJHifflKOM-B Heo6xOAHMO. HH03eMH0e 

BiiiaHie nponsBejio nepeBoporb h bt> HHsniaxi cjioax'B 
uojiLCKaro Hace^ienia. Hhosbmhuji sanAicrnoBaiiiji, o6u^ian, 
oficraHOBKa Tpe6oBajiH 60^1*6 pa3Hoo6pa3Hofl[ h pocKomHoS 



— 108 — 

K1I3SH, aexeXB zasaa 6sJia. j noj^EOBi npe»^e. SIbwm 
omjTHTejibHaa norpedHocft* b-l paSBHiiii xhshh ropoACEi 
npOHumjieHHolt. jl,ojt}KaD 6ujo BupafioraTbCH ropOAt^n 
cocjOBie, npoHum^eHHoe, ToproBoe. 

Ho jcajfb flouycTHTb oCpasoaaTb&a TaKOMy coejiouiKi x 
uicTEUTb ajiemeHTOB'B? PopOAUKoe cocjoBie, o6uKH0BeHi 
cKopo npCBpamaerca m> cpe;tBee cocjoBie, aaaHMaert 
upaBaui. cepejtHHy Jiexny Bucnmui cocjoBieH'& h qj 

CTUM-b HapOAOMl. Ho 3T0 pilDaT&abHO npOTHBOpt^HJO h 

qajiBM-b nojii.CKaro m^xercTBa, Koropoe Horio ^onycTH 
noAJi'^ ce6a, t. e. noAt co6oio, desupaBHoe xjohctbo, 
He paAOHi ei eofioD ^to jh6o cpejtHee, ^t6 ci'jiasBBa 
6u Ha ce&% pasjHiie uesjty iiLi;iseTCTBO]ii> u xjioncTBox 
H31 9Toro onacnaro 3aTpy;^HeHia Hojitina CTajia buso^^h 
TBBHH'b oCpasoH'B, HTo AouyCTHJia ofipaaoBanie y cefiji i 
pOACBaro cocjoBia, ho He h3i h^cthuxi. djeuesTOBi, a is 
HBOCTpaHBUxi. PopoAa es ct> sau^iaTejibHoiD fiucxpoTi 
KOJOBUSHpOBaJHCb B^MIiaHIl. EaSHHipl oco6eHHO djiat 
HpijiTCTBOBaji^b 9T0Hy HanjiuBy uHoseUHaro aieiieHTa 
Hojtnry h ycajtHJi^ era eme rkirb, t[to uoKpoBHtejrtcTi 

Baj'L S0J[0HH3ailiH XHAOB'B, Kl BOTOpLIH'B O^eHb 6bIJt1> pS 



Ti H APyi'ifi, T. e. H^ui(u H XHAU, EaK'B coBepmeu 
^yacia Hapo;(HoeTH, BQecjm ci C06010 Bi Hojbnjy hobi 
aopHfjiK a rpeSoiiajia eefit ocoOaro ynpaB^enia, coofipa 
aaro uxib «H3Hn. Ha xhaobi, do TorAaniHHH:b uonaTiau 
Morjia MaAO ofipamari. BBHHaaia, komm h ue ;iaBaxt hi 
ocodeHHUx'B upaBi. Ho ae^bSfl 6ujio Taici aocTyuarb 1 
H^HiiauH, T^u'b 6ojiie, 1T0 3T0 61UB svAB o^esB Tpyjt 
jiiofiHBue, iioiesBue h aoce^fljacb ofiuEcaoBeaao no up 
T^ameaii) uojiasoBi>. Heo6xoAHuo 6ujio npaaaaTb a] 



r 



— 109 — 

o6u?aH, Hx^B npaBHjra yupaBjeHin. B'b t^ Bpenena Jiyi- 
mHMt o6pa3n;oMTb ^opo;^CKO^o ynpasjieHia c^HxajiocB Mar- 
;te6yprcKoe npaBo. Ero no;ii>CKie KopoJiH h yTBep«;^aJrH 
;^Jra cBOHX'&.ropojiOB'B, TaKHM'b ofipaaoMt, pa;^0MX cb noJTB- 
csHifH o6u^aaMH h 8aR0HaMH CTOAjm o^unan h saKOHU 
HHOseHHue. KaK'B b&jehro OTCD;i,a Bitxo^Hjro CM-j^meHie, 
MoacHo cy^HTB no TOMy, hto iepapxia HMijia cBoe saKOHO^ 
j^aTejBCTBO — pHMCRoe KaHOHH^ecKoe npaBO, injaxTa cboh 
npasa h o6u^SLV^, nojyqHBmie CHjy b'b pasHBiA BpeneHa, 
ropo^a CBoe — Ma^;^e<5yp^CKoe npaBO, HaKOHeii;'B napojiii 
ynpaBwifljic.fl no CTapuiTB ofiu^a^Mx, KOTopne Tose 6% 
pa3Hux'B M'bcTax'B 6ujiii pasjH^HU H T^Mi jrerqe mopjih 
ycrynaTB HHOseHHUM'B BJ[iAmawh. 3a6BeHie eBoero po^Horo, 
CBOHXX poAHux'B. upaB'B H o^Li^aeB'B A'^JicTBHTeJiBHo 6ujro 
npH KaSHMip']^ oqenB BeJiHBO, cosnaHo 6ujro Ka3HHipoMi 
H ^o6y;^HJIO ero oaafioTHTBca npHBe;^eHieM'B hx'b b'b hst 

BiCTHOCTB H ej^HHCTBO. 0% ^TOID JljbjlhV) B'B 1347 V. Ha 

bhcj[hii;rom'b ceiiAi cocTaBjreH'B Cujii^ xaRi* nasuBaeMufi 
BHCJTHURift CTaTyrB, B'b ROTopoM'B, Me»;i;y npo^HM'B, yTBepa- 
j^eHu pasHBTiE npasa mjiHXTu h nojioaseno 3asoHo;i;aTejiLHoe 
Ha^ajo nojiBCROMy xjLoncTBy. 

• nocji'6;i;cTBia Bcero aioro pa3BHTm nojBCRoft »H8hh ne- 
HeMeHHO o6HapyaHJiHCB nocjii CMepTH Ka3HMipa (1370). 
KasHirip'B He HMiji'B noTOMCTBa. IIoJiBCKiS npecTOJ'B nepe- 
mejTB BO BjacTB BenrepcRaro RopoJia JIio;i;oBHRa, cana 
EjiHsaBera, cecTpu Ra3HMipa. J[h);i;obhr'b ssLUSLTii 6uji'h 
BenrepcRHMH ;i;ijiaMH h ynpaBJHj'B HojiBnieK) ^epes'B cbo- 
HXTb HaM'hcTHHROB'B. Hpn TaKOM'B ynpaBJieniH UojiBma ne 
3aMe^jiHja ^pe;^CTaBHTB yaacaBDni;yBo RapTHny CMypB. 

[eJB3A ^HTaTB paBHOjQ^yniHO Jl^TOnHCHUXIb pa3CRa30B'B 06'B 

rax^B cxyxaxi. B'B to BpeMa RaRi 6yAT0 Ra^Rj^ag nojaic:^ 



— 110 — 
uouTdBHJT. ce&fe ueapeuiiHUOB) :j;ij,a'ie» cl K't«T> nMi)yj(b 

HoOhTLCH, H eCJH MHpHJlUJl CT, K'tdl, Til |ia3lii Al« TOl'O, 
^TOOhl Bt C<HO;A ex OAH'IM^ lloCHTbCJl C'fc K'tM'b JHflo AP)'- 

rHsn>. ^■6JUiI o^ijacTH bi> 3to upewji npeBpamajiHCb b'b 
nyCTUHu u HHKaKi. He bosmokro orucicaTh ii'kiH, has. 
KOTO])ofi Bce 3T0 A'LiiuiocB. Pa3Hy3;tiiHHue no.[bCKie injiax- 
THiH He 3aTpyAB;i;iKci> rpafiHTi. Aaate koctciu, TaKi, uo 
CKHAtxejicTBy uojLCKaro nHcaxejiJi ^.lyroma, ohh oi'pa- 
6tiJin qeaCTOsoBCKiH juoHacTupt ii yHec.in Gtijo, a a^'fiat, 
pasSHJiH pyccKyiD lyAOTBOpiiy'i) naoRj GoiKieS MaxepH, 
BhiHeceHayn cuepBa uai kojimcko^ o6.iacTH ui rajruiiiK), 
^aT^H'L 1131 raJiii(iii, Ki> Kpa&HeMy oropieniEO npaBocjae- 
Hux-b, h-b Uo-ibmy h ox^aHByio ct 3toxi ^aTHacitifl uo- 
nacTupL. 

Jto-iroe Bpetca nojiflHH He npHHHua^H HHKaKHXi wip-fc 
npoxHB'fc TaKi uiHpOKO pa'iJiHBinaroch sjia,. Hxi ue 0Ti>e3- 
B;iJi.ia aase cepbeaHaa, ecTeexBeuHaa aafioTa o fiyjiymeki 

IloJIbinU. KopOJL BJtajH U KOpOJIb, He HMfeBElia CUHOBeB, 

a TOJibKo fluyxi floiepefi! TojibKo b-l 1377 ro^y noayMajiu 
nnjiHriH na KomimKOMi cekwi 06% 9Tofl 6yAyui,HocxK h 
[ HacyitAHHiiet no.ibCKaro npecxoja CTapinyR) 
ijOBHica. Ho B sa 3x0111 ceSu'it mjiHXTa ne safiujia 
saifb 6h bt. fijiaroAapnocxb 3a upuSHanie AHHacxiH 
1, nojiyiu^a vBejinieHie cbohx'b opaBi. pasBUMH 
ecTsaMH. CMyxH, oah<)ko, 110 npeaciieiiy npoAOJi- 
Bx 1382 rojy yxepi. JIoAOUHK'b. IIojfLCEiifi iipe- 
asaJica He saHaTuii'b. HeofixoAHMO 6hjio nojjMaTi. 
% H nOAyMaxt eepbe3Ho, uoxomy 1x0 BCTpixHJioci. 
lenb BaiKHoe aaxpyAHeHie. Cxapma;! jiflih jIioao- 
QHa, KOTopyto nozjiKu DpHsnajH Hacj'i^AHiii^efi 
upecTOja, Bumjia sanysi sa CiiriiSHyHAa 6pas- 



f^' 



111 — 



J^eH6yp^cKa^o, cuHa HMrrepaxopa Kap.ia IV. Kapjix ynepi 
H CHrH3MyrTAt> n:^6paH'b 6u.rh HMiieparopoMi.. Uojihkrii'l 
flpMxoAHJiocb 6iJTf> ;i;aHHHKaMH ntMei^uaro HMoepaTopa. 
9Toro OHH HHRaict He saejiajiu h npH3Ha.TH Hacxb;i;HHij;efi 
DOJLCKaro npecTOJa BTopyro ^om> Ajoji^ouuksl, Kjibvlvv, ho 
H TyTh BCTpirnjiocb 3aTpy;i;HeHie. fl;i;BHra eui,e bi> Xki- 
cTBi 6ujra o6pyieHa aBCTpiiicKOMy KHiiSK) BwjbrejtMy. 
DojaK^Mt npHxo;i,HjocB ouHTh cTaiM, uo;!;^ HiMei^KyK) 
BJiacTL, Hero ohh, Koneqeo, ne 3K«^jiajii. UopiniMJiH na 

TOM'B^ HT06U C»IHTaTB fl;^BHry CBo6o,T,HOIO OT't ateHHXOB'B H 

caMHM'B HsSpaxB eft acenHxa. B^ Ka^recTBi aceuMxa Bwcxy- 
iiHjt 6hjio cboh 6jiHacafiiuiH qejioBtK'b, ;i;aHte m% toh ace 
nacTOBofi AHHacTiw, MasoBenKifi kha^b 3eM0BHTT>; ho no.ii[KH 
OTKaaajH eny no;!;^ npe;^.ioroM'B, hto He :Ke;iaH)Ti> cricnaTB 
JiABMrH, KOTopaa Tor;i;a eiu,e He npiixa;ia Bt IIojiBHiy. 
Ha caMOM'B jsfkAt ohh 0TKa3a.iH eMy hotomv, wro ne 'Me- 
jiajiH HMtTB na npecTOJii CBoero KHasjf, KOTOpuH xopomo 
Hxt SHaJi'B H npHTOM;'B Mor'B 6u ouepeTBCii na cboh ah- 
BacTH'iecKia npaBa. SKeiiHxi» ;i;j[a JI;^BHrH, KOToptiii ne 

MOFB H6 nOHpaBHTbCA HOJJIKaM'B, HeO»CH;i,aHHO flBHJICil HS^L 

Jrtbu. 

Mh 3HaeM'B, HTO jHTOBCKOjfy KHH3I0 flrafljii oqeHb Hy- 
aena 6ujvb HOBUH coio3hhk:b, KOTopuft 6u ofijier^HJx eMy 
BHxoA'B HSt BH'feiuHHX'B H BHyTpeHHHXt saTpyAHeniH. Ta- 
Koro coK)3HHKa OffL yBH^'l^Ji'B TenepB b-b EojiLmi h pi- 
BiHjicaAo6HBaTLcapyKHflABHrM.flraH.io HaHa.iT> cb Toro, 
HTo HanoMHHJTTb ce6i IIojiBni'fe oiiycToniHTejiBHrjMTb na- 
fitroMi Bt ea ofijiacTH. SaTiMi oh-l oTnpaBHJi'B nocojB- 
CTBo CB npeA^oatenieM^ ce6a b-b atennxH flABHr'fe. HoJiiKH 
He Kor-iH He o6paAOBaTBCH xaKOwy c^acT-nHBOMy npeAJio- 
xeiBfiK). UocpeACTBOifb 6paKa flraflju Ha flABHri h co- 



— 112 — 

e;^HHeHia JIhtbh h IIojBraH ohh H36aBjaj[HCB orb onacHo- 
CTeft cocijncTBa JIhtbw h npio6ptTajrH b'b new chjh ^jh 
Tpy^Hofi 6ops6u npoTHBt H^Mi^eB'B, ojiHHaKOBo Bpa»;^e6- 

HHXTb H nOJItmi, H JiHTBi. BCDOMHHJTHCL, KOHeiHO, npH 

BTOM'B H rk npe«Hi« cbasit, kotophh no;i;roTOBjajiH wfottb 
coH)3'B. Mh roBopHjH, ^To IIojLina vh Ha^aji XIV cto- 
ji4Ti« npH;i;BHHyjiaci> Kt 3ana;i;Hoft PoccIh h ^to KasHMipTi 
BaBJiaAiJfB ^acTiro ra4Hn.KO-BOjrHHCKaro KnaatecTBa. Bthm^ 
nyTeMi UojiBina cTOJiKHyjacL cb JIhtboh) h fl;oj[»Ha 6HJa 
onpe^niJiHTB CBOH OTHomeHifl ki net. IIpH re;i;HMHHi ot- 
HomeHia 9th y;i;ajHCB jerKO. KasuMip'B jKeHHJrca na jss>^ 
^epH Fe^tHMHHa, AjTB;i;oHi. IIpH OjBrepA'fe, KOTopHft 3;ep- 
atajica pimHTejiBHO pyccKaro naiipaBJieHia, ne^rBsa fitiJio 
nojiBmifc 6bitb bi npeacHeft ;i;py»6i cb JIhtboh). B'b 9to 
Bpeuia Meat^y hhmh ^lacTO SaBajiH Bpaa£;i;e6Hi;ia cuojLKBOr 
Benia. Ho h Tor^a Bpaac;^a ocjrafijiajracB cjiijiyromHMH 
o6cToaTejBCTBaMH. noJBina, t. e. xa HacTB ea, KOTopaa na- 

SUBajraCB BOJIBCKHMX KOpOJieBCTBOH'B, HMeHHO, MaJ[OnOJ[Br 

CKaa H BOJiHKonojiBCKaa o6jiacTH, Tor;i;a Majio npHMHKajra 
Kh jTHTOBCKOMy KHaffltecTBy a KacajracB ero tojibko na ca- 
MOMi* ©ri, y BojHHH, a ciBepnie — istl pa3;i;ijiajio Ma- 
30Beii;Koe KHaatecTBo, KsasBa Koxoparo ^aBHO yate 6j[H3kh 

6hJH KT> pyCCKHMX H K'B JTHTBHHaM^B, pOj^HaCB CI ofit- 

HMH ;i,HHacTiaMif. O^hh'b hgi Ma30Beii;KHX'B KHaseii Bojre- 

cjaBi, — CHH'B rajiHii;Kofi KHaatHH MapiH, npnnaJi'B Stwo 

juaace npaBocjaBie, 3a OTBepateHie KOToparo nonjaTHJica 

, acHSHiio. KasHMip-B, KOTopoMy noA^HHajica Ma30Beii;Kift 

KHa3B — pO^lCTBeHHUKl OJIB^ep;^0B^b, Mor'B Koe-KaiCB Jia;i;HTB 

H C% aTHMl* nOCJT'fejtHHM'B. 

HaKOHen,^, cofiGTBOHHO OjiBrep;i;'B, ksl^b JiHTOBCKO-pyc- 
csig RHasB, iSbiji'b em;e jmajiBina qti IIo^BinH. BJiHace ki. 



/ 






— 113 — 

fieft 6m% JtHTOBCKO^SKyACBifi bhasb KefiCTyrb, Boroparo 
BjaA^Hia on ^hjah npocTHpajHCB na dfb sa BpecTi- 
iHTOBCsifi. Ha Hero-TO h o6paTHj:b ^hjio oco6eHHoe beh- 
MftHie KaifHifipi. Ohi^ chochjca cb hhmi, Bai:b oepero- 

BOpH TOMl, ?T06U KeiCTJlTb npHHilJBL'B JiaTHHeTBO H KO- 
pOHOBaJefl |&OpOJeBCBHMl» Bim^OHl. XjlOnOTH 9TH boh^h- 
XECh HH^M'B H He UOFJE BOHHHTBCA HHa^e, HB CMOTpfl 

Ha npoTHBouo^osHUA jB'&peHiA uojBCKHzi HHcaxejied, no^ 
TOHy ^To ReficTyn» Cuxb HeH3HiHH0 npe^ad'S Ojibrep^ty, 
H HHBaKifl BHymeHiji He Kor jh noBOje6aTB fi,fjx6u itesAy 

9THMH 6paTLAMH-AP7dI>JltfH. Ho BaKb 6u TO HH 6lU0, a 

o^BHB BtpoaxHO, ?T0 BC^ dTH CHomemH noAniH CB JIht- 
Box) npesHflro BpeHenH hk'&jeh BasHoe sHa^eme h vh rjia- 
sax'E Arafiju, h b'b rjasax'b noJABOBrs upn saBJiUHemH 
TenepB 6pa?Haro h noJTHTH^ecsaro coK)3a ues^y hhmh. 
BopoHeM^B, Borj^a nojom h JIsTBa o6cujaj[HCB no btohj 
D0B0A7 nocJiaHH h coBepmeHHo yse yjtaacHBajiH a'^jo, 
BCTpiTHJocB BApyra CHJBHoe saTpyAHenie* fl^BHra, npi- 
ixaBmaA yse Tor^a vb IIojBiny, Bor^a ysHajta oC'b bthxi 
neperoBopan, bc^mh cHjanH craoEa orfiHBaTBCfl otl 6paBa 
c/b JlraftjiOK). npii^HHOK) dToro 6ujia, ea jik)6obb bi Bhjib- 
raiBHy, Boxopufi Tose npi^xaji'B wb EpaBOBi h Cb bo- 
TopuHi £UBHra xafiHo ycxpoajia CBHAaHia, h en^e — Bpai- 
HJiA HeBspa^HOCTB flrafijiH, BOTopoHy 6ujo yase sa xpHA- 

IVtTB jATb H BOTOpsfi 6ujrb O^OHB SBipOBHABHIb (BOJIOCaTl), 

TaB!B HTO, pa^H ycnoBoenifl A^bhth, hojabh nocjajiH oco- 
(Saro nocia js^& ocHOTpa ero. IIocojrB npHBesi HSBicxie, 
^To flrafijio BaBTb ecTB — ^ejioBisi. Me»Ay TiM% Bhjl- 
rejiBHa bbischjih hs'b EpasoBa h npH coa'^^ctbIh AJ^OBHoft 
BjacTH npeoAOJiijH ynopcTBO ^ABHm. B'B 1386 r. tSrafijio 
upaSujL'b B'B EpasoBi, npHHJiJ^ jaTHHCBoe Bpeffl,eHie, xora 

8 



— 114 — 
6Hjr& y^ace spen^en'b b% npaBocjaBnyn B^py, seHHJCA Ha 

SffiUVi H EOpOHOBaaca UOJLhGRHWh EOpOJeBCKHlfb B^HI^OM'b. 
JiHTOBCROe RHASeCTBO COe^HHEJOCB CI nOJbCKHlfb KOpO- 

jeBCTBOHOb. Eas'b npHHATO 6uj[0 biJ[htb'& 9T0 coe^^Hsenie, 
vb ^ewh OHO cocTOflJo H EaR'b paBBHBajiocb CB Te^enieiTB 
BpeMOHH, 9T0 MH j^nfljswb H31 cji4;i;yK)in;aro ^TeHi«. 



HTEHIE YE. 

nojiosdHie iHtoBCRaro SHasecTBa bo Bpditfl eoeAHHeHia ero ci IIoiBmeft. 
ycjioBin cooAHHeHifl JIwpbu cb noABmefl. JiHTOBCKO-pyccKia CTpemieHifl ri 
HesaBHCHMOCTH OTi IIoJiBmH. M^pu npoTHBB HHiB. HapjmeHie jcjioBifl coiDsa. 
GEHprafijo, Bhtobtb. BopB^a ti npHMHpeide BnioBTa cb Hrafijioft. HoBua 
BoscTaHia bb jehtobcroitb KHasecTBt.FpioHBajiBAeHCKaa^HTBa. FopoAeJiBCKifi 
ceflicB (1413 r.). PasBeAHHOHie jihtbhhobb h pyccKHXB, BOBBHrnenie jihtob^ 
CRaro dJiexeHTa h jHaaceHie pypCRaro. Hocji'i^AHia BpeMena npaBJieaia BHioBTa. 
GBHApnrafljio, GHTHdMjHAB. OsHBJieHie a o6BeAHHeaie JiaioBCKaro.a pyccKaro 
dJiexeHTOBB npa KasBMipi. BopB6a JHTOBcaaro aaaacecTBa cb Ilojamet sa 
aesaBacHHOCTB a bb oco6eBBOCTB sa Bojuihb a UoAOJiiiDi OaacaocTB paspuBa 
coK>3a JIaTBU CB noJiBmeft. JIaTOBCKoe KaaxecTBO npa AjieKcaaApt. BopB6a 
M6SA7 JiaTOBCKaHB a hocrobckbmb rocjAapcTBOMB. GRpinjieBie consa JIbtbu 
CB IIojiBmeft bb aosi^i XT a bb aanaji^ XYI CTOJitTia*). 



B% HCTopiH coe^cHHeHifl jiHTOBCRaro RHflmecTsa ch nojih* 

CRHM'B ROpOJEOBCTBOMl ^(MCTBOBaJIH CJHIHROM'b paSHOOfi- 

pasHue HOTHBu. Heo6xo;(HMO sa'I^cb HHor^a o6pa,mfi,Th bhr- 



*) KpoM^ yKasaaaaro co^Baeaifl r. GMapaoBa o BpeMeaaxB HraaiH, 
acTopia jraTOBcaaro aaasecTBa RpaxKo asjiaraexca bb I-& TJi&n'h Toace 
yaasaaaaro ascji^AOBaaia npo^eccopa B. F. BacajiBeBcaaro. BpeHeaa 
KasHHipa fliaiiOBana a ero chbobcS: AjieRcaaxpa a GaraaMyBxa I, 



WF^: 



115 ^ 



xame tLs, caMUfl, noBHAHHOuy, He sasHiifl o6cTOflTejBCTda. 
npH u3y?eHiH 8Toro pa3Hoo6pa3ui o^cToaTejiBCTB'B, ku, 
saK'B noKasHBUH wb Eh^surk^ T&vb u xenepB 6jfl,eui> no- 
RaasTBaTB, xaRoe OTHomeHie mtbjm HSJtaraeMHH HaMH co- 
5uTifl K'b HanasairB h CTpeMJiefiiflMi sanaAHO-pyccKaro 
Hapo^a. Bo BpeMfl coe;i(HHeHia jHTOBCKaro KHJiaKecTBa cb 
aoiBCKHMi BopojeBCTBOMi, uoj[02BeHie JIhtbh no ynpasjeHiK) 
6HJI0 ej[iA7K)mee: 
SrsiijLO 6ujrh BemsHWh jshtobcrhitb BHaseirB cb sep- 

XOBHOE) BJaCTiD Haj!^ BC^HH OfijaCTHMH, BXOAHBIUHMH B'B 

cocTaB'B jHTOBCKaro BHflsecTBa. Ho noAi ero BepxoBHoio 
BjacTBD 6azo HHoro yA^JBHux'B BHAsei, ynpaBiflBiHHX'B 

CBOHMH ofijaCTAXH CI 60JEBineX) HJH HeHBineD CaHOCTOa* 

TejiBHOCTBD. TaBi, Hau!B yse hsb^ctho, ^to hoa^^ firafiju 
CTOJiJi BHTOBTOb, no'VTH coBopmeHHO OTB Hero HesaBHcbB- 
min. Eiiy npHHaAJeacaja^ no Haos^ACTBy ot'b EeficTyTa, 
3^a^HTeJ[BHo yace oT^iJiHBniaACfl otb pyccKod JIhtbu 
JEMyAB, T. e. sana^HaA ?acTB HUH^mHeS KOBencRoft ry6., 
o^Bepbaa ^acTB cyBaiKCsoS h BOCTO^Haa nacTB npycciK^ 
dSLTbwb HacTB BepxHeft JIhtbh, cepe^HHa cyBaJiKCKoft ry- 
6epHiH, K)rB BHjeHCRoft, HaBOHei^ij uo^th bca HUH'i^inHflfl 
rpo;^HeHCKaa ry6epHiii. Bo Bpenji npHMEpeeiA BHTOBxa ci 
flrafijiofi, enije ao coeAHHemA JIutbh cb IIojEBmeS (1384), 
Bhtobti aojy^Hj'B bm^cto ^My^H ^acTB Boauhh, oitb 
IIpHneTH sa Jlyi^B'B. 3to, b^poatho, CA^ano 6ujro cb u^ksm 

OT^aJIHTB BflTOBTa OTB pHI^apOH, CB BOTOpUMH OH'B MOF'B 



Bscji^AOBaBiz no aKTaiii vb co^. r. KapnoBa — HcTopia 69Pb6h mockob- 
CKaro rocyxapCTBa cb jHTOBCKo-noJObCKHici; Hane^aTaHO oho vl Hte- 
liaixi MocKOBCKaro o^n^ecTBa ttciopiH h ApeBHOCTei sa 1866 r. xh. Ill 

H lY; eCT& H OTAilBOHB OTTHCKH. 

8* 



jp±^ _ 



— 116 — 



vtrjnvTb wh eHomeHUi npomrb Jbaftm. KpoMi srratti 
Kpfiraaro, novn coBepmeHHo HesaBHCHMaro yx^^s&ro 
KHaafl, 6ujni emfi cxkxp^mie MHxshsi: 

CsHpraftio, poABoft 6pan flratJHy ynpaBiflBmift eia- 
aoHBOD BHme XxyxtD^ 

AriJSpeft, Tose poj^Hofi fipan JiraijH, kbasl nojioi^icift* 

CBirxpHraftjio, Tose poxHofi 6parB iirafiju, ^EiBinid 
cnepsa KHAseifE nojioipcHirB, noroirs shjtb bi y^^^ xa-^ 
TepH CBoefi lyjriaHiH, vb BHieficrt. 

EopHdyTB, 6paTB JlratjHi, shji3b cisepiSiEit. 

Bjia.i^idpi^, 6parb Jlrafiju, khjisb BOJiciHCsit. 

OeoAoprb EopiaTOBEHi, abodpoahhh 6pa'rb AraiJH (crrfe 
KopiaTa, CHHa FeAHHHHOBaX shasb noAoncsift. 

IIo^TH 3(A aTH KHASBA y^acTBOBatiH vh coBikmjam&ltb 
coeAHHeHiH JIhtbu cb nojn»meH« CoBiiii;aHii ((iijo n^- 
CKOJibso: Vb KpeB^, vh Bhjkbh^ h oco6eHHo sasnoe b'b 
BojrKOfiuficB'6 (HiZH^mifi yisjijaui ropo;i;% rpo^^neHCRoft 
rytfepnia). Ha drowh coB-lmaHiH (1386 r.^ fla KOTopoicE 
6uMi H npexcTaBHTejTH nojiBmH, nocTanoBjieHU cj^^K)* 
n^ifl ycjoBifl coeAHneHm JIhtbu c^ IIojKBinei: 

Bi» Toft H ;^py^oii 6y;5eT^ o6]ii;ul BepxoBHHS rocy^apB — 
^raftjo. ByjityT'B o6m\a ^HnjiOMaTH^ecKk cnomeHia no ^- 
jiaMi, BaeaK)iii;nMCA o5ohx% rocy;(apcTBi, h o6iii,aa sam^HTa 
npoiwBi BcaKaro spara. Ho BnyTpeHnee ynpaBjienie o6o- 
Hxi rocy;i;apcTB'B 6yjifiTh coBepmeHHo oTjsfbjshno. Kas^oe 

6y}5fiTb HM'I^TB CTOHXl JOjOJItnCHOCTHHX^B JTHI^rB, 0C06iae ^K- 

naHcu, ocofiuA BoficKa. 

Bci 8TH ycjioBia fiHjrn o^eHB BHro;i;HH js,jia y;^iJBHHX'B 
KHAseft JUTOBCBaro SHAmecTBa. RnjisBfl naA^AJiHCB 6utb 
6ojiie BreaaBHCHBiuMH, Ror^a «9ra&jio fiy^^eTi sanAT^s nojiB- 

CRHMH ^aSLUH H AOJ^eH'B CjflfiTb ^SlCTO SHTB TaH'B. B'B 



Tr<" ■ V ""'•ss^ 



\ 



-- 117 — 

ejyqai m boShu c^ BHimHHMH BparaMn, ohh 6yfi,yTh 
lioj[B30BaTBCA nojbCKos) iiouoii^BH). IIocji'j&^^Hee coo6pa- 
xenie, apa BOTopoMi npex^e Bcero hm^iIhcb b'b bhX7 
pHi^apH^ 6e3!b BCflKaro coMH'&Hiii, 6ojLhme Bcero no6ys;i(a;(o 
jiHTOBCKEX^ BHiiaeA c;nijLB.Th cjiijsj¥)jnyjo ycTynKj b:b 
aojBsy Uoihma. Ohh corjiacHJiHCB, ^to6u ^HToa b^ co5- 
CTBeHHOMi CMncA'b^ T. 6. jhhtobcbIh A3UieCKiH HapoA'B, 
o6paii^eHa fiujia b'e jaTHHCTBo. Btoid ycxyiiKOS) ohh Ha« 

A^AJHCB, KaBl» H npeaCHie JIHTQBCKie KHJISBa, yHH^XOSUTB 

caMyK) npH^HHy cyin;ecTBOBaHia npyccEaro pui^apcBaro 
opjn,eHa. Puo^apH uocejHJtncB sa^cb ^i^jji o(5pani;eHi£ jhtqb- 

CKHX'B JI3U^[fl2S0B'B Wh jaTITHCTBO. JlHTBa, COeAHHAXCB CB 

HojiBineiD, corjiamajaQB sa TOHce ;^tjio, cana pimajiacB 
o6paTHTB Hx^ wh JEaTHHCTBO. Pui];apaM'B noQwb axoro He 
sa^iH^ 6hjso CyiBieCTBOBaTB h MOaSHO 6uJio pac^ETHBaTB 
Ha yHH^xoseeie hx% nanoio. MoasHO AJMaTB, ^to <yh 3tok) 
HMeHHO ujbjim MHorie jiHTOBCKie KSJiSbA, 6uhmie ysse 
xpHcriaHaMH BocTo^Haro BipoHcnoB'ib^i^aHiA, corjtacujiHCB 
npHHATB jiaTHHCTBo. HaKOHen;'B, ^ocJIi;^HalI ycTynKa, oneHB 

^yBCTBHTejBHaJI Jl^LSi yAijBHHX:B BHASefi JUTOBCBO-pyC- 

eRHX'B o6jacTefi, 3to — o^AsaTaiBCTBo saiuaTHTB sa Aj^Buvy 
200 THca^i TOpBOHB[eB'B *). Korjita .flABHra ofipy^ega 6[jjra 
BHjiBrejBMy, to po^HTe^H o5py?eHHiix'B c^^jiajiH ueMjij 
co6ox> TaBoS AoroBopi: ecjiH ^BHra BHfi^^eri sanys'B sa 
BoBrejBMa, to aom'b BHJiBrejrBHa ji^acx'B hoboS ?eT% sth 
picTH TKCA^'B ^epBOHiijeB'B, a ecJiH He But;^eTi, 70 ceMBH 
HjsfiavK o6ji3aHa sanjaTHTB 3th A^HBrH BujiBreJiBMy. Te* 
nepB AoroBopB napyntajcfl co cTopoHu £[jn,BHrn. ^Sratao 






L. 



— 118 — 
V3HXm yniaTHTb HTB H3% fftSOJUiVh nXHO^pfl 

o^iacreft. Ma yBH^iHHiE, laz-h »to yciOBie noj 
BDocj^;(CTBiH o^esi. BaxHoe noiHTHvecEoe SBa^enie 

Hsi BojKOBHJtCKa JIBTOBCKie HHSSU H SHaTH^fiO 

BOBHHBH oTnpaBHJHCb, wb TOut xe 1386 r., Bi Jkx 
rxb noiaxH co(5paJiic& Ha ceSirb h BslJpajrH Srafljj 
CRHM'B sopojeHt. Orryxa cdb xBHsyjiHCb b'& Kp 
Jlrafijo H UHorie KSASsa h (toape JHTOBCKie BpHH« 
THHCRoe Bpen^eHie. Ura^Jio seHHica sa ^^BHri h 

KOpOHOBaei aOIbCKHHl KOpOieBCBHHrb B^HIl,Ojrb. 

PyccKoe BCTOpB^ecKoe pasBHTie JHTOBcsaro khk 
apuHeceBo 6ujo TasHHt ofipaaoiTB bi xeprBj coc 
jiaTHHCKon nojitmed, h bc^ npHHociuH stj aepTsy 
:iocb, jerKO, ozotho. Ho neyseiH hh b-l kohi hb 
AHTca cosHame, — cosHaHie crapoe, HcropH^ecKoe, 
pyccKoe, npSBOCjaBHoe? Hey»ejiH bhkto uvb jhtoi 
KHssea He HoSMen, ^to arorb coDart aauiniaeTb b' 
HHoro 8ja B npHHecerL va6e3hmia uocj^CTBta? He 

HHKTO He BUCTf HHTl CI BpOTeCTOm? 

BporeCTb asHJica co CTopoHU boctohhoS naCTH 
CKaro KHanecTBa. Ero BucKasa^i po,i(HOfi tSpairb it 
UpaBOCjaSBUfl XBTOBCKitt KHASb, AHApefi Boioiwfi 
B(racTaJ'b npOTHBi coDsa ^HTBU CB Ilaibniefi h n 
npHcoexBBHJca caojieHCKift rhjssb GBaTocjaB'b Hb&h 

O60, OBS C06paJIB BOttCKO H CTajH HosopaTB CBoelt 
B'kiopyccin. Ho aro Boscrauie Bej^eno 6uio Kpafii 
TaKTHo, ABApet, en;fl HH?ero ae eji&iaBi, cefiia 
o&htiBiijrb ce6ii BejiHEHirb KaaseHt .gHTOBCKHHi, vbwi 
CTBOBBO Boopysujii DpoTHB'B ceCfl BO OAHOro flrafi 
H ApyrBzrb JBTOBCKBXi KHasefi. SaT^Ht AsApefi,- 
CEiS H npaBocjaBHuft lejoB^i, BucTynBBnii& na s 



— 119 — 



pyccKaro h npaBocjasHaro flaqaja, BCTynHjcb vb cok)3% 
c:& JHBOHCKHMi op^^eHo^fB, BparoMG^ TOFO H APjroro Ha- 
po^a. HasoHei^^B, nocj^AHJiA h BpaiHaA (SearaicrHOCTL! He 
jiAh OBiaA^TB BptnocTaMH B'^JopycciH, saHaTUMH .toabmh, 
npoAaHHEiMH ^rafijt, AHApefi h GBJiTocjaB^B Buiri^in^ajH 

CBOH HejAa^H HaA^ neC^aCTHUHH MHPHUMH SHTeJAMH,-^ 

pasopfljH H HCTAsajiH Hxi caHHM:^ secTOKHM^ o6pa- 
dowh, Bnpo^eM'b, npaB^a jh sto, Tpyj^no cy^HTB, iioTOMy 

^TO O&b dTHX'B aKeCTOKOCTAXl CBH;^'bTej[BCTBy]DT:B HCTOH- 

HHBH, npoHHBHyTue pacnojoseHHOcriio b'& IIojLin^ hjh 
Ki .SraHJii. RaBi 6a to, ^BnponeMi, hh 6hj[0, ho Bipno, 
HTO BOdCTanie 6u40 neyxa^Ho. IIpoTHBi Ahapoa ABuny- 

JIHCb JIHTOBCRie BHA3bfl CI CBOiiM'b H UOJhCKJIkWb BOSCKOM'b. 

AHApeS H GsATocjiaB^b 6i]jh pa36HTu Ha rojOBy, h o6a 
nonaJiHCb b^e njiiwh no61^fl,vLTejiHWb. 

Uocjvb dTofi no&bjui 6pa?HaA nera h MHoro^HCJieHHue 
noissane ABHHyjHCL b^l BnjBHy. IIohatho, hto TenepL 
wA oAyineBjieHu 6uji^ oco6eHHOi) peBHOCTiio r^ coicpa- 
HeniH) coiosa ci IIojBmeg h kt^ Buno^HeHiK) ero ycjOBift. 
Ohh peBHOCTHo 3aHfl4HCB B'b BHJbH']^ Rpen^eHieMx flsu^e- 
CRO& JIhtbh. JIaTHHCRie uaTepu nanajiH nponoB'JbAB a3u^- 

HHRaM'B; HO TaR^ RaR'B OHa 6UJia nenOHATHa JIHXBHHaM'B, 
KOTOpiIXl ASURa He 3HaJIH npOnOB'bAHHRIf^ TO O&hHCUaJVh 

nponoB^AB h caMX nponoB^AUBajni Hra&JEO. GjiymaBniie 
npoHOB^AB daT^U'b npHBeAeHU 6ujh r'b BHjiH, pascxaB- 
jeHU HO ByqRaM'B, Rpan^eHU ch naseaHieM'b Ra^Aoii Ry^RH 
(Ko6hiwb o6n^HHi HMeneH'B. ^jh npnejie^eHm napoXa R'b 
Kpen^eHiK) h AJia OTJiH^iA Rpeni.eHHUX'b ox'b HeRpeu^en- 
HHX% npHBe3eHBi 6hjh hb^ IIoJLniH HOBUA, 6ijiu& cep- 
MflFHy BOTopua paBA^BajHCB Rpemiei^HiiMi, O^bhb w^po- 



1 



— 190 — 

aTHo, iTo npH 3T0H'B HHue specTHJHOb nKi. pasa, vtoda 

KpeCTHJH Bl 9T0 Bpeha COfSCTBOHHO JHTBHHOBl-ASUUH- 

BOBi. FyccKHxi iipaBocjaBBUsi He TporuH. Ho taki 

KKBo: -flra&io H noMKH caibHO 6ujh Tenept pasApaxeflu 

P7cciuix'& 8a DOJOi^Koe Boscrame, to Jlraftjio 

Bib npOTHBl HHlt OAHy O^BHL TflBftiyU R 00- 

Klpy. Bi rpaMOTi, AaoHOft HOBoiiy BH.ieiiCKOHy 
OHy enHCkony, oHrb npHR&suBaerb, hto6u jhtshhu 
DHajH 6paK0B% cs pyccKHMH, a ecjH Taue (SpaRH 
iHu yse HiH CyAyn- BopeAt> sasjtioqaera, ae 
Ha 3anpei[;eHie, to Hx'b ho paciopraTb, ho JiHtto 

B^pU JOJSHO UpHHflTIi jaTHBCTBO, Kb ^OHy OpH' 

> TaKHXi jK>Aeg Aase c^qeHieH's poaraxH. Bro 
SBBoe H, satn. bh;i;bhi, ^aae no3opHoe pas,^- 
BSAJ JIhtboS h Pycbn, pa3BHTie aoroparo yuanam-b 

10 iio?TOHy yxe cyAHTb, qto ^aTRHCTBO noiyiHJo 
BCKOKi KBaatBctttk cpasy l$oji>iuyn CHJiy, a bh'&ct^ 
1 H nojaKH, noTOHy hto jaTHHcaoe AyxoBeHCTBo 
rb csavaja oo geo6xoAHHOCTH coctohjo fio^tmei) 
H3!b noJiflsoBi. noJHKaiirb qepesii oto oTEpMJca 
i AocTyni. si BjiaHin na ^HTOBeRU A^a. 9to 
apymeHieHi ycjioBifl consa JIhtdu cx lloJibmet h 

O He' OCKOplSJflTt JHTOBCKHXl yj%ItiHBIXl KHJiSefi, 

.■b pacqeru na caHoCTOaTejibHOCTB ch^bho paapy* 

rrb, aaat eciecTBeHHO 6fuo ozHjaTb, nepaut o6aa- 
3to HeyAOBOJLCTfiie. Ohx eHi;e no BOSBpaaieHiH 
H3i Ilojiiinu Cb CpaHRUX'b h aopoBai^ioBHurB 

vby crajt CT^HATB A^&CTBu HpHCjaHsaro vj, 



— 121 — 

JHTfiy jaTUHCKaro nponoB'Jb^^HHKa lepoHHHa, soropufi aa-r 
jOBajTCfl Ha Hero TaBHM^ o6pa30H%: ^Butobtb saiaen, 
m£o6u y Bora 6ujio MeHBnie j»a6&, H^mrb j nero^. Bh^ 
TOBfb He xorijii conpoBox^i^aTL lepoHHMa cb otphaom'^ 
BoicKa H y&bmMfia'b ne xporaTB SMyAHHOBi. 

HeyAOBOJibCTBie BuTOBTa 6ujio ycHjeno bi to se speHA 
H 9HCT0 rpasRiZJ^aHCREMH A^jaHH. Boscrame b% B'kiopycciH 
jicHO HosasuBaJo, hto vh jhtobcbom^s sHjatseexBi Heo6xo- 
PHa CjoixmmBA Bjaort, ^to He aoboibho E&6Av>?fiLTh aa 
Enarb lidmjiiiL HjiH npi'j^sacaii no BpeMenairb, Kaicrb npHHys- 
jifiwh 6ujn> Tenepb KkjiAth HvaAjio. Hysen'B 6uJi'b nocTO-^ 
mnui npaBHTejB JIhtbu. Htb&jlo b% 1387 roAy Hasna- 
m[js% TaxHifb npaBHTOjeM's CBoero jv>6uua,vo 6paTa GBHp- 
ratjy, wb KanecTB'fa CBoero naM'bcTHHKa. SaT^Mi BCKopi 
BosBBji ero H^ vh sBanie BOJiHisaro bHiAsa jHTOBCKaro h 
eii^e BCKop^ — vh SBanie BejHBaro bhhba jHTOBCBaro h xieB- 
CEaro (Bce wb o^^hom'l h toh^ se 1387 r.). 

9to 6ujih o^eHB Ba»Hafl Mipa co cxopoHu .Sra&jiu, — 
nipa, BOTopafl ne Morja ne bubocth hs^b xepntHiH jh- 
TOBCKHx^ y^^BHUZ'B BHflsefi, oco6eQHO BHTOBTa. HveAjij 

OHH npHSHajH BeJIHBHH'B KHilSeHl H COXpaHHJH 3a HHKl 

dry BjacTB, Bor^a ohi> CA&iajicji nojiLCBHMib sopojieifB, ho 
CsHpraMJiy ohh ho Hs^npajiH (xota utepeMOHui iiepBaro 
B36paHiji H CA'i^jiaHa 6uab, UrsAjioi) h He npHSHaBajiH 
SHfldem. Ohi ctbhobrjca na^^ hhmh homhmo hx% bojh 
H corjiaciH, cTaHOBHJCH no BOJit HveAjiu. E% AOBepmeHii) 
pasApaseHia, GBHpraSjy ospysHjiH noJiBcsie cob^^thhbh: 
cjii;i[OBaTej[BHo, objitb c^'^jiaHo napymenie ycjionift coDsa 
JIhtbu c% nojiBmeS. 

Bhtobtib cTaii cepBesno xyMaxB o CBoeH% nojoaceniH. 
HaA^flTBCji Ha Qfixe^^Hnenie B;i;pyrB bc^}^^ ch^i jkhtqp- 



L 



— 122 — 

tEavb euy 6iuo Tpy^HO. Owb 6uja otobb paaxeAMHeHH. 
Eoibmaa ^acTb yx^bHUX'B KflJisefi 6uih pOAHue 6paTba 
AraSjiu. Oa'h, Bhtobtb, oxhei np&ACTaBHieA poxa Keft- 
cryTa*), npe^craBHTeit crapoft JIhtbu, anaqHTaibHo yae 
pas'beAHHeBHofi eh pyccxon WGTbn JiHTOBCEaro RHaser 

CTSa. BHTOBTy HeofixOAHHO 6UJI0 BCKatb COnSHHSOBl Ha 
CTOpOHi. Bx ABit CTOpOBU Buy NOXHO 6ltX0 OfipaTHTbCS 
Sa 9TH1IK CODSHHKailH: aa BOCTOKI KL HOCEOSCKOIiy BBflBD, 

BAB Ba saaaAB &% crapHH-b saaKOimairb puqapjSKi. Gjiy- 

qafl AOCTaBBJl BHTOBTy BOSHOXHOCTb BOfiTH eh 6zB3KijI 

CBomeBiB ci ^HiiHTpieHi J^oBCKiiH'b. Cua% droro boci^a- 
Bxro, BacKjig, Bosupan^aflCb oti xaBa, 'bxaJ'B vepesi Moji- 
Aasiio a BojiuHb h sa^xaji si BBTOsry, vb JEyi^si. 3a^b 
OHi no3BaKOHtucA cb ero ao^@P^» Co4)ieft; oBa evy no- 
BpasHJiacb B 6uja o6pyieBa. £i ^HUHTpin ornpaB^eRo 

6EIJI0 BOCOJbCTBO. Bl BCHX 6HJH H BOJflBfl, KOTOpUO B 

BepeAaJB botohi Ara&J^ cavHfl a^phua BaB^bcrijt o 
Apyxfii BBTOBra Gb hocrobckbh'l KHaseHi. MexAy Bk- 
TOBToifb H Hrafijott bpobcsoahjh BeapiaTBua o&bacHeHU. 
Crapaa Bpa»A& HeacAy hbhu BoaofiaoBxajaCb. CKaprafi^o 
cB;ibHo pasAyBaxb ee. ^oraAusaioTca, qto ^raftjo, 6oacb 
eaomeaifl BaxoBTa ci MocRaefl, aasBaHaji euj Bpetiu- 
Baaie BH'!bcTO Jtyi^Ra b'b Rpesi^, aoftjHxe Kb Bbilh^ k, 
ciibAOBaTejiKBO, aofijtaxe m aaCjifDAeaiio CaHprat^u. 3to 
Busejo BuTOBTa as'b lepn'ibBm b sacraBHJio fipocaFbca «b 
HpoTflBoao^osayn CTopoBy orb Mocecbu, cb pui^paHt. 
Onrs, (fkaum-b Kb HasoBei^KOiiy aaasi), cb aoropuirb 



Epan ero CflrnSMyBjcb (fiun eqe oiesb hojoxk, xi>TB ero en^e 



/' •; 



— 123 — 

tfujTb wb po;i[ctb£, a orxy^^a wh DpycciD, kx pui^apaHiB 
(1390 r.). 
^JA npycesHX'B pui^apeS TaKofi o6opovb xhi'b 6fijn> 

HCTHHHOK) HaXOABOd. Ji,Jia HHXl CODS'B JIhTBU Cb IIOJIB-^ 
ISei 6UA'B B&lH^afimHM'b 6iACTBieM'B, HeBUHOCHMErM'& 3J[om:b. 

06'b HeM'b OHH no Bceft EBpoa*]^ pacnycsajiH Gaxan ^ypHHA 
HSBicTiA. Ohh pasrjaniajH, who o6pam;eHie &*& xpHCTian^ 
GTBy flsu^ecRofi JlvLTBu He 6oj[ie^ KaB'L TeaipasbHoe npe^* 
craBjefiie, ^to nanpoTHB'E jtHTOBesoe ji3UHecTB0 norjo*- 
in;aevb xpHCTiancKyio IlojiEiiiy, ?to TenepL Ha ciBep'i^ 
EBpoDU npouaAaeiTB jijbjio JiaTHHCTBa^ noxoMy too, 6jiaro- 
^apji o6HaHqHBOMy o6paii^eHiio JIhtbu ^epoB'E IIojiBmy, 

HCTHHHUe peBHHTOJIH JiaTHHCTBa HO CTaHyT'b CTpeMHTKCA 

vb npycciro, BCTynaTB wh op^eH'B. 

HsB^Tifl H cjMflfinm puiiiapeg aauioiain Teh ce&b 
MHoro HenpaBAU h sjonaM^peHHOCTH; ho 6Hj[a b^b hhx'b 
H Aojia npaBjg^u. HpaB^^a 6iijra b:b toui, ^to TorAamH^a 
nojibma, He6oj[i>niaA npocTpancTBOH'k h HCToni;eHHaji aoji^ 
roBpeiieHHHHH CMyTaMH, KasajracL cjihihroh'b cjafioio ne- 
pe^'B rpoHa;i;HHM'B jihtobcbhitb KHflacecTBOM'b Toro BpoKenn 
H Horjra no;^aBaTBca ero Bjianifio. Eu^e 6ojrbe iipaB^H b'b 
TOM'S, ^To o6paHi;eHie JIhtbu b^b jaTHHCTBO 6u^o ^aJieRO 
HenojiHoe h neycnfeniHoe. Ocofieneo cnpaBe;«;jiHBo 9to 6hjio 

no OTHOmeHiK) B'B ^My^H, ROTOpoft AftSK^ HO CM'&IH TpO- 

HyTB B'B TO Bpesra. Majio SToro: b'b to BpeMH, RaR'B Jlra&JEO 
xpecTHjEi B'B BHJEBHt asHHecRys) JiHTBy, JSMy^^B BOCRpe* 
majra y ce6a CBoe asu^ecTBO cb oco^ohhod TopmecTBOH- 

HOCTBK). Cjiy^HJIOCB TOF^a, ^TO »My;i;HHH HOfiHJH OJSJiWb 

orpjiA^B npyccRHX'B pimiapefi h bsajeh wb ujrkm>, Mem^y 
npo^HHH, Basnaro pmi^apcRaro canoBHHRa, ROManAopa. 
Oh? pinmJTHCB npHnecTH ero b'b apepTBy cbohm'b fioraif^ 



Ll^ 



-- 124 — 

H cosrJH XRBoro, eo Dentin. BoopyzeBieH'b, Ha Konb, - y 

CBoero CBaTHJHn^a. 
GaH'b Bhtobtb HeBojbBO AOJineu-b Cas-b npiieHaTi. cbaj 

o6BHHeHifi puiiapeB: h AQsasa,Tb cmawb nocryBKoui aeo6' 

'"■"locTi Hxi cymecTBOBMiH. Ohi jojaeffib &ix£ ycry- 
Bi saion puqapuMi. ary eaiiyn ^Myj;b, noA'b ycjo- 
, HX^ xeHexHod H BoeHHofi hokoiiie Bi opeACtoaiii,efi 
fk cb S.r^xo&. FHuapH ABHHyjH cboh Boficxa. Bh- 
,, MejKsy Tint, nycnm cboio aponaraHjty bi ary 
0, jwe saupoxaiiayio iih-l ^MyAi-, co6paii orryAa 
iHHus'B OHy JSAeS H BHicri CB pui^apaHH Bciy- 
Bb Amay, 00 BanpaBjteaiio k-b FpoAHy s set'^h'l 

agjo B% 3T0 Bpexa inerb Tose Cb BOtCKavH aai 
[DH H Dpesxs Bcero aa^a^'b aosoparii cBoei BjacxB 
:ana;iHyi> oSiacrb Bhtobta, — ^oporHHUs'b, Ep^acKi) 
frie ropOAa. 3;t4cb oHt cubso ■ fiaai aaflepsaH*. 
xy ero atecroRo uim&Ms pyccKie, Koropue sesxk hb- 
jut Sraixi. KaKi B&auKO 6u;[0 HXi nepacaojioseHie 
BHy Bst-sa coDsa ci Jloxbmelk, uoxBO cyjtBTb BoroHy, 
Eorxa pNiiapB a Bbtobti BojicryoBJiB a-b BH^bH'ib, to 
b pyccKifi BHxeHCRiS HOHaxi HAjijiiAXb 6uao noAsevB 
iCKyu sptaocTk, sasjiTyKi noj^EaHB, ^toSu oga h 
aa BpeAaBH 6ujih bi pyKH zzMmarb sparoB'B pyc- 
• HapoAa B HpaBocjaBiB — puiiapefi, a Be Hrafiji^. 
qeui., HeBtpaocTi. pyecKHxt ropaaso iSiMie aaTpys- 

noxoAi ^atju aa nri JIbtbu, HeacaiB CKOJbEO 
'a:ia pui^apairb bi caMoft lUTsib. Sxbch 6Uso He 

euifi npeAaflBuxi AratJii JOOXfiA, oco4ieHDO naaa- 
— BoeBHuxt, EOTOpiie yAanBO oTpasajw BanaAema 
pett. TaKBHi otipasoiTB, o^ ctopoHS BcauriiBUH 



r 



125 — 



tt^yxft^ft, jTOMjiijiitcB, He Bujtjkxii KOHita 6oph6i. Hcho 
5airo TOJiBKO to, ^o ctpana pasop^eTCJi h BHro^a 6jjsfifPii 
fie Ha ctopoH^ .SrafijH hjih BHroBra, a Ha CTopoHi 
pHQapet. 
dT^v 6mb cottH^dm, coo6pa»eHiA notfyxHjH flra&Jty 

BOftlH BG^ TadHUfi 6H0medliI CTB BjHtOWtOVb H OTOSBaXB 

ero ora p£in;apeil o6ini;aHieMi HcnojtHHTB Bct ef o asaia- 
Hk. Bhtobttb j^iScTfiHTejTBHO 64aajii ot* pni^apeft, npH- 
japnica ci» JtraS^oS h cA&iaHi 6itjrb BejiHBHM'& juih)b- 
6X011 a amy^^cKHMx RHaseMTB. CRHpra&jto jiHmeA'B fiujn 
3BaHi£[ jiH^oBCKaro Knsi^a h nepene^^eH'B 6uj[rb £li& KieBi 
ci tHTyjEoMi o;i;Horo toejiHKaro pyccKaro rhjisji (1395 r.), 
Bhtobti, noBH;i[HMOHy, CTaji'B TenepB o'^eHB bucoko, ao* 
CTHr^B CBOHX'B i^'liefi. Ho 9T0 BUcoEoe H BH^HMO Mory- 
H^ecTBeHHoe" HOJiosenie 6ujio HifB Bynjieno o^eHB ;(oporo 
H cHjiBHo ocjra^HJo ero sna^enie Ha boctok*]^ sanaAHOft 
PocciH. npHHHMaa BBaHie BejtHBaro jHTOBCRaro h Mijjir 
CKaro RHflSA^ OHi AOJiaReni 6hijrh oTRasaTBca ot% BceS no^H 
MajopocciH H oCTajiBHyio ^acTB jiHTOBCRaro RH^acecTBa 
Timie npHB^aaTB ri nojiBiii'6. Oht. ^aJi o6fl3aTejBCTBO 
6htb vh HepaspBiBHOMi coiDs^b CB Jlrafi^ofi h, ^to co6ct- 

BCHHO BaSHO, B'B HOpaSpEIBHOM'B COK)3'6 CB IIOJIBnied. BoC- 

TORi H Dri sana^Hoft PocciH CTajiM oTmaTUBaTBCA otb 
Hero H saifBjifljtH dTO BoscramflMH ho^th bo bc'^x'b pyccRHxi 
ofiiacTflX'B. nocjii 1393 ro^a mu bh^hitb, ^to bx sthx^b 
ofijiacTaxi no^^HHuaercH 6yHrB sa 6yHT0Mi. TaRi h3- 
b^cthh: 6jBTh Tjii6B. CMOJieHCRaro (cuna GBiiTOCJraBOBa), 
6yHTi KopH6yTa ciBepcRaro, BjaAHMipa BOJUHCRaro, 0eo- 
j^opa noAOJEBCRaro h oeo6eHHo o6e3noROHBaBHria .Slraijiy 

(jHTB CBHJ^pHrafljEU. HaCROJBRO MOSHO Cy;^HTB no CRyAHUMl 

HSBfbcriflMi o6% dTHxi 6yHTax:B, TjmBEilimev) hx'b npn- 



>'• 



L>«. 



?HHOD {>iuo osHBjeHie npexaBifi o BejiHKOirb xaiisrb xies- 
CKou-h H B% TO xe BpQxa 6orb& h 6ai^ Haerofi^HBUH 
yciJlfl IIojtbniH spHBflsaTL Maiopoeciro vh ceGi. Heaio- 
(SHHufi, pasryABug uescsifl Kaasb h auuKit johh^kb 
noabHTH, GKHprafijio Aasaji 6jaroBHAHHe opeAJorH k% 
(SyHTaui, B TaKHui oGpasoHi saTeiiHAuicL aMctdht&ib- 
Bua Hzii npu^HBu. Ho Bbtobtj oh^ 6iijH oieah achh. 
Obi BH^fliHBaJCfl bi a'^& Dro-BoCTosa sanaxHofi Poccih, 
jCKHpaJTB CyHTu Aaae ™ coDsi et .flraftioS, jtake »03- 
CTaHOBJHfb na^aBiiiyK) BJiacTL KieBCKaro srbss CKupra&JH; 

HO B'B A'i^^CTBHT&IBHOCTH 0H1> B03CTaH0BJlaJ'S CBOIO KlaCTb 

Bh MaiopocciH, npKBjesajB ki ce6^ pyccsHzi. 3to Bcsop^ 
H o6&apyatBJoci>. 3% 1396 roAy nocj'it CMepru CKHpraJini 
BHTOBTb, yxce ne cnpamzBaa saRoro, caui seh^J'E Ma- 
jopocciD, a ^epesi ABa ro^a eqe acwie otisapynHJi, Ki 

VeNy OBI CTpeHHTCH. 

Mu roBopoB, HTo Jlraltio o&asajica BuojaTHTb h3% 
pyccKHXi AOxoAOB'B MflJivh 3a flABHry bi nojbsy Bhj3>- 
TBibKO.. .SABHra, coxpaH^Bmaa k% BaxbrejihKj CTapyn 
BpHBAsaHHOCTL, ecTecTBeHHO xjoQOTajia, •rtoGa 9Th A^H^rH 
6hjih BHUJia^eHBi. B% 1398 rOAy OHa HaDONHHjra o&b droiti 
Bhtobtj, sasi BaiHsoHy iCHasx), yDpaBAsBmeuy h pyc- 

CKHUH 0(!jaCT£HH JIUTBU, Ct SOTOpUX'b AO-IXHU 6aXJi 6UTb 
COfipaHU 9TH AGEbrH. BHTOBT'b HeHCAJieHHO COCpait B'b 

JlyQEi pyccEHXi JK)A6fi H ci> BeroAOBaaieMi oS'babiu'b hhi 
o6i 9T0m yHHSHxejihBOH'B TpefioBaniH, CKasast iipH droiiK 
^HH He pa6ii noibmu; dpoakh naniH HBEOuy He miaTHJH 
AaBK. Mu jiiojtH CBo6oAHue h HameB3 sponiD npio6p^jiH 
Hamy aeiiJiR)''. Bee 3to nepeAano 6iuo b'l daibmy. Gts- 
[ii noAoapJ^Hia n aHTunaTiu ozhjih. SraHxb npuzoAK- 



^<:^ 



— 127 — 

lOCL (SoATBCa CHOBa pbrnSLTeXbEUTb lAph CO CTOpOHU Bh- 
TOBTa* 

Bhtobti, wh csMOWh ^iA% 6oj[ie h 6ojrbe pasBepTU*' 
WL'b CBOH niHpoKie njraHH, o6£iii;aBmie BanoMHHTb jhtob- 
CROHy BHJiaKecTBy cjaBHUA BpeHena OjBrepj^a. He vh oa" 
loi MajopocciH oh'b BoscTaHOBHj'b gbos) BjiacTB, a craji'b 
pacnpocTpanaTB ee h Ha Bocxo^nod cTopoH^ ^H^npa, — 
noKopHjcb CHOjreHCRyK) o6j[acTB h ch^o bjIju^b v Ha IIckobi 

I HOBFOpOA^, SaKp'i^nHJl'B CBOD BJaCTL B'B c^BepcEofi 06- 

lacTH H Boesajii pAsancKoe bhasbctbo. Pjstaomi cb aTHMi 
owh dSLXS^iiSLJTb CA^jiaTB A^ii pjccBHX'b H CBoero BHA»eCTBa 
H BocTOHHofi PocciH BeJHBoe Ao6po — cJOMaTB Morynj^ecTBO 
noBajHTejia wro-BOCTo^HBixi Taxapi bphmcbhxi -*- 9;i;Hreji, 
I Ri 1399 ro^y noniej['B ciBoficsaMH b'b TaTapcsHH^B Bja- 
A^HijiMi. Ho 3A^CB c^acrie hsm'I^hhjio OMy. Ha 6eperax% 
BopcKJLu offB 6uAT> Ha TO JOBy pas^HTi TaTapaMH, — 3a to 
norepn^^ nopasenie) saM^^aeTi o^^hhi sanaAHo-pyccBifi 
liTonHcei;!! (ABpaansa — em,e ne HSAaHHufi), qTo OTCTynHjPB 
OTiE npasocjaBHOfl nipu. 

Tpy;^H0 cy;i;HTB, HacBOJBBO 9to o6cToaTejiBCTBo 6ujio 
npK^HHod BToro nopaaseniA BHTOBTa, ho necoMH^HHo, hto 
laTHHCTBO BBTOBTa CHJiBHO Rsifljo Ha jijauLhuHmia ero 
Xka. Bb to BpoMji, BaB^B Bhtobti, noJiBsyacB ne^^aJSBHO* 

B^HHMl nOTBOpCTBOU'B CBOerO SATA, UOCBOBCBarO BHASa 

BacHjda ^uHTpieBHqa, 3a6Hpaj[CA ^a^Bme h ji,a.Jihme BHyTpB 
PocciH H saBoeBUBaji'B ce&b BHHManie pyccBHX'B, ero one- 

peAHJCB B% pyCCBHX'B CTpeMJeHiAXl APyroS JHTOBCRifi BHA3B, 

poj^Hofi 6paT% ^ratju, GBHApnraHJio, npaBOCjaBHud 11 
6(>iie ero o6pye&Bniig jihtbhhi. GBHApnradjio BOJiHosajEX 
pyccBoe Hacejrenie npoTHSob BHTOBTa cna^ajia na boctob^ 
E4bopycciE b'b BHTO^CBofi o6jaeTH, saT^Hi^ bq& cisepcBofi 



— 128 — 

CTpB,^% daxoHei^'B, noTicneHHuft h orcDAa, sattpaBHJicji 
cii rpoMajcflOH) ApyacHHoft wb Mocrbj h HacTOJBRo jGofbjrb 
pacicpuTB rjasa BacHJdio JJ^MHTpieM^y KacaTeiBHO Bh- 
TOBTa H pacnoJTosHTB K'B ce6^, HTO nojiynHJirb 6oraToe Bpe- 
tteHHoe ofiesaeqeHie bi hockobckovb rocy^apeTBi h npa- 

SHaH'B 6lIMfh BejrHKHMX KHASeiTb JIHTOBCKHMl. BHTOBTy 

npHnuiocB BoeBaTB ;^aaee c% cbohmi noAauEBtncB moceob- 
csHU'K dATewhi yTBepacAaTB CHOBa cboid BJiacTB Ha boctok^ 
H nro-saDa^i JHTOBCsaro RHAsecTBa h ?aiii;e h ^an^e 06- 
pain;aTB cBoe BEHManie na sana^^, ^-^ na JLarBy, na IIo«iBHiy 
M na Hrafijiy, Tkwh 6ojite, ^to h Ha sanaA*]^ naspiBaJio 
P'bmeHie aa^a^H, He Men^e AoCToflfioe BainsHX'B saHH- 
m^enifi, niwh na boctok^« 

Ha STOiTb Bana^i, -^ na ^pyroMPB kohh* jHTOBCKaro ro- 
cy^apcTsa 6ujio To»e rn'&SAOt He Hen^ HaAO^A^HBoe sa- 

na^HHlfB OiaBAHaM^B H JtHTBHHaMl, "iiwb KpuHeRoe Ta- 

TapcKoe rn^Ao pyccRHM^ socTO'iHod h sanaAHod PoccIh. 
9to — HiMen;Eoe rHfe^o npyccanx^ pHii;apeft, ot* xkb^hh- 
^ecToa EOTopux'B HsneMoraja h ^ny^B, scer^a 6jH3Ka£ 
cepjsfij BnTOBTa, h TajijtH cjasAHcm chju h a^^bo coshe- 
Hie wh noHopcEoS nojLCEofi o6j[acTH, CAaBjeHHofi, sasrB hh 

BHaeM'B, Cl ofitHXl CTOpOHl HiMBiaMH — HpyCCEHMl OpA©- 

uowh H BpaHAen^ypriefi, Kh BejiHEOMy oropHemio nojLOr 
EOBi H AraifjH. TasHSfB ofipasoMi, CHja BeiD;e£ Heo^o- 
auHO CBJtoHAJta BHEManie BHTOBxa h RvsAjlh jQ^jrs vh 
Apyry H El A^JiaM^ pHi^apefi, h t^wb CHJiLfffee, ^to npyc- 
cBoe H'bMei(Roe th'^bao ycn'kio HpoHSBecTB nopasHTejBHoe 
pasjoaceaie wb cjraBAHCEOM^B Mipi, h nreHH^Bi SToro fh^aa 

H03B0JIHJKH Ce&b HeB^pOaTHO CWbjUa JlikAB,. OhH He TOJBSO 
SpHBJieEJEH Ha CBOD CTOpOHy HOllOpCBHX'B, MeJISHX'b KHA- 

8e3, HO H ^emcEaro EopojJi. ^ase pyccKin u npaBooiaB- 



J 



— 129 



HUBf CBHApHrafljio Bomejn c% hhmh wh xaiiHoe corjiame- 
Hie H j[,jn 9Toro 6iaKaji'B h3i MOCKOBCKaro rocy^^apcTBa. 
He roBopHM'^ yate o repMancKOMt HMnepaTopi CH^H3MyH;^i, 
RiaAiTej[LHOM% KHfl3'& 6paHAeH6yprcKO]rL n o BeHrepcEoifB 
KopoJii, cToaBrnHxi na cTpani pHn;apeft. 06ospeHHue 

WkHE 3THHH o6CTOATej[BCTBaMH, pUI];apH flBHO OyMHJHCL 
Ha^Jt'B CBOHHH npOTHBHHBaMH, Hana^aJIH Ha nOwIBCBiA 06- 
laCTH H OJlflSLTRJlfil Sa^^yMaJIH 6UJ10 nOXUTHTL BHTOBTa B^ 

Txj6iiwb j[HTOBCKaro SHasecTBa. ^jh SToro iiXT> oxp^^'B 
3a6paj[CA 6ujio b'b BojbobuSck'b, vfl,i pKi];apH nafl^JLvich 

HaSlH H SaXBaTHTB BHTOBTa. 

flBHan H nosopnafl 6^^^, noBH;i,HMOMy, BacTaBHja ne 

TOILKO BHTOBTa, HO H Jlrafijiy CTaTB BHHie BCiX'B JIHq- 

Hux'b c^eroB^B. CTanoBHjOic^ Bume njieMOHHUx'B cieTOB^B 
H Hapo;i;H hxi> ^ocy;^apcTB^b — pyccKie, hojakh h jhhtbhhh. 
HonrjH Ha 3Ty 6opB6y cb niMi^aMH nojOHane, BHTe6ni;aHe 

H CMOJIBHaHe, KOTOpHXl (t. 6. HOCJliAHHX'B) BOJITb ;^06JCeCT- 
HNH JtHTOBCBiS KHflBB K)pig CeMeHOBH?^ H KOTOpUH'B HpH- 

mji^AexsLTh nepBaA cjiaBa wh SToft 6wrBi, IIomjiH bojiu- 
MHe no;!;^ Ha^ajTLCTBOM^B HSB-fecTHaro 6opi^a 3a PycB, 
KM3a Geo^opa OcTpo»CKaro. IIodijh no;i;oj!iaHe no^iji Ha- 
^aiBCTBOHi Geo^opa KopiaTOBH^a. npH6£i«iH b'b npe;i;']^Jii>i 
DojiLinH H JIhtbh jry^mie TorAamnie cjaBAHCBie paTO- 
6opi^H, TaBi HasuBaBmiecfl Bnoar^ACTBrn ryccnTu, hoa'b 
HanajBCTBOMi CoKOJia, a Bnocji4ji;cTBiH, roBopaTi, npH- 

6UJ[% H 3HaMeHHTHH fi^HHIRO. RoCJl'k HGMaJIOBpeMeHHHX^ 

c6opoB:B H KOJiefianift, ecTecTBeHHux'B ^epe;^^b pimemeMt 

BeiHEoft 3a;(a?H h ycnjeHHUX'B hsb'I^cthoh) nep'i^niHTeiL- 

HoeTiD HranjEU, cjiaBjaHCRifl h H^neipcifl chjth cohijihcb 

10 r. y FproHBajiBjUeHa. 9Ta 6HTBa fiHJia KaK'B 6h boc- 

OHSBeAenieMi namefi snaueHHTon RyjHROBCKofi ^htbkt, 

9 



— 130 — 

[CTBHTejiiHO, Ha Hee ona noiOAH^ia He tojibko o&b- 
riem ppoaajiHuxi. h pasHopojHuxt ms-h h Baano- 
icTopH^ecRod sa^a^H, bo s,axe e soaohi cborki. 
acb ona raxxe, caEi h xysmmvcKsui 6HTBa, Heyja- 

[A C:iaBflHCKHZ1 H JHTOBCEHXl CHJTb. PuuapH Ba- 

npes^e Bcero Ha JiHTOBCide hojeb h nojiaitHJiH aicb. 
no;taBaTi>c;{ h nojibCEie orpiiAU- ^ase krshl ^^raSjru 
rxe Bi onacHOCTH. MHorHHt yse KasaJioci,, tto Bce 
0. Ho ycToaiK h Bu;(epiBajH bc^ H^Hei^Kie y^apu 
! nojEH, oco<ieHHo AofijeCTHue cKOibaaEe cl cbo- 
CHXsein lOpieiTk, a^jh bo3hoshocti> onpaBBTbca 
[aHi H nojHEatTB, h cnacjiH Bce jiikio. pQiiapH 
H crpauiHoe oopaxeHie, oti soroparo caHH- yse 
;a He HorjH onpaBHTLCA, n onpasHJucb tojibeo yxe 
teoGpasHBinieca norouEu — npyccasK npn 6jaroAyni' 
sHHuamu CBOHst BparoBi: hojiaeobi, a hotok'b pyc- 

npyccEie puiiapH hof^h 6ijtl Torja coBepnreHBo 
)xeHu; HO ^rafijio ne yiiiji'B BocaoibaoBaxiiCfl ho' 

H o6Hapy»HjrL eiii,e Tasyn es ciopony, Koropaji 
oa H BHTOBTa OTsaaaUhCa (m npoAo^xenis boBhu 
paTHTLCfl Ha3axi< co Bci^HH CBOHHH CHJiauH. Bhtobtl 
b, ?T0 3» nopaxeHieHT. pui^apelt jipixno nocjiiiify- 
rp ctXicTBeHHOe nopaxenie. ^^itCTBHTeibHO, hojaeh 
iCHo fiocnojibsOBaJHCL, no oTHomeBiE> ei BnTOBTy u 
Wh, 0CJia6jieBieH'B pmiapefl h otohi> HCaycHO na- 
yMpi K TOMy co^yBCTBiBS, KEEoe npio6p^:b Ba- 
Men^y pyccEHHH, b touv SHaieniH), EaEoe vorjn 
I nojy^HTL 3TH noej[i;[Hie. 

li nopaxenifl puniapefi, hojaeh ciajH chjilho xy- 
> TOHi, East 6a osoH'^aTejiLHo npHBAsaib jhtob- 
MaHcecTBo Ki nojknii. EjraroBH^iHUft npeA-iorx e'b 



— 131 — 

HaxoAH-iH Bi TOMi, ^To o6a rocy- 
Tt, (JujfH yaie ne mojoau h y 060- 
HaCj'bjtHHKOB'B*). BMtcTi ct livb, 
, EaE'b 6u cuji.H'Jte npHBJieiL rt, 

GCTb JIHTOBCKarO RHA«eCTBa. FOBO- 

HMnepaToprt CHrHSMyH^i npBCout- 
nee cpejcTBo, — nnTb SHaTntSmBM'L 
p^H, coejtKBeHHue ci pasHHHH npe- 

. KaKt 6h nOpOAHHTt HKl. CL DOJIfl- 

teit, Bt 1413 rOJiy cosBas'B 6a3'b 
iBiieBt H nojiBKOBt Bx TopoAJii **)■ 
aBJreni npotjiaBJteHnuB nojiJiKaHK 
tHHCHia JIhtbu ch Ho^tniefl. Cym- 
Diajact Bt cj'i;iyK)meMi: 

3eAHHlII0TCA B'L O^HO FOCyAapCTBO, 

JTE, JIuTBa apHsnaer'B rocy^apeMt 
jocji^ euepTH JlragjH noJiaEH h36h- 

BUU H AO-IHtHOCTH, Q0A06hQJI BOJIL- 

BO, no Bu6opy BHTOBTa, yAocxoH- 

KtBt, npHimCUBaaCIi KI nOJbCEHM'B 

rep6aHU h pasHUHH npeHHyuie- 
STlCa TOJbRO JHIia aaTHHCKaro B'ipO- 
:kii h npoiie HeBipBue (et alii infi- 
HttiTh H Be HoryTb saBHuaxt bb- 
Bocreft. 



\, npycciH, CsjH oTpaGjieaH. 
:koS lyCepmn, ne ja^eKO on BjiatHiripa 



. — 132 — 

STHUt aKTOM'B BhTOBT'B H ^aTHHCKOfi JIh 
npUBflSaHU K'B IIoJILln'L; ho ButCTi Ct T^M'b Xi 

B&uu (yr-h pyccKHXi 3aiia;iH0H Poccia. ropo;i,e 
saKpinMi H ycHJiHJ'B to pasA'li-ieHie uexx, 
PvcLio, KOTopoe npeat^te cawo co6oio HaKJionajia 
, a Teaepii npoHsseAeHO Hacu^BCTBeHHO 
[H. JlKTBaau-xaiEEaue nocraBJieHU bi 
)A'B, pycCKie npasocjiaBHUe — b'S no^toacE 
IBM 6\i HB 6ujiH AoSpuA OTHomeHifl uei 
HHH H KaKi 6u qacTO HH paspjinajiocL i 
oasA&reHie Meayiy hhmh, ho ipyxHO 6hji 
BpaxA^. Tpy^HO 6iJJio rocno^aHi. He 
jaxb pa6aHX CBOe rocnoj,CTBO h Tpyj(HO ( 
osMymBTbCfl OTHMi rocDOflCTBOMi.. 3a ro; 
a-b HemeAJieHBO uocniaftB&x^ asa coCht 
i BHCKasajoet rocnoacTBO bi JIhtb4 mi 
ipaatenie pyeeKoS: caMo6uTHOCTn. ycHjreHi 
HCTBa no BCeft HiBiyjtH h yBBiTO»eHa 
jtHo-pyccKoft KepKBu on, BocTOHHO-pyecKs 

. IIOAHSJIHCL Jlfi&e TOJEH BBOAOHiH I 

m nepKOBHOH yflia, 4eMy co^'ititcTBOBan 

COUH^Bia, He aO JIh6bH Kb JiaTHHCTBy, : 

BoacTanoBHTb, nocpejieTBOMi yBia, rpaatji;i 
BHX'b sanajtHOu PocciH. Cjobomi, Bceuy 
lecTBy cA^ani chjilruS BuaoBi ki ore 
ero pejiHriosHux'b h rpawAaHCEHX'b sa^a. 
Ho-noJibCKoti i^HBHJiiiaaqiH a hih3bh. ] 
■ KaEi 6a .yflHHTOffiaJH bc^ Me^ru, bc^ 

a CaU06liITH0CTH, BesaBHCHMOCTlI JIHTO 

Ba, H Cai-b BejiH^aflnieio co CTopoHU IIo. 

pHOCTlH) Kb CaMOBy BHTOBTy U OCOlSeHHO 



— 133 — • 

» na.^ rt""-»'^^'3oe y^erie s^ rpB3HBaJ[t;i;eECKofi 6b 

BeiH^a^uxEH^ HenoHKuaHieiH^ eji (uiaMBCKaro shi 

He oojiy^eja HHKaaoro aoBaro onaBascKaro oatHBJie 

uasflHCBie siHTeJitf CHJiesiz, hh QOJbcaie noHop^ 

yaie ofii ocTatiEaxi flpyraxi sanaABuxi e. 

I a JIa6iJ, a 0CE0p6jeHU ii yHHxeEU cboh ;i: 

jBTOBCKaro KHsacecTBa H caMi Bhtobt^, ^i 

KTa, BHTOBTy yate HeBoaMoaHO fiujo aarfess 

pynnoe. Ohi Mon TOjtEO saHflitca BHyrpe 

;TpoScTBOMi cBoeii crpauu. TaRt ohi h cs 

M-B BUEasaji'b nopasHTejiLHyio hsu^h^hbocti 

cicasaTL, cosepmeEHoe GezpasAume £■& oaqi 

b. Bi HeMi CKasajiocb Kairb CyflTo oTyntiii* 

&■& HHCTHHKTOB'B, CTpeMJieHiS, KOTOpUMH TaEi 

ra BejiHEaa Ayma. 

Jhtobti He najti pKOH^axejitHO, Era ciiacj 
u DOJibCRoii i^uBH^HSaEiK TO xe, VFO cnaa 
CBoe speHA X^siHJia raJiHiiKaro, — larapH 
yjE CHOBa BejHqie BuTOBTa h BOaCTaHOBHJH 

pyCCKHMi BOCTOKOM'L. 

aHiit XIV CTOJiiiia TarapcKift Mip'B craJi't ] 
;ji H pa3j('fejiaTLCa na jtfi-b nojoBBHU, Bocroy 
, lOataaa ?acTb xaiapi ciajia npHj(BHraTbeH 
y KHJHJBecTBy h jtasajia qyccTBOBaxb CBoe coei 
b, soTji H DOTepn-Jtji'b orb HHxt uopaxenie, 
BaJi-b oTpaataTfc nx-b Ha64rH, H HMiji-b TaKoe 
aeie Ha Baataoe cpe;ioT05ie ratapcKoft chjiu 

qTO saate qacTO HOBiia^aJi'b Tyjta xanoBi. 
la-L TaTapcKHXt xanoB'b, kakl ToxTaMunii, 
'B% Hasoji,a 3n,icb yfiiatHme h noMomt nj 

iiparoBi. Bjiarojuipji 3THmi y^a^HUMi k\ 



— 134 — 

Bie BHToBxa sa boctorI noAHaJoCb cHosa. Oao ca^- 
b BCKop'fe o^eub BaxflUH'B H AJiJi saaa^a, EOTOpoNj 
V CTOJ'tnH TypKH name h ^aiiie rpo3HJiH onacHocriio 
ipb Toro, KaKi paspymajm BHsaHxiilcKyio uHuepiio. 

lIiaA'i Bl 3T0 BpeMfl CUJLHO aaHHHaja HUCJb o B0306- 

HiH KpecTOBUxi HoxoAOB'b, Bceo6ii[eu'B QoxoA'i^ npo- 
TjpoKt. Hunepaiopi CurBSHyHji'b xejajii a-ia aroro 
awn, CHJU nojiLCKia, JHTOBCsin h BOCTO^HO-pycCKiji. 
ifb ecrecTBeHHO noMn^n'b tiuJi upii stoui urpaTb 
jflniyio pojrt. y Hero a ptmujiacb rocyflapa cftsaTbca 
OB^iu,aHi;!. Bi 1429 r. Bi JIyi(K'6 cocTaBUJUi 3T0T'b 
i. Cio;ia eoOpaJiHct: Jlraftjo, HMiiepaTopi CHraa- 
> CO MHoatecTiiOM'B B'^ueiiKBX'b KHaaeS, kockobckiS 

BacHjitt BacujbeBHqii xoiKe co UHorHHU y^'itjibuuHH 
»aii, 6ojipaHH, A&ace ci HUTponojHToiui. 4>0Tieirb, 
b j^aTCEig, nancKiH Jierart, rpoccueftcTep'B iipycciUH, 
;a Ba;iaxcKig. TaKoe SHa^enie BuxoitTa 3,1a sana^a 
m ecrecTBeHHO noBe^o Kb roiiy, hto ciajiB, Meajy 
Ml, AyiaTi TOMt, qTo6u ero B^aqaTb KOpojieB- 
. ntHDioM'b. 3Ty Muuib uoAfui'b repmaHeKift KHnepa- 

HM^Buiiii ijpH 3T0HI, KOHeiBo, Hau^peHte pa^opBaTL 

JIuTBbi ct UoJibiueA. Cawo coSoio paayM'feeTGa, qro 
H npujnjtu B'b Hayujienie, Eor^a ysHaJiH o&b dTOM'b 
OJomeHiH, k iioRejia HHTpHrii, qiofibi ero paapyniHTb. 
Tt OAHaKO 60.11 yB'ipefli, 5to KOpOHa cMy jtocTa- 
, u saupocHJ'b irJ^ROTopux'b roCTeS sa cboe) soposa- 
i BwjibHy, I'^it (1430) ci HeTepniHieMt o»H;i,aJi'b 
ij. KopoHa A'l>ticT''H'rejLHo uijia Ki HCMy, bo He 

AoilTU. Ee iia;iep«aju uojihkh. Mejic^y Hm Bh- 
, Toi'^ta yme oienb CTap[jft, chjilho crajii aaneKo- 
lewy MHoro coAliHCTBOBajM upasArrecTBa h iionoHKM 



— 135 — 

.% a «b csopoHt DpeHOBH yiiepi, 
u H sau^aTHB'b tHRawb o6pa30M'L 
jtaHL noKJioHeflia aana/ty. 
Hb 3T0TI BejHKJg jihtobckIA ^ejio- 
iHHO, HHoro EpyuHUxt onrnfioicb, ho 
oHb ue uoKH^afinitM mucjiu o Heaa- 
HTOBCKaro EHAxecTBa. Ohx ne yapo- 
ITH u 3Toro Bejiuiiiii. Ho sau^qa- 
^rafijo, aoBM^HMOBy, HMieinie bo3- 
Teuept ;tt30 BaxoBTa, HeaoJiBHo 
b ero H noujii ero cnepTH, Bhtobtb 
, H uocJii CBoefi cHepTH. Obh He 
laaaaiHTj. Teuepb flja ynpasjeuia 
corjiacMJtuct AOuycTHxt n&xe cbo- 
eiiaro KHaaa, t. e. noKopHJiBCi. CTa- 
am, no KOTOpOMy, ecja yMMpajit 

TO HOBUS KHflSb HSfiHpaJICfl Jipy- 

iMmHUH caEOBHHKauH. Bi 1430 r. 
T> BHibHt. npe^JoxeHu 6ujih paa- 
BHTOB'ra, CumauyH^cb, AjiescaHAP'b 
S, CurusHyHA'b KopufiyTOBuqt, Cbh- 
iU. Hsftpaa'b CBUApurafljio. Fouo- 
i>HO HacxaBBaji^ sa 3Tou:b HafipaHiii. 
[TO laicb Cujio Uu CAtaaHO u C>e3% 
iIh npHH;{jia y^acTie pyccEaa jhtob- 
He MorjiH aaAaBHTb HUKajcia spas- 
B odcTOJiTejibCTBa. Ohe upu stomi 
ero qeaoBtfca, pyccKaro, npaBOCjiaB- 

ly, KOTOputt AigCTBHTCJtbHO H AO" 

eii c% nepsaro ^Ha CBoero Bcryu- 
BCTo-ii. Oii-b TopatecT eaHUM'b o6pa- 



— 136 — 

SOH'L KOpOHOBaJIC^ jraTOBCKHMl KBaXeCSHU'L B^ 

mejii sh anpoay bi aTpHfiyTasi KsaxecKHS'b 

-jTb coKpoBHii^b BflTOBTa, tpo6h flOKasai 

jpexojwTL Kt HeMy. UoMVuut., Chbih 
) cHJbHo He noHpaBBJOCb. Ho GBHjiptirat 
Ha Biivb BHHHaHia. Oat He otipantaji] 
7«hai,a.B\& HragJiu. HanpOTHB'B, cnrfiito h 
?To coDSi ^UTBU CL nouffleH Bpe^eH? 
irafijo. He noA^HHeH'B hb HoJibmi, bh £ 
jTHTOBCKiil Bojei) fioxieS h no Haci' 
Kb. J^oxoJ^HJ!o j,4jo y Hero xo KpynHo: 
)fi, ocoCbhho BO Bpewa napoBi. OAHaatj 
cpe;(H ccopu jtaate no^epran, roBopart 

IRH npHHUH B-b yXUCh 0Tb HOAoSsU 

rifjiH HOJiBy, ?To flragjio Vh oi^ay y Oi 
macHocTH. PocHHcaHbi 6uih o6i> axoHt 
rocy^iapcTBa u, bi oco6eHHOCTH, Kt d 
jB ci> TaKOH) »e ni,eApocTiH). Hanncaji 

E Wh nOJIkmy H ^HTBj: I(^bK> BCtZ'b 

ie ^raHJiu h BOScTaHOB^enie ero aaaci 
[i Cujt 6e3onaceH%, h hokhho bcakhxi 
Hrh Mzph ct 6paT0U'b, c% aoropuu'b w. 

gjHSOK'B H APyaceH'b. Ho HEpl CfiHAp 

aa ue uort Ghtl BOSCraaOBJieH'B. Han[ 
[htbu ffh nojBHieH pasropajicH 6oii.Hie 
[rafijio, KaE'B ^ejOB^Ki sipHuit pyccEHU 
pyccKoe A-fejso, noTpeGoBajrs, qTofia hoji 
icb B% A^-iA BojiUHH a Eo^omE, hoto 
I oG^acTH, ^acTiio saDoeBanu Ojbrep;^o: 

IH Kb JIHT0BCKHH'BKHB3baH1TOpe3%pDACT 



F^ 



— 137 — 



re;^HMHHOBH^a orb ra jhiheo-bojiuhcbhmh rha3bamh, h j^ojisssu 
npHHOA^eacaTB jehtobcbomj BHAacecTsy. IIoji.aKH nacTaHBaJiH 

Ha TOMl, HTO 9TH OfijaCTH HM^B ^pHHa;^J^eaKa'PB. CflHflipH- 

raftjo craJTB chjod BHroHATB nojiAKOBi hs'b Bp'^^nocxeil 

YKpaKHH. nOJIJIKH CB CBOeii CTOpOHK o6paTHJIHCB K'B CHJ[^. 

Bi 1431 ro;i;y Ha^aJHCB BoenHHa ^iftcTBia keHs;i;y JiHTBofi 
H nojTBinefi H»B-3a Bojhhh h no;i;ojiiH. PyccKie b'b 9toh 

BOHHi CB HGHCTOBCTBOMI HCTpe6jraJIH B'B nOMflflyTHX^B 06- 

jiacT^xt wiaTHHCTBo. B'B 9T(Dft Boflfli npHHHMaj'B 6ojiBinoe 
H rpoaeoe msl noJEASOB'B y^acTie hsb-I^cthlih naM'B san^Hi- 

HHR'B B0.IUHH, KHA3B OeO^ljOp'B OCTpOSLCKm. OH'B, 6e3'B 

coMHinia, rj[y6oKo nyBCTBOBaJnb He6J[a^o;^apHOCTB UraniH 
K^ pyccKHMTb 3a rpBDHBa-iBAeHCKyK) no6t;i;y h noxoMy 6po- 
CHJ'B flrafijry, c:b KOTopiiMx ^McTBOBaj^ Tor^a 3a o;i;ho, 
H paTOBaj[^ TenepB sa CBHAPHraiijiy. Hepi^KO nojinim wh 
9Toft Boftfli 6oJiBine 6o^jihcb KHasa OcTpoaccKaro, ^im 
CBH^tpHraflJH. Ho Boftna 6HJia HepifflHTejBHaa h koh^h- 
JiacB HepifflHTeJiBHo, noTOMy ^to 06a 6paTa, CfiHjtpHrafijio 
H flrafijio, HacTo bxo^hjih MeaK;i;y C060K) b^ MHpHBia c^i-iKH. 
naiaKH OAHaKO bha^jih, hto nepefiicB ocTaeTca na cto- 
pofft CBH;i;pHrajtt h nujrajH k^b neMy CTpafflHoro nena- 
BHCTiro. HenaBHCTB 9Ta, 6e3:B coMHinia, MHoro noAfl,epaKH- 
BajacB jLwmnLWh^ CTporo-pyccKHM'B h npaBocjiaBHHM^ na- 
npaBjrenieM'B CBH^npHrafijra. UpH neMi, Ka3aj[0CB, BocKpecjra 
BO BceS nojiHOTi ;i;peBHaa, jiHTOBCKO-pyccKaa 3kh3hb. Ero 
OBpysajEH pyccEie h npaBooiaBHue jiEo^^n. Ero acena 6Brjiaf 
oco6eHHO iipejD[,aHa npasocjiaBiiD h ycep^HO HcnojiHajca npa- 
BoaaBHtie o6paAH. Ho-iaKH-jTaTHHaHe, cjiitjiaBinie ctojibkp 
yace BHyTpeHHHXi 3aBoeBaHiH bi jehtobckom^ KHaaeecTBi, 

MOrjH BHHeCTH TaKOrO nOBOpOTa ^fcjI'B. OhH piniHJIHCB 

raBHTB saroBop'B npoTHB'B CBH;i;pHraftj[H. FoBopaT'B, 



L 



— 138 — 

^rafijIO H3BiCTRUfi CBOHHI B^pOJIOUCTBOH'B, SHOJIb BeUl 

H n&A-b Ha Hero cBoe conacie. Bo rieish sarosopa craji 

ft. im^jiKaUH 6pa.Vh BHTOBTa, CHrH3«yHA'I>, S&K-b BOaCAI' 

o-jHTOBCKofi uapriH. Oa-b eanaji'L na ABopei^i C&u- 

ixa B'b OmHflHax'L. Ho CsHApHragjio sadjaroBpe- 

61111, uSB-knifiai, 061, onacHOCTH, 6i»ai'£ b'l bo- 

>-pyccKiH o6jacTH h CTajrb cofiHpaxb BoBcKa nporBBi 

fb, BXOAH.I'B Vb CHOHieHifl Ct pyCCESHH KH^SbflHH, 
)6eHH0CTH CI HOCKOBCKHHrb KHflSeHl. Oj^HaKO OHt He 

yoe BoSBpaxHTb ce6i iieiHROEHa«ecKaro jiHTOBcicaro 
HejiiiSfl CKasaTb, •iTo6a CBHApiirafijo uirkAi, ueflfl- 
■jh B-h jiHTOBCKo-pyccEofi noAAopsuci, HO oHi He jwixh 
cHOJibSOBaTLCa H.caH'b ocj[a6j&i% ee cBoeio 3i,pjs,6oio 
itap^HH. ^ejoB^Kii 6;SHufi, hs TpesBufi — Cbhaph- 
jiKi6Hi'b Apy^Hi'tCA CI jiiDjtbHH pasryjibHUHH. Pu- 
noHJtJiu 3Ty cjafiocTb CBUApKragjiu h o6bopoxhjh 
lyuBUHH OHpaHU, HonoitKauH. Jioji,h A'^JbHue or- 
tajiHCb OTi CsHflpHraii^ti h ne noAJ^epaajtH ero, 
OHt AHinifJcu BJiacfH. GBHApHraitio oj^saKO AO-iroe 
peHA He cxoAUJii co CH,eHU H qacTO A^Baji. <x6rb 
Oh-b yTBepAX-tcji bi. KieB^ h bi JlyiiB^, Hiffeji-b 

)TpflAII BOilCEa, Ct EOTOpUMH XOAIUl TO □pOTffB'b 

B, TO npoTHsi CumsMyBAa. Bt KpHiH^ecKi^ spe- 
oHi y^ajidJicJi TO K'L TaTapaM'L, to bi MoJAaBiu. 
iPL G&HAPurafiJiQ, Cifrii3MyHA'B BCTynuji'b sa jihtob- 
[pecTOJi (1432 r.) 6e3Ti 6oJibmHX'b saTpyAHesifi. Ero 
HyjH H aoiiiji.epxa,Jiii — JiaTHHCRaii JHTOBcaaa napriji, 
H H BO rjiaB^ Mz-b Sr&fiJio. nocji^Hiii, BopotieMi, 
:o MOri ero noAAepatHBaTb. Hraitjo BCKopit, HHeHHO 
. ABa roA<i (1434 r,), ymepT,. Ha nojrtcKifl npecTOji 
fji'b cnu'b ero HjiaAHCJiaB'b BapHciciH. CBHApHi'ailJo 



9 — I 

mis a cTajii> OesaoKOHTb Cu- 
I Tenept He y^aJHci,. CHms- 
oa-b DpecTO^rjt. 

iTO KBAacenie CHrusuyBAa or- 
loaojioxcHuifi. HanpaaaeHieutb 
[OBUHi. PyccKie h DpaawyiaB- 
jBopa H noABeprayTH onaj'6. 
Bciojy. TopatecTBy ero oco- 
aoe HacxpoeHie CHrtfanyH^a. 
'e^eiii, cyeB^pem, saiiHHajicfl 
:aHffiautf, raAajbiitHEaMu. M- 
aa^HCb araifh BacxpoeHieu'B 
'ime, Obh yfitAMJtM ero npu- 

npOTHBl IIHOB^plI,eBl> Bl JIH- 

36 r. MM* y^ajioCL ycTpOHTt 
i^ito, EOTopaa TaBUHiB oCipa- 
[a CBoe Hd^a^io u onepe^iiiua 

HQilO (MHrnKOHt Ha TpHJWaTL 

s nopy^eou 6ujih Bci ^lija 
. jaTUHCEaro npaBOB^pi^ k 
sipiieB'L. IIpaBocjtaBHue iiep- 
iHt Hums sanpeiqajH ctpohti> 

Ht, HyXHO CKasaTb, HTO 6uji& 

nsm&a jiuTOBCKyK) khecbhsh- 
, KOTopue DOAKanHBa^H ^a- 

>UX'B BJliflHie Oujio OCOfieHBO 
SHfl%eCTBi. PyCCHTU, TaKT. 

BejiHKaro jiateia a My^e- 
■b 1114 r. no opHKasHHiia 
<p^, Tpe6oBajH BOscTaHOB^e- 

ARyMJi RHjtaHu H paxouajiu 



— 140 — 
npOTHBt ApyruKt sJioynorpefijeHiit jiaTHHCKoK u, 

H Bt HesiH CHOCHJHCb C% BOCTO^HOK) liepKOBbl 

najiHoS PocciH chilho cfijiHxajiHCb cb npasocj 
pocrpaHajm ceoe yqeeie cpe^H samvEam,. 
iHHCiffe, Bi BHTeCcKi, saxo^iHJiH ji,ax.e wh 
iHaiHieCKifl ffiecTOKocTH CarasvyEjia. bckc 
yxajiH apOTHBi aero a coScTBeHHjio e 
ispHTejbBijA, cyeB%pHufl, on% bha^Jh b* 
bt Hsu'^Hy, CTaji'L npecjijtoBaTb, saSHHTi 
'b ero nejfbUox'B h ^iob^pjijich <joi^ h 6o 

h, HH^TOaCHUUI JIIO;t«H'b, EOTOpUXl BUt) 

lied CBoeg lejJiAR. y jihtbhhob'b cocTaoH. 
3, ^To CarHSMyHji'B Hau^peHt HCTpefiaTj 
cocjioBie. Ohh p^mnjiHCb BocnojiLsoBaTbc 
i3uyHA^, AaHDUHi npa csepaceHiH Gbh^i 

IBHJIH npOTHB'B HCrO SarOBop'L. HcnOJIHHTf 

topniHKOBi 6urb AJieKcaHApi lapTopuBcE 
t). Bi 1440 r. OHi ornpaBWCH bi MtcTO 

[SHyHAa, B'B TpOKH, eii OtpSJIflKb BOgCKa 

iOBosKaxt. lapTopUHCKiS BomeJii bo abo 
yH;!;^ B'B 9to apeuH cJiyinaji'B o6if,as) 
H KOTopofi 6aj[E sanepTU. ^apTopuScRig 
aTpyAHeHiH, KaK'b upo6paTL&a Kh Caruai 
BpeHfl OHi jflHS^Jii, ^To no flBopy xo;^HT1 
iSHyHAOH'B ueAB^AHiia. 3to Eaiiejo Hap 
qacMHByio jiAA Hero iiucJib. MeAB'iAHiia i 
BOSBpaTHBiiiHGb CI uporyjiKH, itapaaaTL s 
OTBopflJiH uxt. HapTopuflcria craji nQ;i 
in OTBOpHJHCB. HapTopBittCKiil HaDajii Ha ( 
ipasHJiT) ero npn coaiScTBiH CBoero coo6rn 

H, ROTOpUit 6lIJrb pO/^OHt KieBJIAHHB'b. 



- 141 — 

pt cmepTH CflrHSMyH^ta, cocxa- 
erh nooaro ehasa. Bi> IIojiLmli, 
no, Cu^Tb BT, TO BpeM^i Ha ape- 
ijaAHCjasi. 3a ro^'b ao cuepxH 
r., OHi fiujii KpoM* Toro eine 
epuauH. 3auiiKaji ;ifi& npecToia, 
mfi ynpaBJiesievb JIhtbu; ho bh 

IJIKH Se SOT^H OTEasaTbCA OTt 

puAyuaJiH BociioAbSoiiaTi^a a^b- 
au u ptniBJiHCb HauHa^HTb bi 
UK AJifl 3Toro uaJiOJ^THflro Apaia 
I, noJibByiicL ero uajioJitTCTBovi, 

I HBH'B COfi'lb'TL HSt nOJAEOBt. 

iTb, no^roTOBJiaJtoci. coBepraeHHo 
IIpe;(CTaBHTejH JIhtbh co6pajiHct 
panieiTL Bejimcaro ehasa, iiohhho 
aesaBHCHHO orb hhxi. IIpeAJo- 
cuepTH BHTOBTa, pasHue Kan- 
b4 ysHajH, ^To noJi^KH npiiro- 
iHTOBCEOHj EHJiaEecTBy, ^a eme ci 
I neu-b. PaSAajiHCb EJtuKU CHJb- 
lojbray, H npHHSTO pferaenie ne 
TpeSJteHifl coH)30Mi ct nefi. Bi 
jEaaana mucjib, hto jy^me Bcero 
pa, Ro HO EaE-b HaH^CTHBEa, a 
HesaBHCHHaro on DojibinH khasa. 
lo6peBie. EasiiHip'b 6uji'b H36paH'b. 
a bhu'l bi. nojbmy, h hoxbo CKa- 
pyKi uojflEOB'b, BuuaH«B'b Ka- 
HOBUfi EHHSb BOSBeJieHl 6uji-b 
[jiateeKifi npeeroJi'b co BCeio Topate- 



— 142 — 

CTBeHHOCTBH). ErO OKpyatHJ'B COBiTB HS'B JTro^efi JHTOB- 

CBaro KHaacecTBa, bo rjiaBi KOTopuxt ctohjii, yMHifiniiH 
qejiOBiKi CBoero speMeHH, TeimTOJihji'h. Mojro;i;oft khasl 
ct J11660BU0 CTaj'B HsyqaTB cboh) poj^nny, pyccKift h jh- 

TOBCKifi flSHKH, CL KOTOpHMH, fiest COMHinijI, SHaKOMt 

6uji'h H ;^o Toro BpeMeHH. coi)3* cb HoJiBineft, a TiiPB 
6ojiie ^o;^HHHeHiH efi jiHTOBCKaro KHa»ecTBa, ne 6hjio 
H noMHHy. HanpoTHB'B, KasHMipi, npn caMOMi Bcxynjie- 
HiH Ha j[HTOBCKifi[ npecTOJt, KJT^jrca ne yHHaaTt, ne 
yMeHBmaTB hh b'l hgm'b JHTOBCKaro KHAasecTBa, hk b'b 
^ilojiatHOCTaxt, HH Bt jrK);i;ax^, hh Bt seMJiaxi, a nowep- 

»HBaTL HXl JJ^OCTOHHCTBO H B03BpaTHTL Av[T:B% KaR'b BOP'S 

HOMomeT'L, Bce Kor;i;a jthSo OTHaToe otb nea. 
Ho BceMy bhji;ho, hto Tenept bo BceMt 3a oaho aM- 

CTBOBajH B'B JHTOBCEOH'B KHJIlKeCTB^ o6a HapOj^a, JTHTOB- 

CKift H pyccKifi. Ohh, bh;i;ho, nonaJiH nary6HH« nocji^- 
cTBia j[,jia Enixh o6oHX'b oti pa3;i;ijreHiH, h ptniHJiHCB 
CTO^TB 3a OAHO. Jtaxe Bja;i;HCJ[aB'B nojBfeKO-BeHrepcKifi 
npHSHajfB 9T0 o6i>eAHHeHie jhtbhhob'b h pyccKHX'B h, boc- 
, noJiBsoBaBHiHCB MHHMO cymecTBOBaBHieH) Tor^a 4>JopeHTiH- 
CKOK) ynieft, H3;^aJrB rpamoTy, ypaBHHBaBniyH) npaBOCJiaB- 
HMXT* JiHTOBCKaro KHuaecTBa ct jraTHHanaMH. 9thmtb ohi,, 
6esi> GOMH'^^HiA, HOJBSOBajCiH TaK^e ]s,Jisi Toro, m!o6u hr- 

nOMHHTB JHTOBCKOMy KHaaeCTBy CBOK) BJiaCTB. H TO, H 

Apyroe 6ujio coBepnieHHo nanpacno. JlaTOBCKoe KHH«e- 

CTBO CaMO C06OH) mJO nyTCM'S 06'BeAHHeHiH BHyTpeHHHX'B 
CBOHX'B CHJI^B H pa3BHTia fiOJBHiefi H fiOJBHieft CaMOCTOa- 
TeJIBHOCTH. 

B'B 1445 ro;i;y BCTpiTHjca o;i;HaKO coBepmeHHo cjy^aft- 
HUH EaMOHB HpeTHKaHifl Ha dTowb nyTH. Bjia;i;HCJ[aB% u( 
TR&b B% 6opB6i ch TypKaMH y BapHH, no^eMy h hi 



I- 



— 143 — 

■B, Ha era wtcTO ito^hkh ti^dpajiu Kaaw- 
) coK)3t JiHToacKaro KHflsteeTBa tt Ilojb- 

AOJixceHt 6ii3T> iiosoShobbtlca h sasHHaTb 
iimajicA BO Bce AOJiroBpeHeHHoe aapcrso- 

Ero nojHHMaia hohth Kaajurifi rOAi na 
•b cefluaxib Toro BpeiieHK. 
[xi ceftMaxi ptmajHCB HBa. Bonpoca: o6ni;i& 
iHeniH JIhtbh ct, HojihmeS h ^acTEufi o 
liH. I[pe,ii;eTaBBTeJiH JHTORCicaro KBaxeCTBa 
H H3t Bcist rpaMOTi coioat JIiitbu ci 

BCKJioqeHU BupaxeniA: o6a rocy^i^pcTBa 
iHi Hapofft, oXho Tijo, o6a rocyjapcTBa 

;[H0. OhH A0Ka3UBaJH, ITO 9TH BupaxeHifi 

JHO, 5T0 TaKoro C0K)3a cb noJiBmeft hh- 
^To iHTBa HHKorAa He fitua h He GypfiTh 

r y OoJitnia, a noxeTh Curt loJitKO bi 
dpaTCRout coKist, naKt oiatJitHoe rocy- 

i CBOeft Il'llOCTH. Il09T0My BOJIHHB H DO" 
}BBiH H IIOeT(WHHUH BJiaA^Hifl JHTOBCSarO 

rscHU DpHsaji^ieKaTb eny, h nojinKH He 
iHHMaTb flOMtHoerefl. Bonpoci o Bojihhh 
L afijioKOiTB pasjopa Ha saK,i(0Mi. ceSMi- 
CToai'L Ha CTopoH^ npeAcraBHTejied JIhtbu 

SOSUOXHOCTL ^aKTH^eCEH BUTJlCHflTb HBl 

no:sfiROB% H yxBepaAaTbC^ cauHut. Ho- 
npeAJOffCKTB cnopnoe A^o na TpereflcRiS 
i> cjuhaKH repuaHCEaro imnepaTopa, hjh 

Cb FpoHieft OTBi^ajiH Ha 3to: He xoTirre 
rbCA Kb cyjiy KpuHCEaro xana? Uoxbkb 
jBOKj cpe^cTBy. Ohh oorpefioBajni. ttoSu 
irsyji'E Ha cp6ji>;i:eHie Bcixit hxi> npaB'B, 



— 144 — 
B Ba co6aK)f,eme ApeBBRZi aBTOBi voioaa 

r CBOD asjij, oHH noTpe6oBajH, hto6h ceflu'B 
la AB% noJOBHBU: sa ceaaTi h Hsfiy aocojib- 

pU 6uJ[U B'L 60JI£]neg SaBHCHHOCIH H QOA"!! 

jflHieH'B RopoJis, vtu'h npocTue nocju). Ha- 
norpefioBajiH, ^roOti upu Koporb gujn h3% 

H'B'ibTCTBeBHUe COB^THHKR, ^T045u JHTBKHU 
H OT'L KaSHHipa H VFO6U JirrOBCEHHT. Koa- 
t&BXaJlTi HaHitCTHBK'b. dTO UpOHCXOAHJIO Bt 

la cTpamao B3B0.3B0Bajiaei>, Haia^HCt npBro- 
boSh^, cocraBjt^jiHCb ceptesBua coB^u^aHifi 
HOBaro JHTOBCKaro EHJi3«. Mexnj Tbu-b, 
BOJibHue ynopCTBoirt KasHMipa npHHaTi, Hxt 
:OJiBOBa,iHci> flpoTHB'L Bero «h CBOK) oqepe^B 
lapHPajiu o6i> BsSpasiH noearo Bopo^a. Ka- 
HJiCfl cpexH AByxii orneS. Euy He 6ujio bu- 
rpy;tHeBift b HeAopaayi[iHi& He»;[y jhtob- 
vtaov.'b H nojLmefl, Eoropu^ b Be 6asu pas- 
aHaro EOHiia iiapcTBosaBiA KaSBVipa, yiiep- 
'2 r. 

CEaaaTL, hto^u oh'% ae HCKaji aroro suxoAa 
cKH eu^e 6oj[ie yxy;!iniaJiH ero nojioxeBie h 
BCEo - nojibCKaro coiosa. KasHnipi, boaoGho 
[ecTBeBHHRaKB u UHorHiTb Bst CBOHX'L npecH- 
.11, ecjB Tasi BUpaSBTbCA, «h sfi-k pysH. 
TapajicA BpHBjie^B &% ce6^ pyccKBX'B bocto^- 
TaK'B oHi npHBieKajTB ki te6t paaiaraB- 
irjifl, B^^eBofi HosropOA'B, MasBJii CBoefl no- 
iCB'b loaHBa III BO BpeHfl Hxt ccopu, noji;- 

DA'b loaBHa III BX CBOBXl CBOmeBLBX^b CI 



— 145 — 

xaHOH'B AxMaTOHi. Ho vh Toace BpeMA Apyrog pyRoS pas- 
pymaj^b nepsMmyiD ocnoBy sanaAHo-pyccRofi irhshh — 
npaBOCiafiie. Owb noEpoBHTejiLCTBOBajii HaBAsaHHOMy sa- 
naAHOfi PocciH MHTponojExy rpuropiK), y^eHHRy EcHjcopa, 
npAHABinaro c|)JopeHTificsy]D yniio, u ki ROHii;y ashshh 
^cai^B BOJUD jiaTHHCROuy AyxosencTBy B03Myii];aTB cosicTb 
pyccRHX'B sana^j^Hofi Poccin h ^ase 3JioynoTp66j£TB 6jiaro- 
^lecTieM^ 6oj['b3HeHHaro ero cuHa, BopojeBH^a EasHMipa, 
ROToparo 3T0 ;(yxoBeHCTBo c^^'bjiaio c|)aHaTH?ecRHM% Hena- 

BHCTHHROlfb pyCCBHXl UpaBOCJiaBHUX'B. H BCe 3T0 JijkjlSL' 

jLOCh B% TaRoe BpeHfl, EOFAa Ha mocbobcrom'b npecTO.it 

CHA&Tb A^POBHTUfi, 6UCTP0 BOSpOCTaBUnfi Wb UOTJinfiCT^ 

MocROBCRiS RHASB loaHHi III. Moryiii;ecTBO 3to, RaR'B Bca- 
Roe Moryn^ecTBo, HeMe;i;jreHHo CTaJo o6HapysHBaTB o6bir- 
HOBeHHoe CBoe cboSctbo, CHJiy npnrjiseHiji. K^b neny CTaJH 
Mavo no Majy cxpeMHTBca pyccRk ghjeu jHTOBCRaro rha- 
mecTBa. BocTolnaa otf^acTB jHToscRaro RH^acecTBa, laRi 
Ha3EiBaeMafl[ o6j[acTB RHAsen, t. e. ctBepcRaa, 6ojrke h 
6oji^ nepexoAHJia noA% BJiacTB loanna III. Ha^aJincB 
HeAopasyM^Hifl, a saxiM'B h BoenHua CTOjrRHOBeniH Mes^y 

MOCROBCRHMl RHASeMl H JIHTOBCRHMl, 0C06eHH0 nOCJlt 

CHepTH EasHHipa. 

B'B JIHTOBCROITB RHASeCTB^ H B% STH Tpy^HHfl BpeMOHa 

He 6pocajiH mucjh o caMocToaiejiBHOCTH ero, h JiHTBa h 
nojEBHia AAse HUf^jiH oco6ux'h rocyAapeft, cuHOBefi Ka3H- 
Mipa: AjeRcaHApa vb JIhtb^, h AjiB6pexTa bi nojBmt. 
Ho jifijjLimBSiH noJHTHRa EasHHipa nycTHja yace oy^ORie 
RopHH. Eg nocj'^AOBaJiH H TenepB h sa^^yiiajH saps^si* Jia- 

AHTB H Ch pyCCRHMH B006n];e, H Cb nOJTflRaMH. B'B dTHX'B, 

ROHe^HO, BHxax^B AjEORcanxp'B nopoAHHjCA ch loannoM^B HI, 
seHHBniHCB Ha ero Ao^epu Ejent, h jifiLJi'b y ce6A rjaB- 

10 



— 146 — 

Hoe 3Ha^eHie pyccROiiy khash) MnxaHjy FiHECKOHy; osh- 
BHJHCB TorAa H pyccide Boodn^e, oco6eHHO 6jaroMPfl no- 

SpOBBTedlBCTBy EjeHH. Ho B'B TO Se BpeMfl JiHTBa ^QTMajia 

jia^HTB CB IIOdibineH h Tkm> 6oiie xjionoTajia 061 btoitb, 
TFo poACTBO AjeKcanj^pa ci loaHHOH'B ne To^rBRO ne ysp^- 
UEJLO MesAy HHMH MHpa, a en^e 6oj^ ycHJiHJio Bpas^. 
Hys^a vh BoeHHofi noMom;H sacrasjAja jiHTOBHieBx none- 
BOJi BcnoMHHaTB C0K)3t cx HoJiBinei. B'b 1499 tojsj 
OHH caxH saBejiH o&h drowb CHomemA cfh nojtriTRaHH h 
nocraHOBHjra o6hobhtb coH)3i jIhtbu cx Ho JBineft, yMipHBt, 
RaKi OHH BupasajHCB, jipeBHifl ycjroBifl ero. liesBijsj rbwh 
yMepi nojBCKifi KopoJTB AjBfipexTB. AjieRcanApx H36paHi 
nojBCRHH'B RopoieMx. Ero 3a6oTU, 6jraro»ej[aHiA no^Ji^aH- 
HUHx eiii,e 6ojrke pa3;(B0HjrHCB. Eicy HysRHO 6Hjro hhphtb 
HHTepecH JIhtbh h IIoJBmH. Ki 9T0My no6yaKsaiiH h Tpy^i;- 

HOCTH BOftHH CX loaHHOH'B H, B'B 0C06eHH0CTH, CHJBHO paS- 

bhthS bx AjeRcanjtp'fi ;^ec^0TH3llKB, B'B KOTopourb yKopajOT'B 
ero JHTOBniH. BcTynHBx na nojBCKift npecTOJ'B (1501 r.), 
owh ceS^acB ae CHOBa uoj^jmjL'h BonpocB coe;^HHeHiH 
JThtbh c% UoJLhme^. ^ja aroro npHCJiaHu 6ujik b'b IIojrBniy 
AenyTaTH ovh JIhtbh cb nojiHOMO^ieM'B saKJiro^HTB ynii), ho 
6e3'B yHHseniA jHTOBCRaro RHAsecTBa. Uojthrh cocTasHJE 
CBoS npoeRTB ynin TaRoro co;i;ep»aHM[; 

JiHTBa H nojBHia coe;i;HHAH)TCa b'b oj^ho ^ocyj^apcTBO. 
OTHHfffc Bcer;i;a jsjOMT&ewb 6utb y hexi o^tHH'B rocy^^apB. 
7 o6hxi jsfljLXBU 6htb o6ii^ie cefitfu no o6in;HH'B A^jraui, 

T. e. OXHH'B CefiMX H3X UOJAROB'B H JHTBHHOB'B. TaKie 

ceSHU ;i;ojr»HU 6HBaTB noo?epe;i;HO, pa3'B wh IIojrBmi, 
;^py^ofi pa3'B b'b JIhtbh. JThtb^ ocTasMioTca tojtbko th- 
Tyjx, rocy;i;apcTBeHHHe ^hhh, nacTHHe cohmh h /cpyrifi 
oco6eHHocTH BHyTpeHHaro ynpaBJueniH. JiHTOBCRie wny- 



— 147 — 

i^nncusaTb laRyio yBJio. AjieKcaHxprb 
^TBca H, Ma^o Toro, sacxaBHJi'B ra- 
ft AoroBOpi fijAera npHHart h hoadh- 
H ^HBaVH. JlHTOBCSie HHHU, o^^Haso, 
KTa BO Bce QapCTBOBaHie AjieBcaHApa. 

ifi y^api JIETOBCKOfi BesaSHCHMOCTH 

r^api KecTOKifl, a sexjij. tiui, co 
rocy^apcTBa rpOM^re h rponqe x*Jia" 
aanaiHaa wsw zmoBOLna PycB — 
rocy;tapefi. 




CEHiE vm. 

;TBa Bi Baiajii KVI CTOitiia. Pitajias'fc seauj 
IBOS PocciH. HoBbifl nonuTKB Ki BoscTaHOB.uHin 

HrE3IIJHA1>-ABrjCTIi ;iHT0BCKHH1 KHaseiTb. JIb- 

;tHiae otitenHseHie ^hitbheiob'l b pjcckhii. Ch- 
bKoponeiTb. JlaTBDonoibCKin B^ifluis ua aero. 

rOBCKONl KBBJSeeiB%. BofiEa Cl HOCROBCKBMl 

IB inTOBCEaro KHnKecTia ci IIoJiiiineB. Ao^u^- 
■ad-iHHCKin ce&M£ 1669 r. Onopu aexiy jetbb- 
iTB cettMa J1BTBBH0B1. lIpncoHAHBeHie Ki Dojfi.m'b 
ID oA.ncTB. Heyjia^HUfl nonuTKB jihtbhiobi pa3- 
DKb ejiHBDiymifl nexsy jHTSHBaiiB h pjccebbb. 

Bl CnaCTB T^EIi JflTOBCBOfiHeSaBBDHKOCTB. AKlt. 
IKtOlBECROft fBlB*). 

la TOMl ifaKTt, ^TO B-b 1501 r. OlIJITt 

tAHHenie jHToncKaro KnaaecTBa ci 



— 148 — 

nOXhCKSlWh KOpOJieBCTBOH'E. ^SLJSTh BTOTh Hy»HO npH3HaTB 
CEHHITB HeeCTeCTBeHHHM'b BO BCeS HCTOpH^eCEOfi »H3HH 

jHTOBCBaro EHH»ecTBa. He j^apoirB ji^ Hero noHa;i;o6H- 
jmch npHHys^^enie, saeHJiie. ?To6ii bh;^tl acho ero ne-' 

eCTeCTBCHHOCTB, ;^0B0J[LH0 BCnOMHHTB, ^TO TOr^a B'B JIH- 

TOBCKOHi RHfisecTBJ^ rocno;i;cTBOBaja pyccsa^ napTia, h 
oAHaso npH Hefi coBepinHjocL CBpinjieHie coiosa JIhtbu 
c% itojiLinefi; ;i;ase FjuHHCBiS noj^nHcan'b na dTowb asTi. 
Ho vb HCTopiH, co6cTBeHHO roBopji, wkvh He-ainocTeS. 

Bee UWb&Tb CBOE) npH^HHy, CBOS CMUCJTB. nOAaTJHBOCTL 

JIhtbh nepe^'B HojiLffleft, en 6e3CHjie otcto^tb cboh) hb- 

3aBHCHM0CTB ^pOHCX0;^HJH rJTaBHHMB o6pa30M'B O-PB pa3B- 

e;i;HHeHia Mea;i;y JIwibov) B'B coScTseHHOM'B CMHCJii h 3a- 
^a;^HOH) PycBH), 'pa3xe;i;HHeHia, KOTopoe hm^jio 6ojiBinoe 
Bjianie KaKi na CKasannoe cefinacB cSjiHaeme jhtob- 
CBaro KHflsecTBa cb HoJiBineJl, xaK'B h Ha nocji[^AyK)ni;iA 
co6HTi«. 
Mh roBopHJiH, ^To npH A-ieKcaHjupi saHHMaji'B nepBoe 

M^CTO pyCCKlft KHaSB MaxaHJIl FjIHHCKiH. HoAOShO BCiMB 

nepBUMi canoBHHBaHB, oh^ ctoaji'b Bnepeja;H ne ojchh'b, a 
CB iiiijTOK) pyccKoft napriefi, KOTopaa noA^epatHBajra ero h 
caMa naxofljijisi B'B Bewh no^epacKy. JIhtbhhh ecTOCT- 
BeHHO 6hjih He;i;oBOJiBHH TaKHHx 3Ha^eHieM'B pyccKHx^, 
6hjih cb hhmh He bb Jia;i;y; otb tofo-to 6oJBme Bcero 



JLs>6]niRCKSM yniA, n3A. 1863 r., a bi 1869 r. a HsxajTB no nopy^eHuo 
Apxeorpa^H^. BOMMHcciH AHeBHHKi jK)5jiHHCKaro ceftMa no AByM'B pe- 
AaKi^ijiM'B, ch jie^eBO}i,owb na pyccKifi ashri. Bi npoAHCJiOBiH pascRa- 
Sana KpaTKO HCTopia 9Toro cefiMa. BOJiHeHiaxx peaHrio3HHxi h 
^pa2K;^aHCKHX'L sa speMena CH^H3MyH;^a I b CH^H3MyH;^a-AB^ycTa MoacH^ 
HHxaTB HOBifimee co^HHeme n. ^yKOBE^a: KapAHHajii TosiH h nojii 
CKafl i^epROBB ero BpeHeHH, ns^. 1882 r, 



r 



— 149 — 

AjieKcaHApy h y^ajiocL nacHJiBHo nposecTH jijbjLO o coe- 
XHHeHin jtHTOBCEaro RHuasecTBa ci IIojiBiiiefi. 

Pa3;^opi Heffi^y JtHTBHHaMH H pyccRHMH enne fiojiBine 
ycHiHJCfl, Bor^a Aj[eKcaH;i,pi BCTjmu.% Ha nojELCRifi npe- 
CTOJTb. SaHHTHd A'^jiaHH nojiBniH, 0H% AOJa^enx 6uj[^ no 
HeBOJ^ OTBJEeKaTi CBoe B^HMaHie oTh jHTOBCKaro KHase* 
CTBa; a Mes^y rbu% oho TenepB xpefioBajo en^e 6oj[BHiaro. 
BHHMaHifl, ^iwh npex^e, noTOMy ^to mhphuh oxHomeHiA 
ero s'B MocKOBCKOMy KHaacecTBy Cujol o^shb HaTHHyru h 
nocToaHHo upepuBajiHCB boohhumh cTOJiKHOBeninMH. dxn 

06CTOJ3TeJ[BCTBa H06yAHJIH AjKOKCaHApa JlfiLTh rjHHCKOuy 

eiD^ 6oJLhmee SHaneHie. PjiHucEifi na a*^^ 6ujn> HacTOA- 

IQ,HH^ HaMiCTHHBOMl JIhTBU, XOTA H He HWbjL'h &TOTO TH- 

Tyja. no upeacHHifB BpoMenaM'B, mu yse uoxewb j^ora- 
ji^iiBaTBCH, EaK'B Tasoi nopaAOKi BeinieH 6fiA% HenaBHCTeH^B 

JHTBHHaH'B-JaTHHflHaM^. FjlHHCKifi MB^Ay T^Wh ChULT, OHSHB 
He0CTOpO2KeH%, A^BaJIl» ^yBCTBOBaXB BeSA^ CBOK) BJaCTB Hi 

aiHH'B eu^e 6ojihme passHrajE'B cxpacTH. Korji;a b'b 1506 r. 
yuepi AjescaHAP^, to jihtbhhh chjebho 6dAJ[HCB, ^to6bi 

rjHHCBiH He BCTynHJ^B Ha J[HT0BCKi3 npecTOJi, H noTo- 

POHHJHCB HeHe;i;j[eHHO H36paTB jihtobckhmi KHxrseH'B fipaxa 
A^escaHApoBa, CHrHSMyH^a, ofiUKHOBenHo HasuBaenaro 
uepBUHi HJiH crapuMi^ CHrHSMyH^OMi, ne chocscb npn 
3T0M^ BOBce CQb HOJEAKaHH, BOTopso, ^Jiaro^capA TaBOMy 
nocTynEy jihtbhhob'b, ohjthjihcb b'b neofixoAHMOCTH HsfipaxB 
ce6i BopojEeMi Toro me GiirH3MyH;i;a, HHa^e hm'b npHm- 
JiocB 6u pascTaxLCA cb JIhtbo^. 

O^eHB B^poflTHO, ^10 jiHTBHHrj npeyBejiH^HJiH onac- 
HocTB orB r^HHCBaro, BocnojBSOBajEHCB es) AJiA Toro, ^TO- 
6ii nojiy^HTB ce6£ oco6aro bhash. Focy^apcTBeHHuS pas- 
c^exB ux'B oBasajica HeB^pnuH'B; ho ohh b%pho aocthfju 



— 150 — 
CBoefi niAa ao oTHomeHiio ki> FjiHHCEOHy. Ohh npBM- 

38JtB Kh Cefii CHTHSVyHAH H Kpafise yHHSHlH PjuHCKaro. 

HoBug rocyjapb nosasaji Kb aeuj xojoahoctl a OKpy- 
su^i cetJfl HOBUHH Jtr>s,huii. Ho F^HHCKia 6uji Be Ta- 

BOS qeJIOBisi, ITOlSU nOHHpHTbCa Clb HOBUlTb CBOHHX HO- 

jKweHieHi. Obi y6iLST> r^aBHaro CBoero spara Badepesue- 
CKaro, jAajnica b% BOCTroqHUA o6jiacTH JurroBCKaro sha- 

SeCTBa H CraJIb I10E0p£Tb HXIi CSOeit BJUCTH; S&vhs'h OWh 

npeAfuca nOA'b BJacTB HoCKOBCKaro Eaaaa BacHjLa loaH- 
BOBKHa H noTflHyjit 3a cofioio xpyravb pyccKHX'B. 3a 
Bflui nonuK uHorie pyccKie KBustB: McTHCjaBCEie, ^yi(- 
Kie H Apyrie. Bosrop^Jiacb bbobl seciOKaB b npOAOiiui- 
TeibBaa Boflaa HexAy MOCKOBCKHHt EBHseui h jiiitobckO' 
nojLciuiH^ Kopojieirb. B^ axy BOHay CuoieBCRrb nepemej'b 
noAt BjracTi. Moc&bu h c% T^xh nopb Bcer^a ocTasaiCH 
sa Heg, 3a HCKJinieBieui flpoBesyTKa curb KOBi^a cMyT- 
earo speMeHH ao KaJtopocciScKoft boSbu. OrnjiTa 6uja 
OTt jBTOBCKaro KBBxecTBa B Bca ctBepcKaa ogjiacTb. 
KpoH'Jb Toro, iioHTB fice jBTOBccoe RBAsecTBO pasopeBo 
6HJI0 Bi 9Ty Bofiay. Pyccaie noAXOAiaa sb BajtHt, 6ujb 
OBB Aaxe vb Tponwk. 

S/b saTpyAHeaiaHi Bofiaa c% uockobckum'l rocyAapcT- 
BOBi) DpucoeAHHBJiHCb HOBUH. EpuHCKie Taiapu l&lOfi 
B qaa^e sponsBOAiiJia oaycToniBTejiLBue Ba6irB aa toa- 
ayio ^acTb jHTOBcicaro KBHsecTsa. Upyccui, fisBinaa Tor^a 
yxe Bi B^EOTopoS saBflCBHocTB ovb IIojii>Diii, Toxe crajia 

BOJBOBaTbCfl. 

CHrHSMyBAy I apBIOABJIOCt oCpaiMTb BCfi CBJH H BpeMa 

aa BoeaHu;! A^t- B% aeHi ae 6u^o HeAOCTaTsa bi jhi- 
Hoft xpafipocTH, KOTopa^ Eaxo;tiMa ce6'i& ae Hajyio onop^ 
&>& ero rpOHaABOfi (^mBHec«ak CB^is. CBraSMyHAi' pasri 



— 151 — 

h He JtHM^Hji-b Bofisa H 6oA'ke na 
J, Ha KOTopuA o<ieEh fiuj'b cno 
^laT&ibHou'b yifi h npaKTu^Hoc 
jyqniee HpaecTBeaHo onepertca 
ySHTB Hxt caHHxt yerpoHTb ci 

Tpy^U. JiHTBHHU-ZaTHHflHe nO3T0 

iHCb H eii(e Gojibme 0TA£.iHJHGb c 
ecTBa. Eu% noMoraji h st aio 
'HSMyHAl. EoHe^Ho, bi bocto^b 
i ^HCTO pyCCKOft ^aCTH JHTOBCKI 

>n no3BOJHTb ce6i secroKHsi) wt 
CKHirb, noTOMy hto sto sHaiHio 
b BZ'h OTh JIhtbu h no6ys,mh nj 
iBCKOMy rocy;tapCTBy. Ho wro6a : 
lb CHTHavyHjia I sh oTHomeBiH 
jyvme Bcero BarjiflHyrb hk i 
aKOHi pycCKOM'b yrojuti ihtobc 
I, 3a KOTopufi Hejbsa Cujio 6oa.Tb 
b Hero, HueHHo, aysHo B3r.i£H; 

DpU CHPHSHyHA^ I, 06lilEH0Bei 

jiHBUHi, nojioaceHie pyccKHXi n; 
coAHJO Ha BOJioxenie xpHC-riaoi 
UTb OHH Be HHtjiH npaBa cbh, 

npoTHBX nojuEa-iaTHH^HHBa; 

norojiOBHafl no^aTb Ba cxuaify. 
r^a^z'b, EOrAa npaBocJiaBHue biiIii 
,EIAJH I^XOBOe 6paTCT80, iiepB 
tecTBeHHocxax'b 6paTCEU2%, oCasa 
y, HO He HU^JiH npaBa BsoAHTb 
ixBu 6wiE cTOxTb St orpax^ h 
iHHUfi BBHOCb. HasOHeicb, ct hi 



— 152 — 

ciLioinB Aa p^AOHt fipajiH necaTWEj Bb noi 
csaro npHzoxa, jatHHCKaro scesAsa. Cauo i 
" ffCA, 9T0 noAo^Hbta xe BenpaBXH cosepin 
BCKoui E&flaecTu^, zora e ae ysaKOHi 
iurb OAHHi Kp;nHEi& t{>^Krt, AOKasusaioni 
UTie Bi TO Bpeua jiaTHBCKaro t|)aHaTH3Ha 
SOKI KHflawcTBi. Bi 1522 rojty CarHSi 
. BeJIHKHHl JHTOBCBHU'B reTHaHoiirb — rj 
!ii;iiirb — pyccEaro upaBocjraBHaro sasaa E 
lOBBqa Ocrposcsaro (on^a HSB^CTHaro shs 

9, O KpTOpOHt CyjIfiWh rOBOpHTb IKKJrk). 

ieiTL ecTeciBeHHO coe;iHE£JioCb npaBO npa 

«HaT§. iHTBHHU-JiaTHHAHe CHJfcHO BOOpj] 

. 9Toro HasHa^eHifl h ciajH AoicasHBaTL, 
[rb He awkerb npaBa sadbA^i'i' Bt eem 
i, OTo OHH BoopyacajHci. npoTHBi repoa 
I, cpoizB'E ^ejiOB^sa, soropHft sipBo ci 
EcoHy KHflsecTBy, cTpaAaJi xecaTt ji^ti 
iIoCRBi H saT^Mi oAepauLii ea^'B BoicRa: 
KEHsa CjHCTaiejiBHyE) no6iAy- CaH'B Gi 
liHJica sa KH^sSfl h HacHiy jdxBJrb xaru 
, ero Bi cenairB b'b bha^ Tscajm^enia. 
pE6jaxajiCh si, CTapocTH, CBPHsuyHAiB i 
130MI AOEasaji'b CBon pacnojtoneeHocTb 
&. Bx 1529 rOAy OQ-h HasHa^HJCB BMrb oc 
xz, uajiojiTH^ro caoero cuBa CHrnSHyBji; 
; Bt RaiecTB^ Bair^THBEa, a c-h nojiEun 
Karo JBTOBCKaro kbasji, bosbojexb Aaa 
Ha JHTOBCKig npecTOJTb CO BC^HH ii,epeHO 

IBlia U BUflOJHBjm Cl o6UKH0BeHH0ia ! 



— 153 — 

rHTOBitaui oasTh yxufiHyjracb hhcjl 
BHfizecTBa orb IlaiLniH, o6i ero 
p^xxocTb CHmauyHAa exaparo h 
na Mo,ioAoro A^BajiH BosHosnocrb 
soMi 9Ty MHCJB. ^To-ab? BocmwL- 

3THirb C^aCTIHBBIVX nOBOpOTOHt 

saaswb, OHH 6buh bi fioJbmoirb 
CiyMtunrfc jih ohh jRsviomiTh 

aHHTb BCJt CHJU IHTOBCKarO KHfl- 
a 3T0fi Il^JU? 

EHAsecTBa vh rk BpeueHa npOHC- 
OTx, EOTopufi, KasaJioCB, cnoco6eHi 
) aaTpyAHenifl sb BoscTaHOBxemiD 
;th h uon j,SL3te c6jiH3htb no CTa- 
iCEHxt sanaAHoS FocciE. Mu paay- 

ABHBeHie Bi 9Tofl CTpaa^. 
t flpOTecraHTCTBO c^tJiajoct h3b4ct- 
la BpemeHa ero noflB.ieHi« vb ssl- 

To cauoe speufl, xaK'B nponoBtAu- 
[Ho KajBBHH'b, — c^i-sajocb hbk&ct- 
TOJiBEo, a qpesi 6iB3Roe osHasoH- 

HKl H JHTOBCKHS^ MOSfiH. Bt JH- 

^apcTBi aaBHO yaie eymecTBOBajti 
^DAH, oeofieHBO MOjoAue, ornpaB- 
EBpouy AJifl o6pa30BaHui, nay^Haro 
CTpaHu, Bc^ axaAeHiK, yHHBepcH- 

nOJIbCKRHH H JIHTOBCKBHH apHCTO' 

ro npoBOAHJH laMt ne uaxo Bpe- 
BOHJiiiBajiHCt cb sanaAHo-eeponeg- 
>K>. npHBexy npHH^pi, Bnpo^eH'L, 
;xoiLKO BpeueHH. Swh Sauo^cKifl, 






I 

lil 

I 



L 



— 154 — 

SHaaeHBTufi ssanxepi, n reniaHi npH Eaiopii 
DHOCTH «h H^csoiLSHxt yHHBepcHTeraxib H fi 
Topoe Bpeiu cTOJUTb BO FjaB^ najiyaaCK&ro 
Tera — fiiut ero peKTopoitB. BiaroAapa arw 
lacji&Hmtwb Do^ABavi sarpaHHity, npoTecraHTc 
craio vzttiecBam, leb Hojbvrk h JIvtbH. 1 
apHCTOKpaTHqecEHX'b nun paaroBopu o na^e 
ofiofiu^ajHCb H npioCpJtTaJH nocatxOBSTejefi hoe 
PacopocrpaHfl JOCB aeauy jhtobckhiih apHcroKpa 
sajbBHHCEoe yqeHie, xaici 6ojiie (Soraroe bhM 
■aHH H pasHUHH npHBHJjeriaMH. 

HesaBHCHHo or^ apHCTOKpaiaB'L, npoTecraH' 

XOAHJtO B!h JHTOBCKOMy KBaxeCTBf H APJTHM 

HsBibcTBo, ^To QporecraHTCTBo u BupaGoraao, 
nojuepxHsajocB Eivennawh HapoAOHi). Hsb^ 
TaKxe, ?To ^acTb a'tMei^Karo Hapoxa — npycci 
CKifi opA6Hi — ^ npHABHByjacb k'& caMofi JIhtb 
raacb ki c^Bepy no H^Hei^EBK'L crpaHam, i 

CTBO UpOHBKJO B^ IlpyCCil) H K'B HBaji,D.aTa\ 

XVI CT. QO-iyquxo TaRyn CBJiy, ?to cajfL iiar 
AeBa iSpocHJi puqapCKie HOaamecKie sHaKii-B 
npHHAii BpoxecraBTCTBo B neflB^ca. Coe^xae- 
BOJiiCEoe rocyAapcTBO nfljoao 6tixo Tenepb ci 
qyBCTBOBaTb Biiaflie oporecTaBTCTBa. ^s aero 
yxe roTOBue ayra a ae ^pest o^Hy apacrosp 
aaB^CTBo, ?To Bi noJiBmi ropoja aacejieHU C 
HHcraiiH-HiiiiiauH. He HaJO apoaatuo h^i 
raaBF&fimie sanaAa&e ropo^ta jHTOBcsaro KHaa 
6eaHo vb Bujibay. Mea^ bbub-to apes^e at 
qa^D pacapocTpaaaTbCa aporeCTaaTCTBO. y aa: 
xa npiDTb H BOAA^P^Ky flpoTecTaarcicie Bpo 



k. 



Jisr^ 



— 155 — 
BnpoHeMi, cpasy ae aehjihcb h nponoBiAHHKH — Hpn- 

pOAHHe JHTBHHH. TaKX, pJi;^OMl (Tb H'l^MI^eM'B BHHKJie- 

poM%., MH BH;(HM'b B% ^Hcjt caMUxi nepBiix'b nporecxaHT- 

CKHXl npODOB^AHHBOB'b npHpO^HarO JIHTBHHa, EyjBBy. 

9tot^ flfio&Roi upHJHBi» npoTecTaHTCTfia ^epes^b apu- 
cTOKpaxiH) H ropo;i;cKoe cocjiosie, oHeBH^Ho, o^eHL Jierxo 

MOirb 06xeAHHHTLCja[ H ^McTBOBaTL rbUL'b CHJIBH^e. Oco- 

6eHHo piniHTejibHo h abho BUCxynHj^ na bto flibjio po^^ 
jiHTOBCKHX'b EHAsefi Pa^HBHJiOBi u 80 pjaB^ ero Hhko- 
laii PaAHBHJi, HasHBaeMufi ^epHUMi. Ohi ycTpoHJii 
npoTecxaBTCsoe 6orocjiyseHie y ce6ia[ CHa^ajia m> saro- 
po^^HOMi AOMi uojmi Bhjbhu, a noTOiTB nepeBej'B npo- 
TecTaHTCKifl co6paHiji B'b caMiifi ropoA'B BHJtBHy, r^i ohh 

npOHCXOJi;HJ[H OXXpHTO, TopsecTBeHHO. 

TaKOMy 6HCTpoMy ycnfey npoTecTancTBa He mqjlo co- 

AMCTBOBaJEO pOACTBO Pa^HBH^a CI JHTOBCKHMl BHASeH'b 

CHrH3MyHA0Mi» ABrycTOMi*. CHrHSMyHA'b ABrycirb no3Ha- 
BOMUxcjsL CI cecTpoK) PaAHBHJca, BapBapofi, b;^oboh jiht- 
BHHa PaniTOJiBAa. Tobop^lt^, axa aceHm,uHa oxjH^ajiacB 

HeodUKHOBeHHOK) KpaCOTOD, yMOM% H Heo6UKHOBeHHUMH 

Ao6po;i;'&Teji2MH. GHrnsMyHA^-ABrycT^ oT^ajiCfl efi BceK) 
^^ymoft H nocjri cnepxH CBoeS senu EjHcaBexBr aBcxpifi- 
CKofi aseHHJica Ha BapBap'b, ne o6pa]ii;aA BHHMaHm na 
npenaxcxBia B'B noAp6HOMy 6paKy co cxopoHti noji&Kom,. 
IIpoxecxaHXH socnoJiBSOBaJiflCB druwb oScxoaxejBCXBOMi. 
OflH 6ojihme h 6oj[bme nojy^aju chjih h a^^^ cxajH 
npio6p']^xaxB K)pHAH?ecBm npasa. 

Bnpo^eMi, H HesaBHCHMo oxi axoS no^epacBH, npoxe^ 
cxaHxcxBO upio6p%xajio CHjy 3% jehxobckohi KH.a^KecxB']^* 
^Ho HaxoAHJKo ce6t 3js,icb aBUBneHHyK) no?By, aslmg ee- 
^paBHeHHo SK3HeHHte, HiMx B'B nojiBjn']^. Ham hsb^cxho, 



— 156 — 

nto JiHTBa 6iua oCpan^eHa bi jaTHHCTBo nyrein 
HSBiCTBO TaKZe, HTO B Vh rpoxxaHCKHxi A^ 
CTpaxaia ora IlaibniH, paapyniaBinefl ea nesas 
CBo6oAa peJHrJ03Hafl h naivoHaJiiHaa 3;^cb iioi 
BaTb oco6eHByD xasA? h ciHsaTbca vb oab 
A^bHoe Tpe6oBaBie. IIoaToifj'To chj; nporec 
B^iiaHUi HeHe^-ieHBO oii(yTHja ea ce6£ Bca j 
lacTb JBTOBCsaro KHflxecTsa, «l oco6eEBOCTH 

3jl,1lCb H3l WhCKOJlbB.ia.'b COTb ■IBTHBCSBX'b BpHXO 
3a.lOCb TOJbEO meCTb, Se H3M^HHBmBX:b JBTJIBI 

URomu-b jy^me fiujo r bi APyriixi oCjaer 
ToiLKo cyniecTBOBaio jbthbctbo. MoHacTupu 
nycTkiB, KceHA3u bi nonuxasi cd^hibjib seaH' 
djiB3Hrb BOBaro yqeaia rnKh 6m-b vejaKb, vi 
cTaBTCTBo BpuHAjcb u xeHHJCB HapeieEHuft , 
KieBcaift eBHcson'b Ilaifb, h, qto scero Hecaoci 

S^& JiaTliBCKBX'B eQHCKOnOBX, OWb, Be CHOTpH B. 

CTyBBHqecTBO, xorij^ saEHvaTb bi ceaaT^ eBi 
uiiito HexAy jaiBHCKBUB BpeiaxaHB. B'b xi 
ceBart, qepesi EaaBS'B bb6jai> XBa^i^aTb a.i,i 
Toro, KaEi Be xoxtiH BpBBBHaTb Bi sac^AaBJ 
oiaBHaro OcTpoxcKaro, bo^tb B&k cesaiopu Ca 
THB^ae. ToJbKO ABa ceBaxopa 611JB jaTHBCaaro 
BOB^AaBUi — BBJieHCKiS enBCKOBi, A& acHyACKifi. 
Hto KacaeTCH npaBocjaBBuxt, to BporecTaa' 
6I1MO AJiB Bttx-b oco6eBHo onaCBUH'L. DpoTecraBTb 
Aaju, HTo cTpeiiHTCfl BoaeraBOBHTb o6pa3eivb Ape 
xmcBoA itepKBB. IIpaBocjaBBue xpaSBiiB y ce 
oepaaeifb b ae ByaAajHct b* BOSofiHoBJieHiB i 
caHofi nojbiBB, Aa»e h31 cpeAU AaTHBcaaro Ay: 
pasABBajHCL TorAa raioca, mo wh npasociaBHol 



— 157 — 

IHjaCb HCTUHa XpHCTOBS, ^fiH'b Wb JlftTHH- 
9 npODOB'iAUBai'b JtaTUHCKifi KanOHHK'B Op^- 

iB no uaTepif. Qro BucsaauBajib x^ise oahh^ 
^Koni, HueHHO xejHHncKifi enHCuon'L, ^po'^ 
5CTH0, HaKOHeni, iTo sHaMeBHTHfl Torjam- 
[UCJiHTejL Mo;(pseBCKifi Hacrofl^HBo Dpex- 
Th Bi Uo^tiiiui Hapo^HyEt [(epEOBB CL 6oro- 
nojTbCKOHii a3UE^ K, Wb CBoeMt npoeKTi 
asHBaJt Ha npaBOcasBHyi) itepKOBt. Ol 
H, npoTecTaHTU paioBajH npoiHB'B ^aTUH- 
iBBue Tast HHOi'o CTpataju OTb Hero, qio 
O^yBCTBOBaXB Bl BTOHt npoTeCTaHTaifB. Ho 
apaBocjiaBHue coHyBCTBosajiH Hay^HOHy pe- 
[BJiesin HesA7 npoTecTaHTauH h aBHO ct&ih 
epL ymm- se nyTeH'L. 
tsoHi, nesAy JiHTBiiHaini u npaBocjaBHUUH 
BJiAJiocb eAHHeHie. Tt h Apyrie momh fffcfi- 
Ho, oco6eHHo no Bonpocy o BesasiicRxocTH 
jAHsaKOBo seiaHHoS Kant m^ -dx-h, T&Kb 
>. ^tiicTBHT&ibHO, noH,qTiA 061, droz nesa- 

ept 6UJH OieHB paSBBTU Bt JHTOBCKOH'6 

KasaiocB, TenepB He Morjio Cutb h nosBHy 

3H)3a npoTecTaHTeico& h npaBOCiaBHofl JIhtbu 

IloJi^meS. 

aaajiocb OARaBO HHa^e. Eaaih jihtobckhui 

EtaiTB 6yflT0 HOCHJtMl 3J10H J^yx^ H nOflCTe- 
aia EpoaBjeHia ero cemoShtboctb jtia loro, 
h Hxi KB camoMi aaqaj*. Ha aTon past 

BX'B OKOH^aTCJIbHO. JiHTBa, BU^CTO BCSaBB- 

a Kt cyiHTiKi ct HojiBineft. 

ny yHepi CoFasityaxb I. JlaxoBCKifi EflasB 



— 158 — 

CHTHssyvx^ ABrycn BCTjirKn Ha nojncKii npecrojTB. 
KtLVh 6HBajo vb npexHiff BpeneHa, Tan h Tenepi» bhh- 
■aHie H 3a6oTjHBOCTb jHTOBCKaro khasx, HsfipaHHaro nojB- 
CKHM'B Kopojreirb, o 6jari homehhuxi, Heo6zoxHHO aoji- 

SHH 6UJH pa3XB0HTBCJf. Ho JfHTBa €Th 9T0T0 HC MOFJia 

TenepL BUHrpaTB, saieB He pasi KUHrpuuaia npes^e. 61 
1551 r. nopBajacB cbasb, CHJBHie Bcero coexHHflBHiaa 
CHrHSvyHxa AsrycTa cb JIhtboo, — yuepxa, jm)6wk9lb ejx) 
sena, jraTBHHsa Bapnapa, BCKopi^ nocA Toro, saiTB Ch- 
FHSiiyHA^ ToiBso ^To upeoAorkrh ci saiii^aTeJBHOH) Toep- 

AOCTil) BCi TP7AH0CTH H KOpOHOBaJTB 66 HOKBCKHirB BOpO- 

ji6BCKHirB B^Hi^oiTB. Owh seHHJCA vb TpeTii pa3i Ha 
F6M6ipcoi npHHi^ecd^ EicaTepHHi, ho jra^y nexxy hhhh 
He 6ujio; EsaTepHna yi^xajia m^ ITojBniH. CflrHdiiyHji^'B 
^xyMSLJPb pa3BecTHCB CB HeS. droro HejBSA fiiuro c;^aTB 
6631 nana. GurHSMTH^'B AOJseffB 6uj% orxaTBCJi b'b pjkh 

jaTHHAH'B. 

nojn»CBie jkTHHAHe ^aBHO y»e 6hjh TpeBorj npoTHffB 
epeTHROB'B. Ohh a^Jih snaTB nan'6 o Kpainet onacHocTH 
jraTHHCTBa b'b jhtobcko-hojbckohi rocy^apcTB^. liana 
CTaji'B npHcajraTB bi Ilojnbniy nyni^ieB'B, Koropue Hajo no 
ifajy 3a6HpajrH CHrnsiiyHAa fb cboh pysH h BoopyacaJH 
ero npoTHBi> epeTHKOB'B h npoTHBi JIhtbh, b'b soTopoS 
6p6CB HM^jra rjiaBHoe CBoe Twk^jsfl. JiHTOBCKie nporecTaHTu 
Kas'B 6u caMH no3a6oT0jHCB cjc^jaTB BHymenifl jiaTHH- 
CKoii napTiH 6ojLie y6ik;i;HTejiBHH]in. Ilpn^ Bcefi nepBOHa- 
^ajBHOft saHan^HBOCTH h BH^iHMoft npnroAHOCTH ;(jiA Tor- 
Aamnefi JIhtbu, npoTecTanrcTBO BCBop'i osasajocB s^ntcB 
BecBMa HenpHro;i;HUH'B B'i^poHcnoBiA&HieM^B. 

OnnpaxcB cjrHmKOHi HCEjrD^HreJiBHo na pasyHHOMi na- 
HaJii H ^«ij[,MCh BHimHHX'B $opMx pejrariosHocTH, npo- 



— 159 



TecTaHTCTBo Moseri A^psaTBCA npo^Ho tojtbbo y t^xi 
Hapo^^OB'B, KOTopue oTJiH^aiOTCA 6ojiunHH'b npeo6jiaAaHieM'B 

H paSBHTieifB CtfJTH JMa. KOJTL CKOpO ;^aeTCA Vb JS,1iJL1^ 

B^pu BejTHKoe SHa^enie JiH^HOMy pasyM^nis), jinqnoMy 
HH^HiiD, TO aTH pasyM^Hiji H MH^Hia Tor;i;a tojibko He 
6jjsjTh CMiHJiTfcca ojiflu ;ipyrHMH, Korw ©ctl CojLhmsm 
cHja xojio;i;Haro yiia, CAepsHBaK)ni;afl hx% oti 6ucTpofi 
cm'6hu h KpaSHOCTeil. TaBoio npeHMyii];eeTBeHHOH) chjoh) 
OTjHvaK)TCA Hapo;i;n repMaHCKod pacu; ho SToro HejBsx 
CBaBaTL cjaBAHaxx. B^ hhx'b o^ohb 6oraTo ^yncTBo h 

OqeHB BeJHBO TpefiOBBHie nOJHOTKr, aCHSHOHHOCTH HCTHHU, 

KOToplsiA 6u roBopHJia He tojbbo yify, ho h cep;i;iqr. Otb 
Toro npoTeeTaHTCTBO HHKorAa ne MOrjo yTBep;^HTBca 
npo^HO vh cjaBflHCKHX'B CTpanaxt. npoTecTaHTCKia jivm- 
Eua pasyH^Hifl, jih^huh MH^Hia, npH BocnpiHH^HBocTH 
cjraBjiH'b, cjHniRoifB fitiCTpo CM^HAJiHCB y HHX'B o^HH ^py- 
rHMH. Cwina eni;e 6ojr4e ycHJHBajracB on BnyTpeHnaro 
TomeHiff, Kaxoe HCHHTBTBaja cjraBHHCRaa Ayina ot'b xo* 
Jo^nocTH npoTecTaHTCTBa h ROTopoe no6yflCA&<so cjaB^HHHa 
npEHHMaTB HOBoe MHinie, HOBoe y^enie, bi ESLji,esRj^i o»h- 

BHTB HH'B TOMflHi;yR)CH Xymj. 

Bee 3T0 6hjio npH^HHOio, hto npoTecTanrcTBO ne Morjio 

npOHHO yTBepAHTBCfl B^ JTHTOBCBOMl JSMAXeCTBi He TOJBRO 

Me»;i;y pyccRHMH, ho ;i;a»e h Meac^^y jtHTBHnaMH, ROTopue 
coxpaHfljTH HHorifl ApeBHifl cjiaBAHCRin oco6eHHOCTH u y 
KOTopHXTb Tor;i;a bccb Bepxnift cjoft uepecosAajca b% cjra- 
BAHCRift. Bi» caHoe RopoTRoe speMH b^ Avltb^ Hanjo;i;H- 
JOCB fiea^HCJieHHoe MHoaecTBO npoTecTanTCRHX'B cortb (;^o 
80-th); H^ROTopHfl HS-B HHX'B ;i;oxo;i;hjh ;i;o nocji4;i;HHxt 
RpaSnocTeft, nanpHMipx, ao con;HHiaHCTBa, t. e. ^o oTpn- 
i^kHiii TpoH^HOCTH jrHn;'B B'B Bori H canaro HCRynjeniA, 



— 160 — 

u BC% caopHJH UAHa ci APyroH Henc- 
CTpaniHyio CMjry b* 4HT0BCK0ifB khhj 
Meat^y T^H-b BpeveHa 6iuh Bosce 
HOxao 6aA0 vnopHTL, BpaSAOBaib t 
onacHo. 06cT0HTejbCTBa Tpe6oBa:iH 6( 
H eAHHeHiii cHJii Bcero JSTOBCKaro kg 
rposHTL BeiBKa^ swhmasa onacHOCTB 
loasHt ly sa^aJt boShj cb JIubog 
OTxaJiacb JIhtb^ loaHsi Havai'b Bofi 
1563 r. OBjaA^'B IIoioiiEOHib, h hcji 
BeiHKaro aia on othxi aasoeBaHia hi 
HO H fiiJopyccaiTB. IIpaB^ta, npocTot 
coqjBCTBOBajrt aaBoeBaHiasrB npaBoejia 
jiK)6HBnraro XBs,oB-h pyccKaro i(apa. B 
pasoBaHHux'L (5'kiopyccoB'B sammiJieHij 

CKOe KHKXeCTBO CL HOCKOBCEBITB I[apC 

HcxoxHJin Ta&HUfl CHomeHia, xaES be, 
jieBcsaro BoeBOAH^ FjififioBH^a, pa^jSa 
jiHHCKoaiib cefiH^ 1569 r. Ho HeHcroi 
6ircTBo OTb Hero bi ^HiBy uHorHxt 
TaBoro BHABaro h AapoBHiaro ^ejH 
AHApeft Kyp6cKiS, paspymajiH bi pyc 
CKaro BHAaecTBa Bcania Ba^exAU ea 
Bnocji^ACTBiH cavH nojiHKH roBopiuH, 
Houy coeAHHeHiio cb IlojbmeS npHrnaji 
UpH TaKHxt oficToarejttCTBax'b JiaraaB 

XOAHJIOCb BCnOUHHTL nOKOHtH DOJl 

cb nojiiimeg, T. e. npHxoAHJiocb AaTB 
nojibCKoB jaTHHCEofi DapriH Ha nornfi 

SaBHCHHOCTH. 

HaKoneiti, Kpoui bc^xi 9THXI o6ci 



V •" 



— 161 — 

semH JbiTBhL ci» UojiBineH CTaj'b chjibho uonoTaTb Ch- 
rHSMyH^t ABrycTB npocTo, ks^kb rocyAapt- Oh'b ocTajca 
nocJi^;^HHMi» eAUHCTBeHHUifb noTOHKOBi ^raflju. He 6ujio 
7 Hero HH A^Ted, hh ^jHSRHX'b poACTBeHHHSOB'B. Ero 
MaTL, Bopojena Bona, 6e3HpaBCTBeHHMniafl HTaJBJiHKa, na- 
MipeHHO pasBpaTHJia ero, CA^Jiajia HecnocotfHUirb Kb ce- 
HeiHod acH3HH, ?to6u caMofi ynpaajxiTB rocyAapcTBOM^b. 
OAUHosii, 6ojiii3HeHHHi CHrHSMyH^'B ABrycTB Ha^ajt 
cepseaHO AJvaTB o dy^yii^HocTH cbqux'b njioxo coe^HHeH* 
Hux'B rocyxapcTBi. Ha^aJiHCB xjonoTU o cspinjieHiH coe)- 

3a MeSAT HHHH. Ho 06i CTOpOHU, JIHTOBCKajI H no.iBCBaji, 

u BO rjasi HX'B GHrHSMyH^'B AsrycT^, ohohb xopomo 
3HajH, ?T0 CA&saTB TeiiepB axo a^o ho jerso, hto ero 

HySHO BeCTH OCTOpOflKHO, MeAJeHHO. XjIOnOTU TAHyJIHCB 

no^TH JSfiGATh JLirh. 

Cj[^A7K)II(iA npHrOTOBHTejBHUfl wkfU npHHATU 6wiJl AJIA 

cspiiueHm coE)3a jIhtbu c% IIojEBinefi, hjih jy^me, a*ia 
cjHTijsE HX'B BO^ OAHo TOcyAapcTBO. Hnsmee jthtobceoo abo- 

pflHCTBO He UWkjLO HOJHTH^eCEOfi paBHOHpaBHOCTH CB CBOeu 

apHCTOKpaTiefi b'b pimeHiH rocyAapcTBeHHuxi BonpocoB'B, 
Ras'B HH^ja ee nojiBCKan nijLflXTa. GaHO codoH) o'iobhaho, 
?T0 dia paBHonpaBHOCTB, t. e. noJBCsoe nuAxexcTBO, 6uji3l 
saHaH^HBa a^a jHTOBCsaro HHsmaro ABop^HCTBa. CnrHS- 
MyHAi AaJ^ eMy dTy paBHonpaBHocTB, ypaBHflj'B ero Ch 
apHCTOKpaxieK). Sxhm'b choco^omi owl npio6pixaj['B 6ojb- 
moe qHCJO roJocoB'B, pacnojtosBeHHuxi Kh TLojihwk h cno- 
co6hmx'b corjacHXBCH na cJiHxie JIhxbu cb UoJiBniefi. Ho 
no Bceify bhaho, ^xo hh CHrnsMyHAX, hh nojiaKH ne pa3- 
c^HXUBajH Ha npo^HocxB 9xo3 HOAA^P^KH. Ohh, 6e3'B CO- 
MH^HLi, HOHHMajiH, Hxo BOFAa 6yAex^ HOAHaX^ BOnpOCB 
o6i yHHHXoseHin caM06uxH0cxH JCHTOBCBaro BHA^^ecxBa, 

11 



■;■■. 



— 162 — 

TO Bc^ xoryrE 3a6uTb aeieuh b 
cjnnics wb onflj u^TiiBoxk&ciByan 
ceHia poAHHU. Cjoboui, ea ;io6poRa 
cxaBHTejeS ^BToscicaro KH^xecTBa ( 

CHrHSMymt o6jer?H,rt h 9Ty t 
EHsaecTBo 6axo HacjrixcTBeHBujrB 
Ohi uonajTb cbok) Ha&iiflCTBeHHOcr 
cBo6oj(Ho paenojaraTK eio, h bs 1 565 
mi. Oocjit 9Toro corjiacie JIhtbh hi 
oKasuBajoct ae HyxBuiTB. HojiAKaH' 

npHCOe^HHHTb Bl CCfit JIHTOBCKOe KI 

JiaKH, HH CarasuyHjcb He piinHJHCi 
jlijto, He ptnrHjHct, Sesi coMHiflia 
Bvsjbxw Henpeu^HHoe ceoe nopaxeB: 
AyHajiH Ao6ifTLC£ cooacifl cauHX'b . 

oCHaHJTL H EXX H nOTOMCTBO npHSf 

cjHTia jHTOBCBaro EHaxecTsa ct 

CTBOITB. 

PtraeHO 6um ofiiaMt eropOHaMi 

CeSMl H o6cyjl,HTL OKOH^&TejbBO BOl 

ymH. CiixaJHCfc bx 1569 r. b-b . 
iMca 10 aHBapa — ofiOh, Koropufi 
ciapaJiHCK npa3AH0BaTb p^SHeEt p; 

STHH1., RaR'L HeJbSfl D^^pH^, rjiaBHn 

.Ihtbh cb nojiLmeg. 

Ct nepBHii ji,HeS cefiMa oSHapya 
paanorjiacie MejKjy nojiflKaHH h jiht. 
o6t yniH Hxx rocyji.apCTB'B. JIhtbbhi 
eoioB'B ct nojibmeio tipaxcKiS, ochi 
TyBCTBaxt H ca^HaHiK ero Heo6xoAi 



r 



— 163 — 



inaro napymeHifl jhtobcboS caMo6uTHocTH. Uojislrhl na 

3T0 OTBi^aJIH, ^TO TaKOH COroSt OHH MOrjTl 3aKJIlD^HTB 
He TOJBKO Ch CSLULUWh OTJJ^aJTeHHHM'B, HO H CB CaiffUHl 
BapBapCBHM1» HapO^tjOlfB, H Tpe60BaJ[H, ^T06£I HpHBe;(eH£I 

6ujiii Bib HcnojneHie CTapne aETU EacaTejBHO coe;i;HHeHiA 
JIhtbu cb IIojBnieH, — SiKVb ropo;i;ej[LCKift h ajeKcan^ipoB'b, 
TO ecTL, OHH TpefioBajDLH HOJiHaro yHH^Toatenia jHTOBCKoft 

CaM06HTH0CTH, HpOBpaHl^eHm JTHTOBCKarO BHASeCTBa fil 

noiBCKjiD npoBHHHiiH). JIhtbhhh nasBaJiH CTapue aETH ej- 

AeJHMH, HeHM'J^BUIHMH HHEOr^ia CHJOI, H OTEaSaJEHCB ^IjaBaTB 

corjiacie na CBoe Hopa6oHi,eHie. Uojaeh oceop^hjhcb ynop- 

CTBOMX JIHTBHHOBl, SaiOBOpHJlH BOMfli, TpefiOBajH, HTo6h 

KopojB npHBeji B'B HcnojiHeHie CTapae ji;oroBopH, sacxa- 

BHJ'E JHTBHHOBX CBOGH) BJiaCTilO HpHHATB HX%. JiHTOBCEie 

npe;i;cTaBHTej[H yBH;i;ijiH, ^to hm'b ne^ero jijbjiSLHh vh Jlrofi- 
JHH^ H B'B Hejc^JKjD HpaBOCjaBk (1569) caMOBOJTBHo pas^- 
ixajiHCB no jtOMaM'B. 

IIOJEHEH CHJIBHO HOpaaCOHH 6UJIH 3THMI p'J&mHTeJBHHMl 

maroMi jhtbhhob'b, ho yMHifiniie hstb hhx'b o6o;i;phjihcb 
H npH^yMaJiH TaEyK) Mipy, EOTopaa ofipaTHjra bo Bpe;i;i 
JiHTBHHaHi HX% y;i[aj[eHie g% cegMa. UoJiflEH p'j^hihjihcb b'b 

OTCyrCTBie JTHTBHHOBt HpHCOeAHHHTB EX HojiBnii K)atHO- 

pyccEifl oCjieLCTn: IIo^Ji'l^CBe, Bojujhb, EieBB. KopoJiB HS^ajiB 
yHHsepcajH o npHCoe;i;HHeHiH bthxb. ofijacTeg e^b nojiBHri 
H noTpefioBaj'B npHfiBiTiH na ceftMX hxi npe;i;cTaBHTej[e&. 
BMicii CB Thwb npHEaaano 6hjio y^aJiHTB&a hbi 9thxi 

06jiaCTeH BC^M^B ^HHOBHHEaMX, npHpO;i;HUMB JEnTBEHaMX, 
HT06h OHH He BOJTHOBaJIH MiCTHHXli »HTeJieH. KpoM* Toro, 

AenyxaTaMH na cefiMT* ot-b bthxtb ofijracTefl aojlsreu 6hjih 

^HTLca He Bn6opHHe, a rocy;i;apcTBeHHHe hhhobhheh, 

popUMB Q&hSiBJienOy ^to ecjiH ohh ne cooacaTca npn- 

U* 



L 



— 164 — 
a jHiK) cb nojbmefi, to 6jxyrb JtuineHu 

DOCTed H UMJlBifi. Ob 3T1IHII HeCHaCTHLIHt 

Uoniicba, Ba^uHH h Kiesa pasurpUBOJiHC 
CTOSHUfl ciieHU. 

ii npHiDJiH Bi yxaci, Kor^a ysoajtu o^ 
hcvoS JioBjmKb. Ohh aeiiexjeHHO co6paJi> 
JlaTB^ Ha coB^u^asie h oTOpaBuiH na c 
K iHTOBCKOe nOCOJIIiCTBO Buciusaio Ha c 
jHTOBHeBi, TTO Iloibnia 6egrb hhx'b upHa 
ce6t oSjiacTH, Bcerw npHHawe»aBniia J!: 
laspBiBaero JIsTOBCKoe KHaacecTBo no laxa 
Tb y JIbtbu EpbMba, hto ecjH yerpoarb 
lOHxi rocyjtapcTBi, to Jiysnte eoejBHHTb cb I 
aHTOBCKoe KHaaecTBO. M^toCu ycipoHTb ' 
oBiiu HpeAJioKtuH yHHqroatHTb ysasu Ha( 
CKHS'b o6jacTe& h OTcpo^HTb ceSjicb; jut 
i6AyHaH>Ti Ho^bCsiS luiaH'b ysiu h Ha ho 
coHiaTi xbjio. JIhtbhhu npH aiotrb paacs 
nojiasu jxe coeEyqHJiHCb Taa'b flflivo ti 
AU dyxyT'b oTJio»HTb ero, a sb aro upeHa h 
iHSHTbca cb pyccRHUH, BoopyxHTb usi npt 
H saTopH03HTb yms) m, hobohi ce&v.i. Uc 
UBHO noKOJie6aJiHCb, a pyccaie snauiTeJibHC 
[ CTaJH yajioHaTbCa oi'b npHcara Ha Bitpj 
Ho He y^aJica stoti uaHeBpi iHTBHHaH'B. 
C^tyMaBi Hjiant jihtbhhobi, acao jBHAtJi 
, pimnjiHCb Be apepuBaTb cefiua, h npHCTy 
to K'b pyccEUH'b, ?ro6u npHCaraja aa coe, 
tiJiaCTeft Cb UojibmeH. 
inpocb 06% jme sasHd^i Tenept oTi pycc 
KHaaecTBa,— oTb Toro, naGKoibKO ohh (Sj 



— 16B — 

9T0fi B1 EKSJ, He OKaSSJOCB. 

H npHc^rayjiH hui. Ca.'bjijsiaiii 
HXi flfl 3TOro nopaOon^ema. Mb 
OBCTita loaHHa IV vj6bjiz py 

Rli^JIH OBH, 6e3l COHH^Hifl, 
CH JIHTOBCKarO KHXOeCTBa, oco( 

leHHo Ha Bo.raHH, B'b Kooit a 
u3 6itrjeii'& hsib PocciB, HBsat. I 

11 BOSHOXHHH'B HepOAX JIHIl.OH'b 

pmaTB yatacHyw HSH^ny — co6i 

apOTMBS pOXHOft CTpaHH — BOCW 
^JTb HOIHytO B03HO»aOCTb ycTpaHi 
h ex RpUHCRHHH TaTapavH. 1 
i npHui^p£, 6e3% couHtHia, ct 
lopyecoBi. Ho y hhxi, kpom* 
?KHa, sacTaRiflBHiaA noAafiaTtc 
ro — cefinaci ynoMflnyTaa 6opB( 
Ohk Tenepb nocro^HHO noABepn 
* H oqeHB HyautaJHCB Bt noii 
opie Morja npifirn bl hhm-b, ■ 
!>B flpyroft cTopoHH, BCji^CTBie 
omenifi n or^acTH BCJii;icTBie hi 
io«h, Bt iiajopoccifiCKHsi oSjrac 

I BeiBKOSl, ^^Ml Bl JiHTBi, TO 

reg OTi HHx^B MaJtopoccificKoa mji 
Ke H HOfljiepaKH eft bi 6opB6' 
3Jibiiiix'B jiajiopocci&cEHX'B ne^Bi 

HHOrO Ha JtefijIBHCEOHB ceftHt. 

fCJtoiTb, 6ajiH cjia6Bt h co^yBcri 
iMx. Tenept oKaaajocB, qro n 
BoacTaHOBBJio eAHHeHifl veacAy 



— 166 — 

PycfciD JHTOBcsaro KBAxeCTsa. Ta i 
Apyra Apyry. Majo Toro, pyccKHs 
[1%, no^eiiy jhtbhbu sf&mMJKTh up 
STBHHU — nporecTaHTu no lyxy, no ; 
IB.V.B. Ti u Apyrie o6HapyxHB&JH j 
ICTBO oCn^efi, 3aiia;iHO-eBponeficKod i 

HHS'b pyccEie npeACTaBHTe^u ojiHHi 
e6a qysHKH, yeAHHeHHuuH. CHrBSH 
jTb HHX'b npHC^ra IIojiLniit; ohh e 
[Cb H npHCAFHyjiii. 

iBHU itfiCTBHTejbHO OKasaincb 6e3 
J 6ujH noHCBOJit corjamaTLM na yn 
H OHH en^e 6opojHCb nporuB'b Ilojbi 

OHIH,. OTCiaHBaJIH TO JIlTOBCSyB} UB^ 

im, BH^a HoyAany bo iiceH^, ohh 
Btfi man. He ycrynaa hh bi gei 
iTb, j(htobi;u OT^ajH see CBoe x^m e 
nocjiitAHAro rocyAaps, nepe^'B xoropi 
ffiACTaBHT&iefi, aMyscKia ciapocTa H) 
BH^x) HSJHJn CBOB) rope^b H Bce 01 
i;eS CBOH) caHo6uTHOCTb, apa hohi 
a KOjtHH a yMo^iajiH CHrHSMyHja b 
)CTBa KopadoH^enieH'B ero IloJibin^. 
piniHi'b A^o He Bi Hxi nojibsy, i 
maaTb yniio h npHcaraxb UaibiHi. 
la 1 iiojia 156!) r. 

HO BO BTOHy CyAHTb, £aK0r0 CBO&CTI 

ifl aKiTb yHin, Ha Koiopuft tbetb ^ai 
, npocJaBjaa ero, KaE'b &s,Tb AoSpOBi 
corjacifl JIbtbu na cjHTie e* Ilojib: 
ocHOBaTb yHin Ha HpaBcTBeHHuxi 



vh npHHii;HnairE bsubojih, o( 

npHHI^UDU 3TH 6UJIH DOUpS 



BHIE IX, 



[oAbmefl no jnfijiHHCEofl jhih. Orit^bi 
[ STOfi OTAiibBOCTB. CeBxL jiuTaBCEiH : 
iHHu jHTOBCKie a paajitjieHie ahtob< 
CocToauie rapoAOBi. XBTOBCKaro xaaxe' 
DiMaEOBii BO Bpeaa npeCuBauia KOpOJ 

leHHHIl. JlHTOBCKlfl CTaiyTL, XSXb BU[ 

1. n«p«Bopon npoHSBejteHHfiB mfijHE 

BO. JlaTOBCEOA apBCTOKp&Tia H JIBTOl 

, — HHjiH. XJonciBO no reopia noJtti 
Ha^LBBro u pe^iHrioanaro paSJiKiiH. Bi 

BHjTpeuHBB 6opL(ia Hesij HBiajiaMH .11 
]CGToaTftucTB&, BedaronpisTHUs nxt 
e ABHraieJiH ycntia BoatcEiro ni»a b 

Oiepm TeopiH iesyHTCTsa h es npoH( 
rasaitis iBsjHiCEaro opAeaa"). 



iT&iH ^nn'OBCKaro KH^secTsa 
efiH^ nepeA% CHrHSuyHAoui 

oGn^KHaxi si Dro-3anaAH09 Poccii 
itm 1863 rojiy. Cocroaaie KpecTMi 

BBO nOCJii JlD6lBHCE0fi yHlB, H310 

tia Bi BXHo-pyccKOiiy ApxHay, ^ac 
1876 ro;(y. CociMHie ropoftOBt— at 
f,. 1869 roiy, iiapse6yprcK0Mi n 
^ HtMei(Koe npaeo b£ Uonhwb h J[ 



— 168 — 

rycTOMi Ha koj^hh h ci nja^eMi yuojujiu ero He cjiHsaTB 
jHTOBCBaro rocyA^tpcTBa Cb IIojibHiei. Ohh aobojbho jicho 
npeABHA^JH rH6ejLHaA nocj[']^j!i;cTBifl dxoro cjhtui, kotopha 
aMctbhtcjibho 6hjih otohl BejHKH H o^eHB pasHOofipasHH. 
?to6ei bha^tl hx^ acH^e, hu aojshu osnaKOMHTBca Cb 
BHyTpeHHHMOb cocToaHieMi jmTOBCKaro EHAsecTBa ao jd6- 
jHHCEog yHin. 

B'b ofl;HOM% H3Tb npej^mecTBOBaBfflHxt Trenifi mh Ai^ajra 
onepK'b BHyTpeHHjaro cocToania JIhtbh jsfl nepBaro coe^H- 
HCHifl en c% nojiBmeg npH SveLHAi. Tor^a hh TmxhjE, 
^TO rocy;i;apcTBeHHaft h o6in;ecTBeHHHfi 6uTh jiHTOBCKaro 
KHflsecTsa cjo^HJCA no nanajaM'B pyccBoft shbhh. JLocjA 
nepBaro coe^HHeHiji cb IIojiBnieH, JHTOscBoe BmiacecTBO 
HaxQ;i;HjiocB rb cj[%;i;yioni;eM'B nojoseHin. CoejcHnenie jIhtbh 
cb IIojiBmeH jsfi j[H)6jihhckoh yniH, KaK'B mh yse SHaen^B, 
6ujio He 6oJi^e nsjvh nojTHTH^ecEiH co^si xsyx^ rocy- 
jiiapcTBib, o6%e;i;HHflBmHxcfl o6hi;hhh BH^niHHHH HHrepecaHH 
H OAHHifB rocyji;apeM'B. 9to 6iuo, KaK'B Biipa»aiDTca, unio 
porsonalis, coe^HHeHie bx jian;* rocy^iapa, Koropoe, Bnpo- 
^ew'B, KaK'B BiH Toxe BH^^ijTH, ^acTO HapymajocB. JThtob- 
CKoe KHflSKecTBO HH'i^jio nacTO He TOJ[BKO OT;i;^BHaro npa- 
BHTejEA, HO H npaBHTejifl caMocTOATejirBHaro, HesaBHCHMaro 
BejEHKaro khasa jraToscKaro. ^ajE^e, bo Bce dro BpenA, 
orB 1386 ;^o 1569 ro^a, jiHTOBCKoe KHJiseGTBO cTporo ot- 

;^&[flJ0CB OT'B IIOJIBHIH CBOHHH rpaHHi^aMH. HapflsajiHCB 

HaCTO 0C06ufl KOHMHCCiH, KOTOpHA OTJ^AJH H npOBtpAJIH 

H3;^. 1868 roAy. JtaoBCKie cTaiyrH Bcfext ipexi pe^asipt — 15i29, 
1566 H 1588 HSAaHH bo BpeHeHHHS'b MOCROsCKaro o6ii;ecTBa HCTopin 
H ApeBHocTeS T.T. XVIII, XXni h XIX. B'b nocjri^AHeM'b toh^ npe^H- 
cjioBie H. ][^. E'l^ji^ieBa. leayHTH wh sana^Hoft Poccin vb 1569 — 1772 r 
coH. A. ^eMLAHOBHHa. neTep6. 1872 r. 






i ■ 



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— 169 



rpaHHi^u Mes;(7 o6ohhh rocyAapcrsaHH. 9to hpousboahjiocb 
noTomy, "sto hh A'^Jia, hh jioah nojBCBie h jHTOBCsie He 
AOJiSHU 6}ijm cwbmiiBkTbca. IIoirflKH He hm&eh npasa 3a- 
HHMaTB wh JLjsTvb rocy;(apcTBeHHUx!b ^^ojianocTefi, He MorjuB 
j^ase, Basi ^acTHue jidah, aiaA^TB b'b jhtobckom^b bhh- 
secTsi seMJied. IIojiBnia nasHBajtacB ?ysoD CTpanoK), 
nojTflKH HHocrpaHqaHH. l^xaTB wh IIojiBniy HasuBajioeB 
ixaTB sa rpaHHniy. 

KojuBEBH, ctB caMaro nepsaro BpeMeHu coK)3a c% hhmh 
jHTOBi^eKB, ynoTpe5jAJ[H pa3HUfl M^pa h HOJrBSoeajiHCB 
pa3Hoo6pa3Hin[H cjiy^afliiH, nTo6u paspyniHTB 9Ty p^syiD 

OT^JIBHOCTB JEHTOBCKarO KHflSeCTSa OTX HX% CTpaHU. HaiTB 

HSBicTHO, HTO Ha ropoAejBCBOH'B ceflH^ 1413 ro^^y jaTHH- 

CXOd JIHTOBGBOfi SHaTH AaHU CWLU rep6u nOJIBCKHX'B pOAOBTi, 

coeAHHeHHue cb pasnuMH AeBopaii,iflMH h o6u^aAHH hojb- 
CKO& acHSHH. Tor^a xe npeAOCTaBjeno 6wlo JlnTB^npaBo 
sniTB cboh ce&MU, no ofipasiiy nojBCBHX'B ceSHOBrB. Bnpo- 

HBMrB, JHTOBCXie CefiHH BO BCe dTO BpeHA, AO CaHOfi J[K>6- 

JIHHCKO& yHin, HHSor^a He hoxoahjh Ha nojiBcxie. Ohh 

COCTOJIJni C06CTBeHH0 H3Gb JIHTOBCBUXl CeHaTOpOB^B, JHTOB- 

exod SHaTH. JlHTOBCKoe HHsmee ^bophhctbo — Tas^B Ha3H- 
BaeMoe JiHTOBCKoe 6oHpcTBo, He yqacTBOBaoro b'b hhx'b. 
Aase BorAa eiry npeAocraBjieHo 6ujlo dTo npaBO, oho p'i^^Ko 
dUBajEo Ha cedMax^B h HHSor^a He hm'&io na mojb sna- 
^eniH*). Ha ropo^cejBCBOH'B ace ceflM^, B'B JIhtb^ BseAOHBi 
HifiOTopuH AOJracHOCTH no o6pa3i^y KoJiBniH. Bnocji'^bACTBin, 
Bi pasHHA Bpenena, ^hcjio hx:b yBejEHneno hobeiuh hojib- 

CKRMH AOJISHOCTAHH. Mu nepe^HCJIHlfB Bc£ 9TH BaSHM- 
WM AOJIJKHOCTH. 



*) Ha XI)5j[HHCR0H'b CeftMt STO Up^MO rOBOpHJIH nocjiu noAJfl^cBfl. 



L 



— 172 — 
CKOD «h CEHOfi BaJtHOi CTOpOH^ XH3HH, — O 

ByxAaTL. Ho tto Bcero saxHlie, b% jhtobc 
xeCTB^ He 6iuo rix-h aoMBraiec&ex'b npHqHH' 

Vb UOMhWk TaJCb CHIbHO CO^^tCTBOB&IH UO 

ropoxaxi ftsoaeunfiwb h cticaeBm iAcihux.!,] 
SflTeiefi. npH OTcyrcTBlH oaibcsoi Teopia n 
jHTOBiiH He jmfibja HH^ero AfpHoro bi tomi 
HHxi o6pasoBajocB h yicp^njAiocb CBoe, idbcrHot 
cocjoBie, cpe^Hee u&asj xBopaBCTnowh h aapo 
rOAspfl 9T0Hy, jHTOBCKie ropoja Jip jdCjchhckoS 
oqeHb cBJbHu TyseuHaiTb ropoACKHHi HaceieB 
doao^ho BOJBCKHiTb ropo^aiTb, craiH xaKxe yi 
varxefiyprcKoe npaBo, no Koropouy ynpaKieHii 
6iuo Bh pysaz's cavHX'L rpaxj^aH'B h cocpejo 
Vb paiynili, r^i satf^x^B 6yproHHCTpi h jai 
Hlwei^Koe Dpano ho hsh^heio HapoxHaro xap 
TOBCKHXS ropOAOBt. B'b HHsi HpeofijiaAuo ses 
HacejOHie. B'b rpaxorarB, xaace nocji jdCjhs 
ropozaee pasA^-isKiTCH na pyccEyn h jaiHHCK] 
a «b rpaMorarB ropoMBTb boctohboB <iacTH 
KHAsecTBa, ^acTo BOBce Be yiioHBHaiOTCA aXm 
Bi iBTOBCKom KBaxeCTBi, KaKi H «h pyci 
secTBarb Bocro^BOg FocciB, Be 6uso BOJbcicai 
BOi'o cocToaBia iub xjoncnta, t. e. TOKoro cc 
lifiS, EOTopux'B HO 3Ba^o rocy,i^pCTBo Hfl BO bob 
HH A^se BO cyAy, a orxaBajio Brb nojiHyo bojik> ; 
Bt TaEOHt nojioaceBJB bi JIhtb^ eeki b bi 
pyccKHX'b oCxacraxt, 6Q.aH TOJibEO paSd, xojo 
ocTajibBue BpocTHe jd^b hih laKi BasuBaen 
BBC 6axa rpaawaBaiiH pocyAapcTBa, necjni 

CTSeHBUa BOBSBBOCTB B ejflfiXRCb BO FOC 



r 



— 173 — 



HUii'b saRonaMii. JiHTOBCRaA noM^cTHaA cucTeMa, Tpe6o- 
BaBmafl, ttoSh bc%, ;i;a«e caiiMe 3HaTHue, oT^usajiH ro- 
cy;^apcTBeHHyi) cjiyafiy coo6pa3Ho seMejiBHOMy HMyin,ecTBy, 
ecrecTeeHHo npHB^dUBajia k'b seMJ'b h ki> BJ[a^jE>i^aM'& ea 
3flaHMTejiBHyi) qacTLnpocToro nacejieHia^KOTopoe nocTOiiHHo 
aoo Ha CBOHXTb'MtcTaxt, ocofieHHO B*B BijiopycciH, r;i;t He 
MOMo 6uTb oco6eHHo 3aMaH?HB£[xi» uepecejEeniJl h tji,^ 
paHfcine, ^^wb wh YKpaflHi, yTBep;i;HJiacL jiHTOBCKaa BJiacTB. 
driiwb nyTeH'B o6pa30Baj[ca KJiaccb BpecTBAH'b, npHKpin- 
jennux'b K'b seMjrb h K'b juinj^ Ksacc'b xaKi HasiiBaeMUX'B 
oTiHieft, ^^iAH^efi. Ho h stotx KiaccE KpecTtaHt Chje'e 

CBflSaHl CB Ba[aA%J[LII.aHH nOBHHHOCTJIMH, a He JU^HO 
(CBO^HTL C:B 3eMJH H npo;i[aBaTL HejIB3JB[ 6UJ[0), H npHTOM'B 
EpOHi OTlHHefi H A^Ji^H^eS 6KJI0 SA'&CB He Majo CB060A- 
HUX'B KpeCTBJIH'B, TaB'B HaSNBaeMUX'B CjI060AH?efi, nOBOJB- 

EHKOBx. MoacHo CKasaTB, ^T0 no^TH BCA yEpa&Ha co- 

CTOaja H3'B TaBHX'B CJL060flfi^e6y nOBOJEBHUBOBrb, KOTO- 

pne BpoMi Toro ycBOHjEH ce6i SBanie Ka3aB0B'B. H^itb 
oj^HaRo cnopa, ^to ot<ih?h h ;i;'b;^H^H cocTaBJi.ajiii Ty 
HMeHHo CTyneHB, no KOTopofi nponijo b-b 3a^a;^HyI) Poc- 
cis) nojsBCBoe xjeohctbo. Eii];e ^SiJ^J^Jl^o j^o j[H)6jiHHCKog 
yniH, HMCHHO b^b BOHi^i XV CTOJiiTia (1492 ^o;^a), npH 
Ka3HMip§, Bi TO caMoe Bpena, Kor;i;a b^ nepBOMt cy;i;e6- 
HHKi MocKOBCKaro FOcy^^apcTBa o6'bjibjajocb: cy;i;rB bcj^m'b 
o6n^ig H paBHufi, b^b JiHTOBCRoe KHfl»ecTBO npopBaJiocB 
o;^HO H3i Ha^ajTb noJiBCKaro xjroncTBa, — htoCh na cy^t 
jilbjLo BpecTBAHHHa vifljBLJi*b Bvo 3eMj[eBjra;t'bjeii;rB. 
ropa3;i;o fioJBmee BJiianie, ^^mi bc* rocy^apcxBeHHua 

3aHHCTB0BaHifl, npOH3BOAHJIH B'B JKTOBCROITB RHAaceCTB^ 

nojiBCBie jih)ah BTopraBmiecA B'B Hero no^'B pasHUMH npe^- 
JoraMH. Kor^a cjy^ajEocB, ?to ot^^jbhuS jiHTOBCKiK khii3b 



BbbL..^ 



— 174 — 

:ajtCA H BOJibCKHiTb KopojeH'B, TO, no ecre 
icy sensed, oh'b ^acTo npetjUBaji se tojli 
H Vh ;iHTOBCKOirb KHflXeCTB^. MHOrie H 
iipeS Aaxe ^an^e nH.aH bi jihtobceom'b kh. 
noiLnrt. ^BTBa npHB^eKa^a hx'l cbo 

(H U'blTailH JtJA OXOTU, a Ed&EOTOpHe 

Y em,e i&mfi «h Bed xvjle, ?to jiio6hjik 

HHf. IIpH SHX'b 3;i,^CL fiusaJB H nO,II,Cl 

OBHHKH. Bojrite 6jH3Kie hsi hex's ki si 
flHue HMi, ecTecTBeHHo, nojyflajiH bi JI 
leHie, KHorxa XBxe BpeHeaHo saoHHa 
KHocTH, KajCB HanpHinipi, CTapoers Kopoj 
, KacTejiflHost. npH sTowh HHorie irojiai 
SHTOBi^aHB H lacTHUut odpasQut, pOAHl 
I ^acTHHA noaeMeJUHUfl BJia^i^Hi^. ^thbt 
30 ^acTo crajiH noceji.aTbCfl noxflKH 7 
iKofi rpaHHiuJ no coc^ictbj ci noiLnn 
> lacTin npe6uBaJa nojbCKie KOpojiR, koi 
JlwTBj. Ho eiii,e 6oJ!bm.i& HanjiuffB noj 
t Bn,a«ecTBo HcnuTUBajo bo BpeHena bg 
fCJOBiflKt coDsa Heac^y o^miH rocyAa^i 

CHJH HSi iOJiatHH (SuJiH coe;(HnffrBca. 
Fua sanpyacesa nojflsauz. BecL Hapo;rB 
[a Ha ce^i uxii T^rocrt. SRajexE xai 
nta CHJTbHO 6a3E He^toBOJbnn bthui h < 
b nojraBOBi. Hnor^ta onn p^majiBCb o;(b 

Aaxe 3aK.(E><iaTb Heeuro^inufi unpi, ' 
iBMTbca OTi nojBCKHXi BoftcKi. Hto ate 
max-b nocaienig noJiaKOBi, to ne pas's 
OH HXi oieHB Dneprnqao. Bt nanaTBi 
3CL HicRo.3i<R0 aacToii^HBHrL Tpe6oBaHiK 




— 175 — 

He cejmjiach wh jthtobckom'b KHaseecTB'l, nps ^ewh ohh 
yKJOH^jTHCL OTB rocyji;apcTBeHHBix'B o6a3aHHocTeft H no 
OTHomeeiED b'b JIiitb% h no oTHomeniK) k'l* IIojiiLini. 

JI^OBOJiLHo B'j^pHUM'B Bupasenieu'B Tor;i;aiiiHeH shshu jIh- 
TOBCKaro KHaaecTsa cjymim jHTOBCKifi CTaiyrB, t. e. ;^Ba 
nepBUfl ero H3;i;aHi4i^ c^'&jiaHHUfl js,o J[H)6j!rHHCRoS jhIh, Hs^^a- 
im 1529 H 156€ it. Bx saKOHOAaTejibCTB-fe stomi, wh ko- 
TopoMt CHanaja (bi 1 CTaTyxi) ypaBHHBajTHCb no cy;ty tojil- 
KO ;^Ba cocjioBia, — BHcmee cocjiOBie h ;i;yxoBeHCTBo, pasHHii 
cyj^i nocTeneHHo pacnpocTpannjica na HHsmee ;i;BopaHCTBo 
H ropoa^an^B, CTapaBmnxca o^nnaKO oxpaH^TB h cboh oco- 
6ua. npaBa, — Marxe6yprcKia, rjijb ohh 6hj[h. BMicrfe Cb 
TiMi B^ cTaTyTarb 6ojrie h 6ojiie BH^UBwraroTca npaBa 
Ha BH6opHiafi cyji,^ is. Ha CBo6oj^Hoe pacnopnacenie HMy- 
m;ecTBaMH, na^'B kotophmh thfot^jo jennoe npano jih- 
TOBCKHX'B rocy^apeft. 

Ilpn TaK0Mi> HanpaBJieHiH jiutobckhx'b cxaTyTOB'b, co- 
OTBiTCTBOBaBHieMi Tor^ijaniHeMy cTpeMjeHiro jiHTOBn;eB'b Kt 
HesaBHCHHOCTH, Majio Morjio 6uTh p6^M o&b orpaa;i;eHiH 
npaB^B HHsniHX'B cocjOBift. TiMt ne Menie b^ jihtobckhx'b 
CTaTyTaxx mh naxo^i.HM'B ne Majio nocTaHOBjeniH b'b axosfB 
OTHomemH, CBH;^iTeJIBCTByH)nl;Hxt o cyni;ecTBOBaHiH b'b 
JIhtb^ CTapHX'B pyccRHX'B Ha'^aj'B ma^nn h ;i;ase abho 
HanoMHHaroniiHX'B naniy ji;peBHH)i) pyccEyro npaB;i;y. Cxa- 
TjTH j^aroTi npaBO ne tojbko OT^H^y, fio ;i;a»e hobojb- 
HHKj cnacaTBca orb neBOJiH hjih 3aKp'£nom;eHia h naxo- 
j^HTB CBo6o;i;y b'b ropo^axit; orpann^HBaroT'B npaBo othckh- 
Banin 6irj[aro OT^H^a tojibko jifica.rhio ro;i;aMH (b'b IIojBmi 
Torj^a yae ne 6ujio HHKaKoro js^jsl 3Toro cpOKa); orpaac- 

DTB, ^o;^o6Ho pyccKoS npaB;!;^ pefl;aKn;iH Bjra^iHMipa 

HOMaxa, oTh ofipan^enia naftMHTa b'b pa6a, h — ;i;parO'- 



L 



— 176 — 

TSJbHEaM oco6eHHocTB — ysaKOHflDirb KOHmii cy;^, cocraB- 
jABmifi To^HyK) Konix) teki HasuBaeiiaro HSBOxa (pas- 
cji^AOBama npecTynjeHia no sHsmrE cAfjaLttb) pyccKofi 
IIpaBji^H. H 9T0T:b oeTaTOKi xp^BHefi pycexog cTapHHu 
giLi'B Tan's cfueo^ h abho nojieaeiTB, ^to owb npomejPB 
xase KB nosAHt&miA, nojBCsiA pe^aKiUH jtHTOBcsaro cte- 
Tyra, h saasjAJTB cbok) sh3hl n't K&Kovopux'B n^Tax'B 
B-kiopycciH ^^aase b'b UBmuA XVIII si^Ea! HasoHei^'b, en^e 
flCH^ H necoMH^HH^e CBH^^TejBCTByen p pyccxoft cnjrb 
b:b JHTOBCROITB RUAiBecTB^ TO, ?To o6a CTaTyTa H js^axe 
TperiS iiHcaHU na pyccBoirb asuk^ h yaaKOHADTi yno- 
Tpedjenie wh cyji^axi pyccKaro asuBa. 

Becb dTorb OTA-j^BHufi CTpoi jHTOBCRaro BHa»eeTBa 
cTaJTB noABepraTBca paspymeHiiD co BpeMeHH j[]d6jihhcro& 
yHiH HJH cJHTia jHTOBcaaro RHasecTBa (tb noja>CRUHi 
RopojeecTBOMi. JiHTOBCRoe RHAsecTBo 611JL0 TenepB Goeep- 
meHHO OTRptiTo noJiaRam h nojiBCROMy BjiaeiK). 

Gefiuu CA^jajiHCB o6iii;hmh h nocToaHHO Cubsljlb vh 
Uojihnib. Upe^^CTaBHTejH jIhtbu cwbnmBBJOch cb npejfr 
CTaBHTejiaMH IIojBinH. GHJia h 6oj[biiihhctbo tojocokb, 
Baa's ced^aci yBH^HirBy HenpeM^HHo aoji2rhu 6ujih oRa- 

3EIBaTBCfl Ha CTOpOH^ HOJBCROg, DO BCJ^M'S BOflpOCaifb, 

SHBO saTporHBaBiOHMi pasjiHHHue HHTepecu o6ohx'b na* 

POAOBI. 

CocTae'B ^HHOBi npH Ropojii Toace CM^niHBajica. OcTa- 
Bojmch oco6Bie JiHTOBCRie ^hhobhuo THTyiii; ho 8to He 

SHaHHJIO, ^0 OHH J^OJSHU 6£IJIH A^BaTBCfl TOJIBRO JEHTBH- 

HaM7». Ha Hex's Hif^jH Teneps coBepmoHHo paBHoe npaBo 
H nojTflRH. Stem's nyTeM's ;[[[OJiac»ocTH jhtobcrIa Majo no 
Hajiy nepexoji^HjEH b:b pyan noJEAROB's. Kopojis h ceiMU, 
BCJii;i;cTBie aioro, nojs^na^^ajH 6QjisnieMy h 6oJ[smetfy bjcui 






— 177 — 

HID noJLCKOMy. B:b 3tom^ OTHomeHiH CM^meaie Bcero jih- 
TOBCKaro CB noJBCKHM'b Bapa6aTiiBaj[0CB cauuM^ Henys- 

CTBHT&IIiHUMl H CuCT^UWh 06pa30Ml, nOTOMJ ^TO B'B 

BepxHefi c^jijb JiHTOBCBOt ;i;aBHo yace saKja^ijiiBajiocL bsl- 
?ajio noJEBCKOi shshh nyiewh jaTHHCTBa h ;i;aaKe npo- 
TecraHTCTsa. JLhtobcksla apHCTOKpaTia coxpanajra m% jih- 
TOBCBoS SH3HH TOJTBBo BocnoMHHaHm «^H npHTAsama Ha 
B^acTB, 6y;^yHH Ha ji,ijvb coBepmenHO hojcbceok). 
HicBOJiLEo 6oja>mG coxpaHAJiocB HHsmee jhtobcboc abo- 

PHHCTBO. no JIK)6jIHHCB0My aSTy B^b HerO HM^JIH HGHBrnin 

^^ocxyn'b nojEBCBie adjiji nynewb 0(|>(|)Hniiaj[BHHM'B. Hnsmie 

^HHOBHHBH ;(0J2KHU 6nJH 6UTh HS'B H']^CTHUX'B ffiHTe^eS. 

UojLSLKBM'h A^j&iHCB ;i;ocTynHUMH dTH M^CTa He nna^e, 

SaffB eCJEH OHH nOCejTflJFHCB Bl JIHTOBCBOH'B BHameCTB^, 

saKB ^acTHiie jedah, csHBajiHCB cb TyseMi^aMH. Tor^a yme 
OHH BUABHraJincB na ^inHOBHyK) j[%cTHHii;y. Ho stottb 
H6;i;j[eHHiifi npoii;ecc% onoJAHeHifl dna^nrejcBHo ycEopaJC^ 
AapoBaHieHi jHTOBCBOny ^BopAHCTBy HoiBCBaro mjiflxer- 
CTBa. MesB^ CA^jiaTBea hojibceoh) mjiflXTOD, jihtobcboo 
popaHeTBo c6j[Hsaj[0CB ci hojibcbok) huaxtok), y^njrocB y 
Hea HOBUM^ CBOHH'B HpaBaBTB, npH ^OM'B ecTecTBOHHo no- 
na^aBHiie b'b nee nojiBCEie .mJCflXTH^n nojy^aJiH oco6eHHoe 
3HaHeHie pyBOBo;i;HTej[e&. Cauo co6ok) pSLsywbenca^ ?to 
3T0 pyBOBo^CTBo ffo^SHo 6hj[o napajiH3HpoBaTB HapOAHUH 
CTpeMjenifl JHTOBCBofi hijaxth. Oho nopTHjio ee fiesBos- 

BpaTHO, flikjlB,XO npHTflSaTeJBHOK), paSApaHCHTeJIBHOK) u 

eio;e 6oJLie 6e3ciUBH0K) nepe^^B CBoeio apHCTOBpaxied, j^m 
ypaBHeHifl Cb BOTopod eft neAOcxaBajro hh npeAanid hojib- 
cKnt nuAXTu, HH jifi,sie MaxepiajEBHofi o6e3ne?eHHOcxH no- 
c .^efi. 

opo^CBoe cocjioBie Hcnuxajio eni^e 6bjLhmjJ0 csljij hojb- 

12 



— 178 — 

cKaro aiisHia, TyseuHoe, pOAHoe h^ 
upaBaMH Suxo HeHEJOHHo no uojilck 
mHHCTBO ropOAOBi 6uxo coficTBem 
KOTopafl nixh (Soibine nojia^Hjact, 
niajia uiniaH'B Bi xionoBi. ropo;ia 
jeBCKie,roc7AKpCTBeHHue no;(BeprajH 
npaB'^, HanaiHfljiRc& ntHitaiiB, ocoG 
Hoe irfemaHCTBo oeyameHO 6axo Ba 
panie. B-b ihtobceoui sQsaxCTBi 
Hojbini, iipHroTOBjifl;iacb 6e3AHa hi 
xjonCTBOHi, HOs;^ noiBOnpaBHoci 
MtniaHCTBo cBOHiirb naAenieHi noiz 
SesjHy. 

Ob ociafijieHieirb ryaejraaro m: 
yxyADULioci. nojoawnie EpeersflHi j 
Hhi sanHpajcfl eAHRCTBeHHufi bu: 
qecKaro eowoBia bi Apyria. Ho bh 
Hajerjo HCTopH^ecRoe, crporo bu 
xjoncTBO. HHKasia npaea apecTLflD 
Ha Horja HH^Tb SBa^eHifl no q 
Xjioni — 6e3ycJ0BHUil pa&B nana. "9 

JlOCb B'b XHTOBCROU'b EHflXCeCTB^ HO. 

nojia^HJOCb JHTOBCEoe abophhctbo, 

HATia BKOpeHflJIHCb H T^lTb TflXext 

aenie EpecriaHHHa Bt jHTOBCKOMi 
3Ta oco6eeHo yBejiH^HBajiaeB oro 
cTanOBHjnrcB HHon^eiceHHHKH, hxh c 
CBoero poAHaro. IlaHH 6tUH noju 

HJIH JlHTBHHl. BcC pyCCKOe H JHTO 
KHVL, KOSOpHHHl. BupatiaTHBajocii 
CTBo H npnfiaBiajiocL ki oiSuEHOBei 



\T\ 



— 179 — 

Toro, naHH, no oTHoraeHiro ki pjcckhm'b xjEonaMi, 6hj!h 
;^py^oS BipH. JlaTiiHCTBO CTaHOBHjuocL bt> sanaj^Hoft Poccm 
naHCKOK) BipoH), npaBOCJiaBie h ynia — xjiohckoh). 

TasHifB o^pasoMi, nojBCKie jhoah, noj[BCRoe sjiiflHie co 
BpeneHH j[id6jhhcroS ynm saxBaTHBajiH sanaAHyio PocciD 
eo wbx'h ctopoH'B. Ho Tas'B KaKi saxBaTUBajH ohh 
6oj!BnieK) ^acTiH) o^ghb otjeh^hhxi otb hitxtb xs)^eK h 
o^OHB oTJiHHHiia Ha^ajra »h3^h, to Hen36%SH0 ^oJiSHa 
6Hja BosHHKHyrB 6opB6a Mea;^y npninJiHMH h TyaeMHHMH 

JnOABUH, UBTRAJ UpHmJinHH H TySeHHEIHH 3J[eMeHTaMH. 

HaiTB yae OT^acTH nonaTHH oficToaTejBCTBa, o^ghb ne- 
fijaronpiflTHUA ;i^a sana^i^HoS Poccm bi axofi HeH36^Hofi 
5opL6i. Mu 3HaeM%, ^to CTpana nocTOAHHO 6ujLa, vb 
onacHocTH ot% npyccKHxi piu^apeft, KOTopue rposHJiH en 
KOHe^HHH'B HCTpe^jenieiTB h esi napoAHOCTH, h ea nfkpu, 
H ea rocy^napcTBGHHocTif. Heo6xo;i;HMocTB BUCTaBHTB npo- 

THBX 9T0S OnaCHOCTH CHJTbHyK) rocy^apcTBOHHOCTB H 6ja- 

ronpiflTHO ciosHBmijicfl o6cToaTej[BCTBa ;i;jfl pasBHTla ea 

Ha BOCTOKi, Bt OfijaCTaX^B pyCCKHXX, yBJOKJIH JHTOBCKOe 

KHaacecTBO Ha mnpoRift nyxB rocy^^apcTBeHHaro pasBirria; 

HO Ha 3T0Mt nyTH OHO BCTpiTHJO HOByH) OnaCHOCTB — CO 

CTopoHu MOCROBCKaro RHHScecTBa, ROTopoe ' ?aiii;e h ^an^e 
o6Hapy»HBajio naMipeme othatb y JIhtbh pycCRia 06- 

JiaCTH. Cpe^H 9T0& ABOSHOd 60PB6h, JHTOBCROO RHflSeCTBO 
HOCTOflHHO HaXOAHJOCB B'h nOJIHTK^OCROMl OT^aJiHiH, RO- 

Topoe, RaRi o^eBH;^HO, OTHHMaJio y Hero 6o^pocTB ]i,j[si 

6opl6h TpeTLefi — crt nojiLmeg, 6opb6h ci ^pysBaMH, 

o6uiBj[ABniHMH Ha Ran^^oH'B mary j[K)6obb h na rbjk^^oh'b 

Hiary ycTpoaBniHMH rnfiejiB Bceny TyseMHOMy vb aana^oS 

PocciH. BopBfia 3Ta 6HJia nesaMiTna, ho o^ohb Tpy^na. 

MnoroHHCJieHHMniee nojBCRoe nuraxoTCTBo BHCTynajio 

12* 



L.. 



— 180 — 

lyrb spoTUBi ropaa^o ifeBbmaro uo <iucjy 
CKaro ABopAHCTBa, H apH tohi o6HaHqHB(] 
upHspaiHHHK fijiaraKH iioJkCKo:^ niJiaxeK 
CaHo eo6oro pasyu'leica, tto jcd'^xib bi tc 
Oopt&t Bfl jerKo MOPt jtocraTBca aana^iHofi 
BBHero He roBopHH'B sx^cb iipeBocso,itc 
n,BB£jiH3aiQH BepejCb sanaAHo-pycCKon, noTi 
orCpocHTB TO, 1T& BpuHecJa nojibiii'6 pe<{>0 
BpOTecraHTOBi, to pasBHi^a bi> sxoirb c 
lloibine:^ h sanaAHofi Focciefi, j^na xoro : 
serca coBepmoBHo BBqiosHon. 

He CHOTpfl OABaso aa bc^ npeHiiyiii,ecTB 
upeACTOfiiqeg 6opb6-b cb Hera sansAsofi Pot 
poATBO s AQxe ejiBa ^h uoxho bi tohi 
tSoptCa Beayty hhmh TanyjiaCL fiu otchb fl( 

P'ltinHTejbHO, B, no BCeS B^poaXHOCTH no 

TLoAhma He ycn'&ia 6n nocTHTBytb B:b aai 
BBHaro sepeBJdca aa^'B h^cthuhh cHjaHH, 
CTopoHHSH cHJia BO npBHfiJia yiacTk sb csaa 
Btok) nocTopoBHen, BSHliBBBmeto sen ?fii 
TOpiH) saflaAHofl FocciH, chjok) (Sujeo iesyBi 
Hiodu BHA^Tb BejBKoe 3Ha?eHie iesyBTci 
sanaAHofi Poccia, Beo6xoA)iMO osBaKOMHTLOJ 
raxoHBUirB jaTHBCKBirb y^pesAOBieiTL. lea 
ciaBJifliorB oiSusBOBeBBo cjyqatBUH-L, Bpe» 
HieicB vb jaTBBCKofi i^epBBH. Mu AyHaei 
HB'fiHie spaSae oamSoHao. lesyBTCTBO coctj 
loranecKoe, aeaati^aoe pasBBxie jaTHB< 
Btpu. Oho BUTeicaeT'b b3i tofo se CMimei 
CB seuBUikrL A^a i;^e& sipu, o soiopoirb 
pHJH, HOiaraA HCTopis) apyccicaro a jhbobci 



r 



— 181 — 



^onyeTHBi pas'B, ?to f^K ^oCTHseHia u^^JiefL B^pu Heo5- 
xoAHMo ynorpe^JiaTB He tojlro AyxoBHiiA, ho h HipcRm, 
seMHua cpe;i;cTBa h chjeh, ;i;onycTHB'b past btot'b npHH- 
i^n!B Bi rjaBencTB^ HanH, ^yxoBHaro n Mipcisaro Bjia- 
xam, jiaTHHCTBo noHesoJi']^ npHHyasAeHO passHBaTB ero, 
iipHHyac;i;eHo pacmnpaTL Teopis) MipcsoH noM^psKH B'i^pir. 
TasHMi o^padOHi, b% jraTHHCTB*]^ ^[bjuijhcb, Kas'B coBep- 
meHHo ecTecTBesHoe h Bem&kamoe pasBHTie ochobho£ 
TeopiH, ynoTpefijenie opyatia npn pacnpocTpaneHiH B^pH, 
BpecTOBue noxo^Bi ajia 3aiii;HTU HHTepecoBi nanu. OTCK)fl,B, 
Aajie BHpa6oTaj[acB mucjib, ^to Moryxi Cunh vh jaTHH- 

CTSi HOCTOflHHBLfl HaTepiaJBHUfl CHJIU, nOCTOSHHOe HacHJiie, 

ibwb B 6Erj[H ;i;yxoBHO-puii;apcKie op^ena h HHBBH3Hii;iA. 
Ho ^To ;(%j[aTB, ecjin neJiBSA HiiiTB oTxpuTOH seMHoil 
CHju ;[[j[fl no;i;AepmaHia JiaTHHCTBa, ecjiH nejLhSH hh npe;^- 

npHHaTB KpeCTOBHX'B nOXO^OBl, HH HMiTB J^yxoBHo-pH^ap- 
CRHX'B OpjmenOB'B, HH HHKBHSHI^iH? ?T0 JH'&jaTB, eCJSH 3eH- 

Haa BJiacTB nanu na;i;aeTi? YcBoenie npaBHjia, hto mosho 
CMiniHBaTB nedecHUA h 3eMHUfl cpe;(CTBa ji,Ji^ u^zet Bipu, 

npHBH^Ka nOwIBSOBaTBCfl SeHHULHH Cpe^CTBaMH B'B A^J[% 

BipH Be;i;yTi neHsfiiacHO ki TOMy, ^to6h, BMicto otkph- 
TOH MipcKOH CHJIH, ynoTpefijflTB TaftHHfl MipcKia cpe;i;cTBa, 

T. e. K03HH, KOBapCTfiO, O^HaH'B. OTCH)Aa npaBHJEo, Biipa- 

fioraHHoe jaTHHCTBom, ^to ujkjih onpaB^UBaeTi cpe^^CTBa, 
HTo js^Jin CBaToro ^ijra see no3BOJHTejiBHO. OTCH)J^a-»e 
BHffljEo ieayHTCTBo. Bee no3BOJ!HTejrBHo js,jlh njijreS BipH — 
npaBHJio 3T0 pasBHTo iesyHTCTBOiTB wh cTpoftnyH), niHpo- 
Kyio Teopiro. Teopm 9Ta pa3BHTa bi to hmohho BpeMa, Kor;a;a 
nDOTecTaHTCTBo pacniaTa.10 nancTBo h jHniHJio ero bo3- 
1 KHOCTH HMiTB oTKpHTyH) CHjiy ^jiH CBoeS 3ani;HTti. 
I iroqecTHBaa jaTHHCKafl cTpana, HcnaHk, HCopoSoeaB- 



L 



— 182 — 

m&a Bc4 cpeACTBa HacHjda bi ^ferb aipu — h KpoBonpo- 
iHTHoe otipanieHie Ki jtaTHHCTBy avepiiKaHCKHzi asu^hu- 
KOBi, H Tepsasia hhkbbshiph, npoHSBe^a xasace u iesyBTCTBO. 
Eht Jiaai Ha^axo 6jtaro^ecTi(Bufi, paeeHuft HcuaHCBU^ 
lo&OJia. nana nootit HtEoroparo £o.ie- 
opAeat ieajHTOBi. 
pKB. npoHCXOXj,eHia ieayHTCTBa, Hax^ucji, 
iTo iesyHxcTBo hb octb cjiy^a&Hoe hjh 
laTHRCTB^ aBjeme. HanpoTHBt, t&hi 
i H na^^ae'rb jarBHCTBO, r£irL 6ojbiiie 
riiCJi iesyBTCTBO, noTOiiy ^to bi TaBOH'b 
uToaTejbH^e HjsAa Bt TaSnuxi, xHTpuii 
nOAAepsaHifl laTHBCTBa, vbu-b 6ttJihm&ii 
HTJH Teopin, 110 see noSBOiiHTeJbBO AJJi 
lyBTCTBO eCT6 canoe ;ian'OB^']Hoe yipeai- 
tsi H cbocoCho xHTb HpH Bctxi sanpe- 
ibTL TaKofl seHHoS chjiu, Hitrb TaicHii 
rb KOTopuHi 6a oho He npHUEHyjo h ne 

ITb lUCb Bl CBOn HOJbSy. HjXHO JH 110- 

BeofiuKHOBeHHUHH A^^Jaiiu cauooTBep- 
BHcraEHTi ash cpe,itbr ce6a hoabhshh- 
>. HyxHo xa bo hto 6u to hh crajio yHHiTO' 
Ku-h istflfiS, OHE He 3aAyuaB)TCfi HH oe- 
ecTyn^eaieHi, ecjH ero uoatno coBepmurb 

Hxt" BT, KaKyio yrojHo crpauy, ohh 
BOBaTB, IIpeolSjiaAaerb as. wh CTpaoii ro- 
»^a, iesyuTU ^Bj^ioica nponoB^ABHicaHH 
)jiH>TU3ua, BTHpamca «h npaBHrejbCTBen- 
panTi B-h CBOH pyKH ii,iii&. Qpeo6ja- 
mxk CH^a o6ui,eCTBeHHafl, ieaynTU apo- 

'Ay, paBHODpaBHOCTb, OUHOBUBaUTb aCiofi- 



J — 

< ce&k CHjBflyn naprin h 
oe rocnoACTBo. FasBHsaercfl 
■ o6]ii,eCTBeHHUxi hjih jih?' 
!BOja)iii£: iesyRTU ao^&xyn. 
SiqecTBaii'L. Hocjii^AHaA, no- 
ta iesyHTOB'H cb pesaiipiiio- 
nopHMoe noATBepxAeme Vb 
Bin. yqesHKH MaAausH h 

DIHTeABHO 3a OAHO H BST^CT^. 

j^AC^Bia OTspuBaju diorh 
CKaro jiaTHHCTBa h peBO- 

orooOpasHUHl a^bh'b npa- 
ieayHTCitaro opAeaa. TjaB- 
enepaJt, xiiBjm,\& wh Fjurb. 

BCIO SU3HL, HH'&31> 6e3y- 

:e conepHH^aJiib c^ uauoio. 
KuiHCB HaqajiLBHBti iesyHT- 
aeuue npoBBHiuajiu, Haana- 
se GesycjiOBHUe npaBuxejn 
^enie BjiacTH npoBHBiiiaioB'B 
ikaaijch opaBo oi^ahtb sa 
ocHTB reHepajy. 
OAHJUcb TfiK'L HaauBaeHua 

HieMX HX-b 6UJ10 BOCnHTU- 

usaTB CAOBo 6offlie — rJiaB- 

ieSyHTU CEpUBaDT'B Ta^HUfl 

iesyHTCEifl ne 6u2.b bh uo- 
^^HJizn^aHz, a TO K Apyroe 

y^esHEH, u QpHXOAAUVe h 
Hs'B lisi, H Apyi'HXi, T. e. 



— 184 — 

H3i 601^ A&poBHTim H 6jaroHaxeatHHX^ oGpaso] 
rjaBHoS cociaBi isayiiTOBi npoBBHi^iR. 

GauyD HHSniTD creneHb iesyHTCTBa cocraiUAJ 
aaauBaeiiue HOBH^iH. 8to 6ajiu y^eeHXH, hs'babhb 
ir^peHie tiuTi. bi iesyirrCTB^ a TOTOBAu^ieca n 
asaHiKi. Obh, noAofiHO HOHacTupcBHirb noc^yniHinu 
TOBHOViHca Kh HOHamecTBy, AO-isHii 6aza ote 
BCK> ,i[yniy cbohhx pyKOBOAHT&uuib h spoH^ Toro 1 
Apyit sa APyrourb B ;(OHOCHTii 060 Bcem Havaju 

nocjit Hauexan^aro HCKyca, BOBHi^iH nocryn 
Buemyio cieneHB, «b Tasi HasuBaevue cxo^acTHs 
jiacTHEB HsyiaiH Bucniifl (SarocjoBCKia HaysH usi 
HajiHCb npenOAaBaHJeHib aayEi s-b Y^BJiam,ax'b. 1t< 
He DpHBflSUBajHCb Kl o^HoS BaKoA-iH6o HayK^i I 
cpeAOTOQHBajH Ha net cbohx'L cooi, hhti noci'OaHHO 
npejuieru aaoaiifi. 

Aaj'Be cjrbAOBajH KoaAinTopu, soropue 6uih 
pojlOBi: HJiH cxojacTBSH, KOTopUHrb nopy^ajiHCb 
BaacHHA saHaTia, nponoB%ARH?ecTBo, iipenOAaBaHi 
BiHxi npeAveroBi, hjh jio;ih, hoc ryaaBmie bi iea 
op^eHi 6631 yqenaro npHroTOBjeHia h aaHniiaBHii 
HaiHeHiem pasnaro po^a nopy^enifi. IIocjiixBHHH i 
TopaHH fiuBEJH caiuo neofipasoBaHHEie h lynoyiiHu 
HO oTJEH^aBiniecH ycepAi^irb si j^jj h cjiiHum : 
BenieiTL. TynoyMie, npH arBxt nocxinsBZ'h Ka^e 
cqaTajiocB y ieayHioBi oco6eHHaiit ;nocTOHHCTBoirB. ' 
jHiiam OHU Hepi;iiEO A&BajiH c&aaa ceKp&maa 
zeeia. 

Bucmyv) cteneeB bi ieayHTCKOH'B opAeHi coci 
TasTb HasuBaenue npo<|)eccu. Ohh saaicHajiH bc^ b 
mis aojxhocth h HcaoiHAiH caHua cespeTHiia a^ 




— 185 — 
9T7 CTeneHB bosboxhjh o^eHB neMHorHxi, ci co6;[K)Ae- 

EieWb 60JBin0Jt OCrOpOSHOCTH H TaHHCTBenHOCTH. 

Bci CTeneHH bi» iesyHTCsoiTB op;(eH'& 6ujh noKpuru Ta- 

HHCTBeHHOCTLH); HHRTO He dEBJTb HaB^pHOe, KTO KaKyD Sa- 

HHMaeiyb creneHB; sci 6oajhcb Apyri .fliPy^A, cj'&^^hjh h 
;(0H0CHjiH Apyi*B Ha Apyra. HeosHxaHHoe o^cTOAxejiBCTBo 
B^^pyri OTKpsBajEO, hto c^HraBmifica na HHsmefi cxeneHH 
nojyHaji^B, Hanpniitp'B, ^(ojshoctb pesTopa BojiJieriH hjih 
RaBoe jih6o BasHoe HasHa^enie VHi KOJiJieriH, npHj^BopHaro 
nponoB^AHHKa ejlhl t. n. dia TaHHCTBeHHOCTB, 6e3i comh%- 
^ Hui, 6iua BasHifinieD npHHaHBOD vb iesyHTCTBb h rjaB- 
H^ftmes) noAAepsBofi dHeprin b'b Ba»AOHi iesyHT^. 

Mu yse roBopajH, ?to rjaBHUMH, TaRi CRasaTB na 
noRas'B, saHATiflUH iesyHTOBi fituro BocnHTanie K)HoniecTBa 

H UponOB^AI** Kl 9THHI SaHATlHlTB, RaRX O^eBH^HO, UpH- 

HapoBjeHO 6uA0 h ceS^aci pa3CRa3aHHoe HaHH ycTpo&cTBO 
iesyHTCRaro op^^ena. Ho caHo co6oi) pasyM'beTCA, ^To hh 
npoDOB']^ji(B, HH o6y^eHie ne 6eijkh i^^jamh lesyHTCTBa. 3to 
6ujrH He 6ojrbe RaR'B cpe^cTBa r'b TOMy, ?to6£i 6e3ycj[OBHo 
rocno^cTBOBaTB na^^'B yHanH bo hmh JiaTHHCTBa. J[,ocTHr- 
HyTB sTofi i^tjiH iesyHTu crapajHCB cj[%AyK>n];HH'B ofipasoifB: 
Odpaso^anie y iesynTOBi ocHOBano 6ujro na Ha^aJiarB 
cxojacTHRH. BcA cyH^HocTB o6pa30BaHifl y hhii saRJiiOTO- 
jiacB vb AOJroBpeMeHHOHi sanflriH MOJio^aro nejioB&Ra h3- 
yqenieui jiaTHHCRaro JisuRa h vb ynpasHeniH ero yna <t)H- 

JI0C0<{)CRHMH H 6orOCJIOBCRHMH ^OpMyjaMH. BoCUHTaHHHRl 

iesyjiTCRHXi y^HJinni^'B npioSp^Tajt'B 6e3ji,Ey no3HaHi£, Majio 
npHroAHUxi HJH BOBce He npHroAnnxi B'B shbhh, hsoh^- 
pflji'B CBoS yHi^ ff,JiK cnopoB'B qeM'B yroAHo. Oh'b bhxo- 
AHJi'B HS'B-noA'B pyROBO^CTBa iesyHTOBX CB noJHUH'B y6£s- 
AenieMi, wro npeRpacHO o6pa30BaH'B, Torji^a RaR'B na A'^jii 



— 186 — 

Be noHHHM'b cyn^HocTH cehus'l npocTuxi sen 
Ttsot Bi Teqesie Ao-iroBpeiieHHaro j^esia uaio; 
iesfHTu jipHCuaTpaBaaHCL m hhitl e 6ojc^ 
saBjesaju bi> csoe o6iii,ecTBo, a ocTaibHux^b 
ich desycjoBHoiiy -aoBHBOBeHiio ce&k. 
loe A^o, Tto iHCTUfl, CB^ifl Haiyf 
i3y noqjBCTBOBaTb TflKeert, aeecT 
<o o6pa30BaEiji. lesynTu qohhiulsh 3t; 
lajiH npoTHBi Hea cji^yioiiiiiB Hip: 
Haiypti uBorie roAU jaTHHCKuim c[ipa 
[JCB npaBUJiaHH B'B CTRxaxi, nycruKi 
H ^^asajH buxoa^ HOiojioit dHeprin b: 
i no oTHOmeBiio bo bc^ui, Koro iesj 
npexA@ Bcero bo oTBomeHiio xi. h 
iesyBTu BpiiroTOBj[a.SB BOJiesHUX'b c( 
b a 6ytBiix:b rpaacAaBi. 
BeHBOCTs, BBymaeHaa iesyBiauH bo 

ik H 0C06eBB0 BOCpeACTBOUl qacTBU 
HEByxa 6uJia eB^e 6qs^ AypHUUB n] 
. Bay^Boe o6y?eBie. Tyrb iesyaxu pa 
D Teopin xHTpocrefi b EosapcTBi 
.. noAi> (MyseBieurb Eory ohb BOBimaJ 
epTBOBaBi^ wb no^bsy opA^Ha, ycjyi 
ID ^OBEOCTbB) n^ncttasaxsch ocofJeBS 
jsMH. ^o6poAiTejbHuiiH, cji^oBaTejii 
lymecTBy jhojh "tSoraTue, cajBaue 
B-b cpeACTBas'b. ''Ito6u BpHBJie^B u: 
i> Ha CBoeg yzxh, iesysTu paspiniaji 
DAaHi. cauue raycHue aopoxa, caiiu 

!OAii, KOTOpue aaxJiuay^B b'l ^anaAH 



F- 



— 187 — 



cpasy BaajtH bo^ cboh pyKH odpasoBame h ^aase BCKop^ 
nojHTH^ecBiA ^ijra axofi CTpaHii. Cano co6oh) pasyMiexeji, 
TTO npH HXi ynacTiH paapinieHie pyccKO-noJibCKaro bo- 
npoca j^ojiasHO 6HJ0 mmiuwnhca, caMUMi» chjilhumx 06- 
pa3oirB. 



^TEHIE X. 

BseAeHie iesjrHTOBi Vb IIoJiBiny h JEhtbj. SaTpjAHHTeJiBHoe nojioxeme iesy- 
HTOBi BTi BHJiBHit. CpeACTsa, ynoTp6()JieHHua hmh a^a ycHJiemfl CBoelt BJiacTH. 
Hxi caifooTBepaceHie. YcTpoficTBo iesyHTCRHXi jmLJimn'b. Cnopu ci HHOBtp- 
i^aMH. IlaAeHie npoTecxaHTCTBa. IIoJiHTHHecKoe SHaneme iesyHTOBB npH Ba- 
TopiH. Hxi mnpoKifi njiam. HacHeiB Poccia. B[ey;i;aHa. BHHManie Hxt cocpeAO- 
TOHHBaeTCfl Ha sanaAHoft PocciH. SHaneHie exb npH CHrnsMjHA'i^ III. H.JidR'b 
iiepKOBHoft yniH. HcTopnHecKaji noAroTOBRa b'b sanaAHoft Poccm ki yHin. 
Jifi^ napTiH MesAy npaBOCJiaBHUHH. PeBHHieJiH npaBOCJiaBia, — uaipoHu, 
(paxcTsa. JIiDAH, cnoco6Hue Ha BCflm ca'I^jirh. Bopb()a MeasAy bthmh nap- 
TiflKH. B;[iHHie na aiy 6opb6y npoTeeiaHTCTBa, boctohhuxi iepapxoBi h iesy- 

HTOBi. Yma 1596 r. *). 



lesyHTH aBHjiHCB wh nojTBiirfe Bi» 1565 ro^y. IIxx npa- 
vjLSiCVLjL'h aoji,SL BecBMa y^eHHH, ho ein;e fiojiie (j)aHaTHHe- 
CKig nojtBCBiS npejiairB Posm, apxienacKon^ BapMi^CEin h 
Kap^^HHaji'B, OT;i;aBiniHCA HHTepecaM^ jcaxMHCTBa cb cosep- 

''') ^jui Hsy^eniji TorAamHaro cocToaHLi jiHTOBCKo-nojiBCKaro rocyAap- 
CTBa KOSHO HHTaxB: noj[BCRoe 6e3Kopoj[eBBe no npeRpan^emH AHnacTiH 
flpeMOHOBB, coH. A. Tpa^eBCKaro, hsa- 1869 r. BHpoaAenie UoJiBniH, 
coH. 0. M. yMani^a, hsa. 1872 r. ILiaH'B EaTopia KacaieJiBHO Poccia 
I yma jry^me Bcero HSJoaeaTi b-b co^HHeaia ero cespeTapa reaAea- 
Bneaaa, KOTopoe nparoTOBjiaeTca k'b asAaaiio aa pyccROMi aauR'^ 
(nacaao noJaTuat) Apxeorpa4)HH. KOMMBCciea. i^epKOBBofi yaia ecTB 



meHHuiTb saCeeHieirb poahbu h no;ii Koeeqi CBoefi shsbh 
coBepmeHHO ocTasHBiniil Ilojibniy. Ho vh QoJtBm^ iesyH- 
Tavb caa^aia TpyxHO 6ajio yxBep^iHTLCJi. nojibcsie enHC- 
Konn fiujiH Ea jiiks^b 6oji^ cb^tckhmh, n-iwh nj^oEEaita 
nfOflfiuu. Ohz Torxa ch^lho ^nlSif;iH cBoGonflnacJiie h o^chl 
Kaao 3a6oTHJiHCb o Hyn^^ax'L cBoeit i^epEBH. EessafioTHocTB 

BCb eu^e T^wb, tto co6cTBeHBo m, Uoxtarb 
iSes'B Hrb xjonoTb ocTasaiaci. BipHon 

snjicb Hajo 6iuo ;^a h MHoro onac- 

b A^ScTBHre^bBUH CBOH HastpeHia. 

e nojoseme oBii;tajio hx-b bi jhtob- 

. JIaTHHCTBO B-b STOfl CTpaH^, KaRl HH 

!CEoe asB^CTie o losHHEioet bi nojnini ?&■&) 
Meacuaro, noBoe Bs^^ame, cx^jtaaHoe no hucjui 

1866 r. ci B3I. 1805 r,; Moe co^BHenie: JFetob- 
, T. I, B3X- 1859 r.; BOBiimee Buosexie 3Toro 

HcTopiB pyccKoB ifepKBH, MBiponoiBTa MasapiB, 

r. HciopHiecEoe BSCJiijioBaHie o aepROGBusi 
UBofi PocciB, coi. CBaneHHHKa A. BjSBaoBaqa, 
tspexeBEHA onBcaHia OpecTesaro ca6opa 1596 r.: 
jBBoe B 6oraToe i|iaETaKB coiBueHie — AnoRpB- 
uajiera, kohua XYI ct. Ecrb lenept Asa Bsxasiii 

nepesoAt na coBpeHeBBBfi pyccsii ashki, ci 
MiaaHUHH B3A. KieiCEoB aKasetrifl m. 1870 r., h 

lABO-pyCCEOVB B nOJIBCEOVB TBECTJ) (H3J|aB0 61MO 

>pa Ha otioax'B 3insi ASHicaz'B) bsa- Apxeorpa^av. 
7 TOBi PyccKoS BCTOpBY. ^HSiioTeaH. 06i> aron 
n(Bo-pfCCEOBi co^BBeEiB ecit HaciixoBaBie H. A. 
ii anoapHCBci XpacTO<i|)opa ^BJiajiera, bsji. 1873 r. 
eft peaBiiosHoi ooieBBRa no Bonpocy d(k& jbIb — 
II (1883 r.) conaeBiB B. 3. SaBBiaeBB^a; KajH- 
neacKaro. apaBocjaBBHE't KepKosaHKi 6paT- 
. ^jiepoBa, Man. 1857 r. b ^TeaU o uepaoBiiux'E 
aTciBaxi— Hoe coMBBeBie, eu- 1862 r. 



— 189 — 

;b wb xomn-h. OcraBiniacfl ssraa' 
a 6u^u B'B (Kxikmoifi crpax'it h se- 
, OTo npeAOpHHaTt? r^aBHHK'L npeji- 
iro jiaTHHCTBa 6uz'h BiueBCKiS eniie- 
ta.eeaE.'Tb, leaotibsrb ycepARuft kb 
SHxeHCEaa EanHiryjia HicKCUBKO paTb 
}a6oTHTBCJi coaceniH jaTHHCTBa, 
nua Hipu npoTHBi epecu. Poaiil 
BBuqy npH3BaTL vh BHJBBf ieayu- 
exeAieHuo Bocno^bsoBajica 3THir& co- 
iesfHTOBi npBrjameBu 6asii noce- 

.HTH xopoino yate Tor^a anajH ieaja- 
npexBO.iaraeHou'B nocejeHiH rxb bi 
lejaTHHCKoe HapoAOHacaieBie ropoAa. 
paTU S&AJMaJH BUCiaBlTEB npoTHBi 
:e AooycTHTb HXi no Bhjbhu. IIpo- 

b 3T0H1>, C06pai'b BipHUX'g JiaTH- 

e BoficKo H noA'B npHspuTieHt ero 
[iHUXi 6opi(0B% jaxuBCTsa h noce- 
rib CB. loaHHa, fa^ ohh aeHeA^ieHHo 
11 y^HJiHi^a. 3to 6uzo bi 1569 r., 

I CJHTiH JIIITOBCKarO KHHSeCTBa ct 

naioaceHie iesyHTOB'b B'B BajbH^ bt, 
;TaHTii CTopoxHJiH Hxrb Ha sawAou'b 
u BKJeHCBaa Kanirryjia A^-iajia bh'k 
iKjnmfiWb roAy pacapocTpauHjocb 
HopoBoe noB^Tpie, bo apeMs koto- 
KOXHo 6iuo H Ayuai^ o nponaranA^ 
ix^ H3i 3Toro Hopa ieayBTU nsBjesjre 



— 190 — 

TaKyw nojitay, KaKoft, KOHe^Ho, ne npejincwaraji'L hh 

HHOtdtpeU'L Vh JlttTffk. ObH H^CEOJTiKUXl IRil 

:e6fl, Kast 6u na pasBo^'s iesyiiTCTBa Bt 6yA7' 
OTnpaBHjm b'b CesonacBoe irfecro, a ociajibBiie 
[ 6uXE npHHecTH es6a wb xeprBy bo bhh jaiHH- 

iZ-b BhJLBU GixiUlfl BC%, KTO UOVb. JlaTHHCKOe 

[CTBO Be OTCTaBajo 0Tb ;(pyrHxi. HftKOny (Shio 
aTb 8a 6(xn>HHHB; HeicoMy 6uso xopoHHTB ywep- 
OcTaBmiecfl iesyHxa bbajthcl sa to h aa spyroe, 
fura 3a 6oxhnwt9, xopoHBjH yMepmnxx ct noj- 
aHooTBepxenieHib. Tpoe hs-b BHxt h cj^ajiHCb 
o MopoBoro BOB^Tpifl. Eorxa sapasa BpeRpaTHJiacL 
^Bflde oTb Be^ cTajH BosspantaTbCA HasajCb, a 

cb BHHB R c^peacesBue lesyBTu, to, caito co6ofD 
!Tca, Bc6 Cb djaroroB^BieHT) cuorp^H Ba hobuxi 
:hx'l boj^bzxhheobi. 3to k HyBBo 6eijio iesyzTaitrL. 
)eHHOR> 3BeprieK sanoflcb obh Tenept ycrpoS- 

cBoero y^HjiBiqa, Bt KOTopoe i^wb oxoraie po;tH- 
aJB oTAaBETb fliTOH, tto iesyHTH Be TpeBoBajH 
la y^eBie, a orpaHtraHBajcBCB Ao6poBOJibBOio 6jiaro- 
m. HoBaji BiKoia 6ucTpo craia Bpio6p^TaTb bs- 
TB. H uojio;(esT>, h poARTejtB Baxo^fl-iK sb Bei 

lUX, HpRBJeKaieUILBUa 0C06eBH0CTB. no BpaSXHS' 

syETQ ycTpaHBajiH bi CBoeS mnojii pe^nriosBUJi, 
bfiHfl BpexciaBJieHii b, ito ocoScbbo nopaxa^io 
H AajieKO pacxojHiocb no ospecTBocTHura, y^pea- 
rB^BUA TeaTpaJiBBUA, pejmrioBHUA nponiecciB, hi 
.■b y^eBHKB B3o6paffiaj[H npopoEOBi., anocrojioB'B, 

h Bb COOTB^TCTBeBBUI^ EOCTTOHaX'b, BOCXHB^aB- 

aKTepoBi, H aparejefl. IIpejKeToini Bctxi bthxi 
BieHifi 6axA HCTHBa jaxEBCTBa u HeTecTie epecH. 



r 



— 191 — 

f 

HHOB-ipniaM^ npn aTHxt npe;i;cTaBjeHiax's ^ain;e h ^ame 
AasajiHCB qyBCTBOBaTL ocKopdjreHm, ho iesynxH roTOBHJrn 
HMt HOBHe yja;apH. Ohh ofi'baBJiajiH ;i.HcnyTU h npHrjia- 
maJiH Ha hhxi HHOBipi^eBi. TaKi KaKi MHorie npoxe- 
ciaHTK oTjinqajiHCB bucobok) y^enocTiH), to n^KOTopse 
Hsx HHxrs CHa'^ajra npHHHMajiH dtot^b bhsobx, BCxynajiH 
CB ie3yHTaMH wh npenie h nopaxajH hx'b cbohmh ;i;obo- 
jtaMH. Ho Ha AiJii BiiHrpHBajiH iesynTH. Ohh ho BCTy- 
najiH vh npenie Sest Toro, ^to6h ne ycxpoHTt safijiaro- 
BpeMeHHo no6iAH ce6i h nopaacema HHOBipii;aM'B. JtpysBa 
ieayHTOBi, hxi hikojilhhkh ji^jihxsL Bca^ecKia Henpiar- 
HOCTH HHOBipniaMt, conpoB03K;i;aj[H Hxt pi^H nacMini- 
KaHH H Hep-j^ji^BO saKaH^HBaJiH cnop:B Byja^HBiifB 6oeM'B. 
HHOBipii;H nepecTa-TH aBjaTBca na ;i;HcnyTH^ Tor;i;a iasyHTH 

SaM^HHJH HX'B CBOHHH OHHOHeHTaMH, KOTOpiie, KOHe^HO, 

Bcer;i;a 6hj[h nopaacaeMH t^mh, Koro ieayHTH HasHa^aJiH 
wa samHTH jraTHHCTBa. Epect npHSHaBajacL nenpaBoiD, 
H epeTHKH onaTL ^yBCTBOBajiH 9T0 Ha nj[oni;afl;ax'B h yjiH- 
^axt npH BCTpi^i ct tojihoh) ieByHTCEHxi hikojlbhhkob'b 
H Hxt ^^pysefi. CnjiBHoe o^ynieBjeHie jiaTHHane nojcy^ajiH, 
KpoMi ;i;HcnyT0B^ h npoii;eccift, eniie ot^ iesyHTCKHXx npo- 
noBi^et, HanpaBjieHHHX'B ktb toS ae ii;4jih, t. e. k'b bo3- 
6ya;^eHiH) bt& napo^i 4>^HaTH3Ma h CTpacTH 3ani;Hni;aTB 
Bipy KyjaKaMH. Ha 9tomi nonpHni;i npio6p4j[H ocofienno 
rpoMKyE) HBBicTHOCTB CKapra h BapmeBHiiiKiH, — iesyHT- 
CKie npo3ejrHTH hsx noJLCKaro Hapo;^a. IlepBBtH ;i;aace na- 

3BaffiB nOJIBCKHM^ SjaTOyCTOMl H ^0 TaKOft CTenOHH 3a- 

6hjpb Bi iesyHTCTBi npHHn;HnH nojBCKofi ansHH, too npo- 

^0B4;^HBaJ^& Heo6xo;i;HMocTB caMoft CesycjoBHoS BjiacTH bi 

npaBjeHin. IIpoHOB4;^HBaJ[l em;e stoti, H3Bpani;eHHufi 

syHTaMH, wpoBHTHft cjaBflHHHTb, TOO H Bipa H HayKa 



L 



— 192 — 

Morypb npeycQ'bBaTb toibko Ha jaTHBCKoira 
vecEOUi asss/b, a ^xo sa. pyccKoifB asuEh 

' HH a&jK-b, HH aBaflemft?! 

Stua, TftKi csasaTb, ASHOKpaTB^ei 
BOOTH ieayHTOBi. ApHcrospaTuiecKa 
DOi> a HesairlTHon. lesjHTU Gb o 
Mil) npHMeRa.iH K'S ce&b SHaTSj 
cb Bt apHCTOKpaTHqecsie Aoua bi : 
jxoBHHBOBi, H npioCp^TaJu jaTHl 
SKifl AymH, & ce6£ paSHaro po^a 
OBaHifl, yBejH^HBaBmlH ' hx'b uaTepi 
Bva. vaCTb iesyiiTCBofl A^^ieJiiiHo 
HaJ[o HSB^THa. BHxsa oaa co6cti 
ixi. Repeal h^koilso jt^Ti no 

.% BL BHJIBH7 SpOTeCTaHTCTBO tiuCT] 

b jaTHBCTBO CTajz BosBpam^Tbca . 
[H ao6opBHKiaHH nporecTaHTCTBa h 
DOJozeBin fioi&Bioe sHa^enie. Tai 
lyHTaHH B'L jaiBHCTBo: cuBOBBs Pa 
OAHBi B31 HHX'E, Teoprig, nociya 
n^Bo; ^aji^ o(Spaii(eHu: Jleob Gt 
.vh, RB3.R1, lapTopiiScKia, CauyHj 
3acjiaBCRifi; hsi BpaBocjaBiz: HHjm 
CTpoxcKaa, awBa EBaHa XoAKesH^s 
9Tfl no&bjifii ieajHTU OAepsajB 06 
;aiBHeiiy, nyreMi, fieai coitiflcTBi 
EX), KOToparo ohh hheek* ae Morjta 
'HA^'ABrycT^, a i&jixs h bi ko 
k ero npeeuHzKa TeHpaxa Bajyi 
ottan Ha bojilckIS npecTOJ'K np 



2*^ 



— 198 — 

nojHTfl^ecKoe sHa^enie bi JHTOBCRO-nojiBCROM'B rocy^ap- 
cni iesyHTU npioCpbjiis. npH cjFkjsjJomfiwh Kopoi'1^, Gxe- 
4>aH'b BaToplH, BOTopijfi 6iiJUb coBepmenHo paBHOj^ymeHi 
Kb whf% AO TasoS CTeneHH, ^to npH cbogm'b H35paHiH 
ycnoKOUBaJii nojaBOBi, noAospiBaBniHX^ ero B'b epecH, 
t^m:b, ^to oh:b roTOBfb 6utb xasoS B^pu, BaKaa hug& 
yro;(Ha, ho ohi noAmepsHBajTB ieayHTOBx no uojnTiiqe- 
CKHMi> BHxaHi.' BaTopii cpasy hohjiji'b, hto nojiBCEoe ro- 
cy^apcTBO cocTOHTi h3:e pasHopoAHHXi, He jerBo np^THif- 
pHHiixi aiexeHTOKB. HafiTH o6j>e]s,nE&v)jnfie js,jiK Hero cpex- 
CTBO CTaja fl^H EaTopia o^ghb BaasHOD sa^a^eH), oco6eHflo 

nOTOMy, TTO OH^b 6uJVb HeJIOB^E'B CB IDHpOEHMH^ HJEaHaMH. 

Eny Tpy^Ho fiujo yAOBOiBCTBOBaTbCA t)6HKH0BeHHHM'B no- 
joseHieM'b, norpysHTBCA wh o^hh ogu^eHHiia jsjbjia.. IQh- 
poBafl sa^a^a naM^THjiacB b^b ej^o shshh, ein;e Kor^a oh% 
6iU'B ce;a[BMHrpaACRHM:B RHJiseMi, — 3to 6opB6a ch TypBaMH. 
BopB6oio dTOH) sanaT'B 6uj[fB Tor^^a h nana. £e Jierqe Bcero 
H M02KH0 6ujLo Ha^aTB BO HMA jaTHHCTBa. lesynTLi OBa- 
3iiiBajHCB caMUMx npHTOAHHMx opy^ieH'B E'B B036ys;i^eHiE) 
jaTHHCKHX'B CHJi'B H o6:BeAHHeHiK) HX'B A^H 6opb6ei cb Typ- 
KaMH. IIodTOuy EaTopift cpasy o6Hapy«HjrB pacnoj[o»eHie 
Kh iesyHTam, o6jacsajrB hxi, coA^dcxBOBajr'B hm^b bi> pac- 
npocTpaHeniH hx'b y^Hjran^'B, ji,a,7Bie BOSBOjrB hx'b BHjien- 
CBoe y^Hjran^e na cxenenB aEaj^eMin, ne CMOTpa Ha ynop- 
Hoe conpoTHBJieHie jihtobcbhx'B rocy^i^apcTBeHHUX'B jiJOj[fi&, 
Ho en^e cb 6ojLhmev) sa^orjiHBocTiE) HanpasjiH^^B Baxopift 
iesynxoB'B Ha BoexoKi CBonxi BJ!l[a;i;'&Hig, bi> ^slub^ejjo 
Pocciro. HsBtcTHO, hxo oHi Beji^B Bofiny ci loaHHOMib IV 
H ycniniHO pxHHMajr'B y Hero ofijiacxH. E'B MnnyxH fijUHcxa- 
rejBHQX'B ycnixoB'B, njianH Baxopm pacniHpHJEHCB o^ohb 
aJieKO. Oh-b ^iiyMaji'B saBoeBaxB Bce^MOCKOBCKoe rocyAap- 

13 



— 194 — 

CTBO, H TOV^B, nOJTb - EBponU ;^BHHyTB npoTHB^ TypoKi. 

?To6u ynpo^HTB sa co6o» saBoeBaeMUA o6jacTH h c;^^- 
jaTb Hx^b npHFO^^HHMH j^JLA TaRot i^H, BaTopiS nojta- 
raji'b, ^TO jrynme Bcero yrBep^HTb bi hhx'b iesyHTOBi. 

C'b 9T0» MUeiiK) OH'B, SaSl TOJILKO OTEHMaJH OTTb PoGcIh 

o6jiacT£>, TaB'B TOT^a(rb se bboahjtb bi Hee iesynTOB'b. 
Koj[OHE3ai(iA 9Ta A'&xuACb, KOHe^HO, ci^^Bmiwh napyme- 
Hieifb npaB'b npaBocjaBHo£ i^opsBK. Tas'B, OTHflB'b saBoe- 
BaHHud loaHHOH'b lY nojioi^Bi, BaTopiS OTj^aji'B iesyH- 
Taicb 6ojihmY^ nacTb hojioi^rhx'e i^epBBeft cb hx'b noaca- 
jioBaBiHMH, ne CMOTpji na to, hto Bce noaroi^Koe ;(BopAH- 
CTBO BOscTaBajo npoTHB'b 3Toi HenpaB^u h ^^oRasuBajio, 
HTO i^epROBHUA no»ajiOBaHiA c;i,ij[aHU ero npe^^RaMH b:b 
nojiLsy npasocjiaBijr, vb ROTopoM'b h oho (Tor;i;aBiHee ^bo- 
paHCTBO nojioniRoi oCjlslctjl) xo^ot'b ocraBaTBCJi. ^a»:e 
iesyHTU CTajn yBjreRaTBCA mapoRHMH njanaHH BaTopk. 
Hs'b PHua 6ujph npH&iaHi oji^juwh h3% onuTHMmHxi iesyH- 
TOB'B, AhtohIh IIocceBHH'b, ROTopuft, B'B Ra^ocTB'fa nan- 
CRaro jeraTa, HaxoAHJcn npn BaTopin A'Xii;coB'&T6B'b h 
Bomeji^B B^b 6ojBniyi() cb hhi^b Apyac6y. 

loaHH'B IV Haxo^nHJCA B'B RpaitneifB saTpyj^neniH, ro- 
Topoe eni;e 6ojEie yBejH^HB&i'B neHCTOBHicB cbohm'b th- 
pancTBOMi BHyTpn rocy^apcTBa. Ho h vh btom-b nojHTH- 
^ecKOM'B H HpaBCTBeHHoiTB naAenin oh'b coxpaHflJi«B eni;e 
cnoco6HOCTB, no RpadHefi ir&pt, b'b o6jiaCTH XHTpocTeS, 
cnopHTB CB BaTopieu'B h ;i;']^ficTBHTej[BHO nepecnopHjiB ero 
H caMHX'B iesyHTOB'B. Ohi> npnrjtacHj'B nany 6utb nocpeA- 
HHROMib Hes;^y wxwb h BaTopiem^, o6iu],aj['B BoeBaTB TypoRi 
BBitcT^ CB nanod h noAasaji'B HaAes;n,y ycTpoHTB coe;i(HHeEie 
D^epReeft. liana h iesynTH yBjieRajiHCB h noJEarajiH, ^Tonjran'B 
loanna na^^e^cHte h noJtesate jpa jiaTHncTBa, ^ifB njan^ 




— 195 — 

EaTopiH. tlocceBHH'b, xotah ROBapHo, CTajTB xjionoraTL 
npeBpaaneHiH boShh, o 3aKJ[K)?eHiH MHpa, bi ^eH'B ^^i- 
CTBHTejiLHO H ycfffiji. Ho Kor;ta jijQmjio jsjbjio jss> coBi- 
n^ami (tb loaHHOui o coewHemH i^epBBeit, to oKasaJiocB, 
HTO loaHH'E ofiMaHyjix nany. Oh'b ;(OBOj[i»CTBOBajCfl hhpom'b 
ch BaTopienTb, a o coeAHHemH i];epBBe& h He ^yMaJH. 
lesyHTH, osHaKQMHBmHCL no6jmme Ch pyccBHMH a^amh 
BO BpeMJi neperoBopoBt o irapi, y6•6;^HJIHCB, hto ^Mctbh- 
TejtBHO yeifl B'b mocbobckom^b rocyAapcTB^ A^o He jer* 
Koe, ho 8a to t^itb 6oJBinee BHHMame o6paTHJiH ohh Te- 
nepB Ha sana^HyR) PocciH). B% aTofi CTpan*]^ ohh Haxo;i;Hj[H 
BOSUoasHBiM'B Boj^BopHTB yHisD, H OHa, HO HX'B coo6pame- 
HiflM'B, cHocodna Cvusi, noBecTH co BpeMeneH'B k% hoa^k- 
BBEUO nsLU'k H BceS. pyccRoS ii;epBBH. 8th coofipaacenia 
BHCsaaaJi^ toti se lesyHTX AhtohIK IIocceBHHi b^ cbooh 
nepenHesi Ch nanod. 

BaTopifi pasA^jTHJEi HOBue lesyHTCBie njanu na cneTx 
sana^Hoft Poccin; ho bi sonify CBoefi hhshh, oe% sna^H- 
TejiBHo CujFh pasoHapo^aH'B b'b iesynTaxi. £My cTaJO 
acHO, ^TO OHH He yBpinj[HX)T'B rocy^napcTBennaro e;i;HH^ 
CTBa, a TOJiBBO HJTOAHT^B CMyTU. HsB'&cTHo, HTO nocjvk 3a- 
sjno^eHiH MHpa ch loannoMa^, BaTopig chjbho c^epacH- 
Bajii isx'h Hponaran^iiy no noBO^y HOBard Baj[eH;(apH, bo- 

TOpUM'B OHH BOCHOJtBSOBajTHCB, ^T06u B03MyTHTB CHOBOH- 

CTBie HpaBocjraBHHXGb SHTejen 3ana;^H0& PoccIh. IIjraH'B 
yniH iesyHTH ocymecTBHJCH yace npn npeeMHHEi BaTopia, 

CHTHSMyHJ^'b III, HIBe;(CBOM% BOpOJeBHH^, BOTOpuft 6UJl'b 
HMH BOCHHTani H BOSBO^^eH^ Ha nOJBCKig HpeCTOJ'B. 

B[epBOBHaH ynia bi jthtobcro-hojibcbom'b rocyjiiapcTBi, 
Bas^B H HOJiHTH^ecBaH JE)6j![HHCBafl ymH, ^asHo no^roTOB- 
JMacB. B'B aTOMi rocy;i;apcTB'& bctp^thjhcb h jifijcro schjeh 

13* 



— 196 — 

Buicrk ?jii B£(pa(k>TaBiniflCfl h pl^SKO pasjiH^nua i^hbh- 
jTHsai^iH — npaBocjaBHEfl h jraTHHCKaA, HM^BisiA BasAafl 
6ojihmoe ^hcjio nocji;i;oBaTej[efi. HeHsfi&KAuMi Rocji^jf,- 
cTBiewb 8T0& BCTpi^H jifijiTREB, 6hiM 6uTh 6oiph6h HesKxy 
HHMH H ])B^owb CI 6opL6oK) — CH JBHafl c^'&scKa Hes;(y 
paaxH^HHHH Ha'^ajaMH. 06pa30BajacB HesaM^THO, nocTe- 
neHHo napTiA pesHHT^jefi npaBocjaBHoft B^pu, cnoco6Hafl 
Bce npHHecTH bi »epTBy AoporHMi y6im,j[jdmHJA%, h pA- 
AOMi ci HeiD — naprifl JiK)Aet, yTOMHBBiHxcfl pejiHriosHOD 
6opb6oiD, cnoco6HHx% pa^H SHTeficKHX'B Biiro;^^ Ha bca- 

JSia CXkSKXL Cb JiaTHHCTBOMl. 

nepBaji pojTL Bunajia Ha aojek) jy^mnx'E npe^CTaBHTe- 
jiefi AyxoBencTBa h jEy^niHX'E jaf)jf,e& iis% BHcmaro cocjo- 
BiH, a ssLvbwb cpe;^Hflro cocjobIa h, naKOHeiJ^'b, npocToro 
Hapo^a, Bor^a ero npaMo saTponyjH. TaBi BaE'B npaBH- 
T&iBCTBeHHaa BjacTL vh jTBTOBCBo-nojiBCRon rocyAapcTBi 
6ujia, JiaTHHCKaA, h npaBocjaBie He hofjo naAeaKHO one- 
peTBCJi na ea co^^'McTBie, to satfoTH o npaBOCJaBHoi 
i^epEBH ecxecTBeHHo cocpexoTOHHBkjHCL vh npaBocjaBHoifb 
sanaAHO-pyccKOiTB o6n];ecTB%. GnjiBHHe npaBocjtaBHue jhdah 
BSfljH B'B CBOH pyBH HHTepecH inepBBH H fijiaroycTpofljiH 
Hxi, ?eMy MHoro cnoco6cTBOBajH rb iHHposiA rpaac^ftH- 
CBm npasa, EoropuMH ohh nojBSOBajiHCB. Ohh o6e3ne^H- 
BajH MaxepiajiLHoe 6jarocoeTOAHie i^epKBefi, ;(0CTaBJHjiH 
y;i;o6cTBa k'b CBo5o;(HOMy HcnoBi;(aHiD B^pti, sani^iaiajra 
i^epBOBB OTi HacHjift. 9th noBpoBHTejiH npaBocjraBHoS 
i^epBBH wh sanaAHOjK Poccm nojiyqHjBi oco6oe nasBame, 
HasuBajiHCL naTponaMH. B'h ropo^axi naTpoHCTBO cocpe- 
AOTo^HBajEOCB He B'B o^Hixi pyKax'B, a vb pyBaxi d^jhx'b 
rpynni. Mar3;e6yprcKoe ynpaBjenie ropo^^OBi h cymecTBO- 
^anie B'B hexi peMecjieHHUX'B i];exoB:B A^sajiH B03MoacHOCTi> 






[?t- -^.» 



— 197 — 

OpraHHSOBaTBCA O^n^eCTBeHHOfi 3a60TJIHBOCTH mepKBH, H 

OHa opraHHBOBajacB wh Tas'B HasuBaeMEixi ii;epKOBHHX'b 
6paTCTBaxa^. ^ai'^e, k^b ropoAam npHMusajtH ceja, h ecjH 
6Hja B03M0SH0CTii, TO HOcejuiHe npHHHCUBaJiHCL R'B ro- 
poACKHM]^ CpaTCTBaHib, HJH catfu ycTpoAJH HX'B y ce6ji. 
HasoHei^'Bf BCJiKig, ta*]^ 6ii ohi hm 6£IJ[%, mof^b oBassBaTB 
ycepAie R'B i^epssH, r^^ acejajii, h BnncHBaxBCH b'b to hjh 
Kb Apyroe 6paTCTB0. 

TaKHHi o6pa30Hi, jiBjAjiacB ntjaa opranHsai^iH PObhh- 

Tejefi B-bpN, SOTOpUe COeAHHUJIHCB O^HH CB APyrHMH 0& 

ia,ev> B'6poK) h o6ii](ilm'b ycepAiOM'B h Kasx ^acTHua jHi];a, 

H KaX'B D^iJIHfl 06lI(HHS, H A^fiCTBOBaJTH SaO^HO. 

EpaTCEaji opraHHsai^ia dujia cauoH) tfjtaroA^TejBHOH) a-^h 
ii^epEBH,, nodTOMy bi neft npHMHBajiH bc^ jiy?mie jid^h 
vh sanaAHoS PocciH. E&ioe AyxoBOHCTBO, jKOTopoe b'b npa- 
BOOiaBiH Bcer^a h bosa^ ctoh^b b% ypoBOEnb cb o6in;e- 

CTBOH'B H C% HHMl ABHraeTCff, TaBSCe npHHBHyJO B'B 

CpaTCTBaM'B. Bh^ 6paTCTBi CTOfljiH BHCjnie ^johei ero h, 

CTpaHHO CBaSaTB, Wk 6paTCTB'B OBasajLOCB 6OJBIIIHHCTBO 

BHcmefi iepapxiH. IIoGJ^AHee CTpaHHoe ABjieHie, Bnpo^eM'B, 
npoH3Bej[H o6cTOflTej[BCTBa, He HM'&Binifl HH^ero otfn^aro 
c% qepBOBHUHfl BaHOHaMH. Bucmafl iepapxm bi sana^Hofi 
PocciH HCTopH^ecBH HO^BepraiacB nop^i. Tas'B BaB'B nas- 
Ha^esie Hjenoei ea SHanHTejBHo saBHc^JO ovh hhob'^p- 
Haro — nojBCBaro npaBHTOJBCTBa, to noHaTHo, hto hcthh- 

HO AOCTOfiHHe JIDAH pi^BO MOFJIH HpOHHBaTB B'B HeO, a 

HasHa^ajiHCB fiojBmeE) ^acTiio jidah, fiesnojiesHue hjih aa- 
ase Bpe^Hue A^a i^epBBH. mkm> doJiBine pasBEBajica b'B 
IIoj[B]n^ ^^aHaTHSM*^ npoTHB'B npaBocjEaBia, t'^mb Haiii;e 
sjae jnoAH nonaAajEH 6'b Bucmyi) sauaAHo-pyccByio iepap- 
xiK)^ BaB'B 6oj%e cnoco6Hue ypoHHXB h noAopeaTB npa- 



— 198 — 



BocjaBie. 0% APyroS CTopoHii, apxiepe&CTBo wb sanajB^Hoft 
PocciH 6iiio CBoero pojsjBL MarHaxcTBO. Apxiepes BjaA^JH 
HM'bHiflHH, HHor^^a saHsaMH, hm^jih MHoro JiK)^e1k. Mhofo 
6ujio y EHx^b safioTb h mhofo jaoOctbi* I^epsoBHUMH ;a;^- 
jaiiu nLWb He jerKO 6hjio sanHMaTBCA, a shtb npiaTHO — 
6hjo o?eHi> jerEO h 7;i;o6ho: Mnorie hsi hhx:l noaroMy 
»ecTOEo nopTHjiHCb H j^osbojajth ce6& nosopnyx) »h3hb. 
nporecraHTCTBo bi cboe) o^epe;^b Tose npoHSBOAUo Ha 
HHxi AJpHoe BJiiflHie. UpoTecTanax^RaH nponoBt^B o 6pa- 
Bi AyxoBencTBa no6yAHJ[a H^Koropuxi hsi apxiepees's 
3aBecTH ce6i saBOHHUX'b h HesaKOHHtixi asenrb. GBaHXa- 
ju B'B xstHHoiTb cjryqat j^oxoahjh ^o BpadHocxH. Sxme 
jua^n nacTo ch Hasr&peHieHi yBejH^HBaJH hx'b. TaK^b, 
HanpHM^p'B, jiyi^EdS enHCBOiTB Tepjei^sid npHSBani 6EijrB 

B'B CyA'B no 06BHHeHiS) B^B HSHaCHJOBaHiH fl,^BHn,\l K JSfiJL^ 

mewb 6iuiy 3an](Hni;aTBCJi npoTHBi caMiix'B n];eROTJHBUX'b 
nojo,po6HOCTefi. BnpoHOM'B, h 6e3£ siux'b jno^ei nopoKs 
BucmeS sanaAHO^yccBod iepapxiH He MOTjm ne ^D^ijtaTB 
CMyT'B. mm> 6ojLnie paBBEBajHCB 6paTCTBa, ^iwh 6ojb- 
me BHpa6aTUBaj[eH H;i;eajrb pejniriosHaro cjy»eHiji h co3- 
HaBajiacB Beo6xo;(HMocTB npaBCTBeHHaro coeepmeHCTBa, 
T^H'B HeBHHOCHH^e CTaHOBHjTOCB 6e3o6pa3ie BucmeS iepap- 
xiH. HpoTecTaHTCTBO no^iflcTBOBajo h bi axoM's cay^ai 
Ha npaBOCjaBHHX^B, tojebko b^b o6paTHOH% OTHomeHiH b% 
%>^^-..v-^ oouov^^ jg^g^ QjjQ ^^-feSqTBOBajo Ha eoHCito- 

^.TBOBaJO TyPB Bl XOpODieMl* CMUCJ^. 

OHO ^^ifiS ^ xopomyK) cTopony cTpeMJiemS Hpo- 
upaBocjaBHBie hohmiMh. ^niio; noAofino m% yqnjHCB, Hsy- 

*'% nepeBOAHJiH TBopenifl ori^OKb, 

^P'^TCJIBHOCTilD, KaKt HSB^CTHC 

A'GBxi Kohct. Eohct. OcTpo»CKift, j 



cpaB 
noB:B, 



T. e. 



TemHTOBx B'B oSpaaoH 

^aJIH HCTOTOHEH 

Hs^aBajTH BHHrH. aroro 



B4p£S 



OCOfiOHHO npocjaBHJCJI 



KHaSb^ 






\ 

/ 

/ 



m>! 



r 



— 199 — 

BOToparo wb OcTporb 6huio vjbjioe yienoe o6ii];ecTBo. Oao 
miajLO He mojio KHHr& vh ^snajsnj npaBociaBsod nipu, 
HSAajo He Majo dorocjiyaiefiHiixii KHHn, h — oco6eHHO saac- 
Hoe A^Jio 3Toro y^eHaro odn^ecxBa h ero noKpoBHTejia, 
BHaaa OcTposcxaro — aro HSAame vh 1581 r. cjiaBAHCKoS 
6H6j[iH. Mnorie no^pasaJH 3toh 6jiaroTBOpHTeji»Hofi AJkA- 
TeyiBHocTH H Hep^ABo cTb TaKHM:^ ycepAieifb, ROTopoe no- 

paaULSO COBpeMeHHHROBl. HanpHMip'b: pO;(CTBeHHHKl KHA3A 

Kyp6cBaro, khasb 06oj[eHCKi&, He cmotpa Ha to, ^to 6iajli> 
seHaTi H HM^ji^b A^Tefi, pimajECji ocTaBHTb ceHBK), no- 
ixaji^ 8a rpaHUBiy, Hsyqajii 6oroa[OBCRia nayKH h bo3- 
BpaTHJCJi Ha poAHHy ci» CoraTHHH cb^a'^huimh, RaK^ RO- 
pa6j[b, HanojiHeHHHd Aparoi^tHHUMH TOBapaHH, no cbha*]^- 

I^BCTBy COBpeMeHHHROBl. 

npH TaROMx HanpaBjems sanaAHO-pyccRaro npaBocjaB- 
Haro o6u],ecTBa, ndk Ba^H'bftmie HHTepecu i],epRBH 6oj[i>me 
H 6oJiBnie cocpej!i;oToqHBajiHci> b'b Rpyry cBtTCRiix'b juo^efi 
H 6ijiaro jnyxoBOHCTBa. BncHiaA, uouamecRaji iepapxifl 
HaxoAHJiacB B'B ye;^HHeHH0M% h o^enB HesaBH^HOMi no- 
JioaReniH. BopBda Mess^y dTHMH flfijusL CHjaHH Heu36£sH0 
A0Ji»ua 6uja BOSHHRHyTB. Rb BocBMH^ecaTHX'B ro^axii 
XVI cTOJiiTia bi neft npHnajiH ;i;taTej[BHoe ynacrie bocto^- 
Hue naTpiapxH. Boctohhub naTpiapxH bi t^ BpeMena no^- 
BeprajiHCB ^ojebhihm'b no6opaM'B co CTopoHu TypoRi*, ^acxo 
crpa^ajH h oneHB HyaK^ajiHCB b^b ^enBrax^B. ]i,Jis. y^OBJte- 
TBopenm dTHX^B uyMAi* obh npe;i;apuHHMaj[H nyreinecTBie 
BB PocciiD. EjaroqecTHBoe nacTpoenie sana^Hofi PoccIh u 
ea iiiepROBHHA nys/nu no^yasAawiH hxii sa-i^smaTB h bi» dxy 
cTpany. TaR^, b'b nedojiBinog nponeaRyTORi BpeMenu CK)Aa 
npiissajiH ;^Ba naxpiapxa — wh 1586 r. aHxioxiHCRifi na- 
Tpiapx^B loaRHM'By 1589 r. ROHCxaHTHHOuojEBCRiH lepeMin II, 



m 



— 200 — 

Hu^BmiS BttcmyK) BjracTs na^icB sana^jHo-pyccKos) i^epsoBBBO. 
Hwb npej[fiTOKJLo pasoCpaTB jsjkna. 9to& i^6pkbh h cxaTb 
Ha Ty HJTH ;^py^yH) cTopony, — Ha CTopony naTpoHOB-B h 
6paTCTBi, HJH Ha CTopoHy BHcmeft iepapxia. H^epKOBHae 
KaHOHH H nojiLsa no6y;i;HjrH hxi cTaTb Ha nepByE) CTopoHy, 
KaK'B Ha TaKyE), y KOTopoft fiiua npaBOTa xbM. Bucniaa 
iepapxifl no^nBeprjiacL chjtbhhm^b o6jm^eEiHWb. HepBufi 
^en'B en, mhtpohojehttb OHHeH(|)op'B jsfij^s^ewb 6uJi% ocTa- 
BHTB Kaee;(py. Ha h^cto ero BOSBe^eHi 6ujiT> MHHCsiii 
apxHMaHApHTi MnxaHj'B Parosa, npejcaHHBifi, noBH;^HMOHy, 
naxpoHaM'B h 6paTCTBaM'B, xoth Hepe;i;'B nocBfln];eHieMi> owb 
jxe B036y«;(ajr:B comh^hIa b'b naTpiapx'b lepeiilH. Bas- 
HMmm 6paTCTBa yTBepsAenu naTpiapmeH) BjacxiiD h hm% 
Aano npaBo ;i;ame Ha6j[K)AaTB sa BncmeE) iepapxiefi h no;^- 
BepraTB ee cy^y na co6opaxi. OqeBH^Hoe a*J>o, ^to 6aa- 
ronecTHBaji peBHOCTB 3ana;^H0-pyccKHX'B MipAH'B sanua ^a- 
Jiew. Sana^j^Ho-pyccKie iepapxH, KaKOBH 6h ohh hh 6ujh, 
He MorjtH He npiHTH b'b Hero;i;oBaHie ot:b TaKHX'B hobuxi 
nopafliitOB'B. BpaTCTBa MeatAy TiMi peBHOCTHO BsajHCB sa 
cboh Aijia, fijiaroycTpoflJiH n;epKBH, Hs^aBajrH KHHrH, saBo- 
;i;hjih yqiiJiHni;a, nocBiJiajiH Ha co6opu cbohx'b ^jrenoB'B, 
o6jH9ajiH BJoynoTpeSjrema h nopoKH BHcmefl iepapxin h 
coo6ni,aj[H 060 bcbmi KOHCTaHTHHonojBCKOMy na^piapxy. 
nojoateflie sanajUHO-pyccKHX'B iepapxcBi, oco6eHHo AypnaxTb, 

a TaRHMH 6UJIH nO^TH BCi OHH, CTaJIO HeBUHOCHMUlfB. 

leayHTJH ne MorjiH'He BOcnojrB30BaTBca TaKHMH fijraro- 
npiaTHBiMH ji^jia nnxT^ o6cToaTejiBCTBaMH. Ohh bohijih bi 
CHomeHiji ch o^hhm^b hb'b sanaAHO-pyccEHX'B apxiepeeBi, 

JiyUjKHM'B eHHCKOnOM'B KHpHJJIOM'B TepjieD;KHM'B, fiOJBHie 

Ji;pyrHXTb noABeprraHMCa nenpiaTHocT.ffM'B ot^b KOHCTaHTH- 
HonojBCKaro naxpiapxa h 6ojiie Apyrnx'B dHeprn^nmcB. 



1 



HR'it>.- 



Iiiof^b iipeAioroH!E CoiisHH, Tepjeiisifi lacTO te;(Rrb vet, 
flojiuiif , H nocxbitnaem, sthxk ooisAOKt 6ax-b niani yHiK, 
my Bi 1592 rOAy yse upHCTUO H^soibKO ena- 
Bi> 1593 TOJS.J B09BejifiE-b Ha fipecTCEyn enHCKO- 
i X^texh jhIh, cesaTopi IIoi^S, abaunhito 
SBDiifi B^py H Kb AofiaBOErb o?eBb pasopHBinificA, 
oieBb Kpyasaro yva h CHJbHofi boib. Oevhc- 
craji A'^iCTBosaTL bh^ct^ ci> TepjefiKHHi. 
CHJiaHH OfiB, He 6e3i oQiiaHa, ckjiohbjh na cbo» 
craibHuxrb enHCKonoB'B, npHTaayjiH uovtn Ha- 
afioiapaKTepHaro HHTponojaTa MuxaHja, cocra- 
1695 r. rpauory Ha yniio, h Tepxeitititt h noitiB 
3 vh Vam. Kh nani.', 

v ^acTtE) Bcfe 9TH x^& xbi&xiich TafiHO. Upa- 
yaHBBajH tojuco peay^tTaTU, Koropue ne Jier- 
fHHQToawTb. Bceo6]n,ee pasApaseRie, neianie 

lb BCiXb HeAOCTOfiBUKl eHBCEOHOBl fiUJB OT- 

' CTopoBU aanaj^HO-pyccKHXi npaBociasBux'b Ba 
tapHBHHaeHyn Bucmen iepapsien. Enasb Oct- 
peAnoiaran co6paTb boKcko na cjiynafi HacRJib- 
[BRia yHJH. Bo HHorHXi ropoxasi sanaAHog 
■OBO 6ujio BcnuxByib soscraHie. fioBCBOHu, sa- 
ysiB), 6usa Bi OTvaaBiH; ABoe HSi bbxi: FeAe- 
iicifi B MHxaHJEi Bepe]fEiBiibCEi& noHajiH ofiHaai, 
I yaig H B03BpaTHiBCb na CTopoay flpaBoCLsaB- 
rpoQOiarB MaxaBA^ CHAbBO K0Jie6ajiCfl uexAy 
rofl CTopoHoB. OiiyTHAoeb h BOJibCKoe npaBH- 
iKaauBaBmee pesBOCTHoe coAMcxBie eHBCBOQaBb, 
nuHi CTpaxoH'b corAacHAOCb aa xy^osuuS ca- 
596 r. A-iA oxoanaTeAbHaro p^meBifl Boopoca o6i 
KK'b ai'DTb paspiniHACA OAaaKO Ses'b BuiEaro 



— 202 — 

EpOBonpojiHTifl. npaBooiaBHue, He chot^s ha cboh) umn 
^HCjeHBOCTL, He aaxoriiH ynorpefiHTt naCHJiie. Ohh octi 

lUCh B^pHU TkWh BaeORliWh HpaSCTBeHHUMl UpHHItHIiaH'] 

BOTopHe ynpaBJ&iH hhh bo Bcisi hxi Kbi&rb Ea iiaibs 
iiepEBH. ^aTHHflHe, npHCuBinie sa co6op% bib EaieciB 
AenyTaTOBi otb jaTHscTBa h npaBHTeJBCTBa, h hx'b 6p&Tb 
yniaTu enHCKonu, eh BicBOJibicHHH Jia-b sHdinet iepapxii 
Toxe ocrajHCB B^pHu cbohicl npHHAHuaK'L, — nocpej 
CTBOHi o5HaHa, xafiHo, Gesx bcsbhxi cosifcniaHifi cb bpt 

BOCJaBHUHH, UpHHHJIII JBOO H 0(rbaBIUH 66 nOEOHieHHOI 

Bthui xe nyTeH'b obh cztAOmMB a TorAa, Kor^a ssi 
iiicb pacopocTpaHaTB jmn, npH^aBjaa st o6saHj h he 
TpuraHi caHUA pasHoofipaaaua HacHiia. 
, FeJiHriosHan nponaraH^a, aoTOpofi isiCxaHCtaui yHla 01 
Kpuja mupoRia BopOTa, HM^a rpOHaABoe aaaqeaie b 
HCTOpiH sanaADoft PoccIh. Bc^ bh^u saibcsaro BJiiflQi 
Bi 3T03 CTpaH^, Ha^HHaH Cb cauaro nepuaro coeAxai 
Hia JIhtbu ci IlmBmefi, sacajiHcii crHjcTBeHBo BepxHHX' 
CJOBKb JiHTOBCKaro SHaxecTBa, npoxoM hhmo Bapo^a. Ha 
poAi no3TOHy utuio saflBjaxi ce6a bo Bce Bpeua cona 
CB nojibmet, OTB Jlragjiu no jiio6jbbcko& yaiH. JIdSjhb 
CKaa yaia OTKpujia sb aanaxayi) Pocci» sflcvja'b mxi 
CKHHi sanfiWb. Hapoj^i sanaAHO^ Foccih chj^bo oii^ 
TZJiT, Hxi BpHcyiCTBie. nojbCKoe BjiaHie flpoHHKaio tc 
oepb He wb omseieHsas.-b t|*opiiaxi, B ge repeal h^ 
Hoe ABOpBBCTBo, a nepeaocHJiocL shbuuh h 4hcto nojii 

CKHHH JlOAbMB, BOTOpue AasaJIH ero ^ySCTBOBaTb BO BCiX' 

CBOHS'fi AtficTBiaii. Bapo^eu'L, npu nojibCKHSi Bosspi 
Biaxi aa xjoaa, h renepb cospaHaiocb eti^e fiojibnioe pas 
cTOABie ue»j(y nasoH'b b x^oBOH'b, AaBanmee BOSHoa 
BOCTb xjioEy y6eperaTb b'l cBoeft shsbb HBoroe Henpu 



\ 



— 203 — 

socHOBeHHUM'E. JlaTHHCKaA uponaraH^a h oco6eHHo i^ep* 
soBHaA ymfl saHjiwiH co6ok) h sto pascTOflnie. KceH^auHe 

COB^CTHJIHCL SarJAA^BaTB B% SHSHb H B'b Ajnij xjiona. 

Ohh npHHJij[HCB paspymaTB bbcb HcropHnecKiH cipoft ero 
6u[Ta. TenepB aanaAHO-pyccsid xjiowb jibho bha^j^b h oii];y* 
jojBJL'h BCOK) Aymoft coeAHHeHie ero poahhu cb TIoJLhMe&. 
EMy HejBSJi 6ujio ocxaBaTBCfl fiesyHacTHuiTB k% dTOHy €o- 
6nTii(>. Oh'b jss>Jixewb 6uj'b BucTynHTB Heo6xoAHMo Ha ci^eHy 

HCTOpH^eCBOi A'^ATOJIBHOCTH, nOTOHy ITO UpHHOCHJHCB B^B 

sepTBy UojLhmi He tojtbko ero rpasAStHCBie, ho h pejiH- 
riosHue BHrepecn, a Bce, ^o 6UJ0 y nero na Bepxy, b'b 

06pa80BaHH0Ml COCJIOBIh, BCe dTO HL30 Kl HSMi^H'b HCTOpH- 

HecKOMy, po;^HOMy 6MTy h k^b ycBoenii) nojBCEaro h ja- 
THHCKaro 6HTa. HoToiiy-TO noc^i jirofijHHCEofi ynm, oco- 
6eHH0 Kor^a pasBHJiacB pejiHriosHaa JiaxiiHCKafl npoaaraH^a, 
MH BHAHMi, UTO Hapo^'B sana^Ho-pyccKifi Bume h Bume 
opHnoAHHMaeTB rojoey, Hm,eTi BupaxeHiji aj^h cbohxx chjb 
H £TpeHJ6Hid. HcTopifl sanajCHoS PoccIh nojy qaerB ci rbxi 
nop^ no npeHMyni,ecTBy napo^nHoe HanpaBJieHie. IIpH btomi 
HanpaBjieHlH ona HeH36^HO AOJiasHa dujia hchojihhtbca pa3- 
Haro po^a HacHJiiii, BaR'B aTO Bcer;i;a dueaerB, Kor^a BCTy* 
naeTTB b^ 6opB6y npocTOH napoA'B, 0CTaBj[eHHU& cbohmh 
ecTecTBeHHUMH pyBOBo;i;HTej[flMH h3% o6pa30BaHHaro cocjeo- 
Bifl. 3anaAH0-pyccsaA HCTopm nocji^ jh)6j[hhcko& yniH 060- 
raTHJiacB HaCHjiaiiH ein;e ot:b toco, ^to, 6jiaroXapa ieayHT- 
CB0& TeopiH, CHrnajiB kb nacHJiiaMB a&hb 6ujii> csepxy, h 

^M'B A&JBme, T^MB dOJBHie CTaHOBHJ[Cfl 06uBH0BeHHHMB 

BB o6mfiCTBib h B03B']^n];aji'B Hapo^y hobua CTpa^anifl. Yacacu 
Kasai^KHX'B CMyTB — Ha nojoBHHy Hapo^Hiie, sana^Ho-pyc- 
cKie, Ha nojtoBHHy nojBCKie, ieByHTCKie. IIpuBeJiH ohh, KasB 

HSBiCTHO, KB HBC^iaCTHmfB UQCAiflfiThiSLWb SaRB X-^Ji IIOJIBniH, 



— 204 — 

T8BI B ffla Bana^HO-pyccKaro eapoAa. noPH&io ooj 
rocfAapCTBO, bo noTepiiiji h sanaAHO-pyccKifi BapoAi 
florepaJTb see poAsoe, B^xeee cooaoBie, ocrajca st 

HeHBOiVL, (SeSQOHOfl^aOHl DOJOSeBiB. E^CTfieHBHfl 

pesyjbT&Ti BupafisTasaiCB, Bnpoieirb, HexjeaBo, i 
BOBBO. ^oOToe efl^e BpevB oabbi BepzBift cJofi aa 
TBVh BUABBrafii BOcj^ABifl CBOH Cflju Ba saHtHiy poi 
B OAHBi sa APyrBHt florB6ajirb, nliH'b A&^Bie, T^ut (ic 
BUsmaA Ba BoapH]ii;e RcropB^ecKoS A^TOibBOCTB b 
CuTBUfl, BapoAHUfl CBJiB. HcTOpiefi 9TBr& Baspa: 
BepxBBxi saBaABo-pyccKRX'L chjh b BocreBeBBaro bi 
cB.rb BapoAHoxt iiu h tfjAfix^ saBBuaTbCA Ba ai 
m.arh qTeBiazt. 



HTEHIE XI. 

nommn vt ranisT^ sanano-pjccEofl cavoOaTHOCTH co ciopoHa si 
pjccKofl . apHCTOBpaTiH. CoeAHHeaie npasoui^Burb a nporecTaHTO 
ofinieB Copbdu ci iesjiiTCTBOHt. Hey;(aqH. XapsKTepacTHKa sanas 
eRaro sBOpaHCiBS ii Ha^ajrfe XVII CToiiTia «h coiiraeBiH Op^Hoci. 
BanajHO-pyccKaro rtmaacTBa Kb BanHT* CBoeft caiio6nTHoCTM. Btjc 
DOJiuiMHie xtniaHCTBa. SioifuseBie aioro fi^ACTBin bi opdmeHiB a 
sanaAHofl PocciH, no boboaj roHeBifl, m noibCEOM^ ceHaij, 1623 r 
HapojHoe nepeiojHTi bi pyna Hapoja. SanajHo-pyccEoe KoaaiecTi 
BCTopia. fiopbAa Kosa^aCTBa et, asiaTCEBHi HipoMi. Sea^eEie sHtsp 
EoaawcTta aih sanaiBO-pjccEara aaposa. Bjianie aa itero noibCEa 
BHieibCTBa. OpraBBgaiiia Kosa^eciBa. Ilop^a sa^aai iHiitpoBCKai 

Bi saun^eBiB BpomeAmaro qieBifl sucsasaHa 

BaHH HUCJIL, ^TO Ch BOApaBOHX BpOTeCTaHTCTBa H D 

■) nepKoBHHxi flinaxi nocai fipecTCKaro colSopa roBopH 
Moem coiHHeHiH: Jhtobckm i^epEOBHaa yaiii, t. BTopoB, lax. ! 



— 205 — 

f 

cjasifl B'b sana^HoB PocciH Ha^HHaercA HCTopia npocToro 
Hapo;i;a. Bucmee sana^^Ho-pyccKOe cocjOBie naxajso, ouo* 
jjraHBajocB, Hapo^Hoe xkjio nepexo^Hjio vb pyBH Hapoxa. 
GaHo C060K) pasyjf^ercji, wb HCTopiE Hejii»3A o6o3Ha^HTb 
pyfieaui, Txb koh^hjocl 0/^0 HanpaBjeHie h Ha^aaocB 
;g»yroe. 06a fianpaBjieHifl H^BOTopoe- Bpeiu cyin;ecTBOBajH 
coBM^CTHo, — o^HO ;i;09KHBa JO CBOH) »H3HB, ^^pyroe HaiH- 
Hajio. 06% dTOM'B-TO nepioA'b speMeHH wh sanaAHo-pyccKoS 
XH3HH Mu H 6yAeM'b roBopHTL Bi BacTOJUn^id pasi, — 6y- 
jffiwh noEasuBaTB, KaBi BacmtA sana^Ho-pyccsiA cocjiobIa 
HCTon^ajiH no(^;^HiA cboh chjbi b% 6opB6% cb JiaTHHCTBOM^ 

H nOJIOHHSMOlTB, H BaB'B nO^HEMaJIHCB Ha CM^Hy KWh ^HCTO- 

Hapo^Hua CHju, BO rjiaB^ Boropuxi crajio sana^HO-pyc- 
cKoe Basa^ecTBo. 

?To6ja jy^me iiohhtb Ham d^orh noBopoTi wb hcto* 
pHqecBOi 3anaAH0-pyccB0& xhshh, mu jnoJtSHu B03Bpa- 
THTBCH h6cbojibbo Hasa^^'B H CHOBa < nocHOTp^TB Ha o6m,ee 
nojoaseme sana^Hofi Poccin bo BTopofi hojobhe^ XYI cto- 

JlDCjHHCBaA ynifl, saBrB hii yace roBopsjni, oTBpujia 
nacTeJB'B ji^BepH 8ana;^Hoi PocciH nepoA^ IIojiBmefi. IIojiflBH 
naxJiHHyjH b:b nee, BaB'B xMapa, no BupaaceHiio npHBe- 

AeHHOfi HaMH MaJOpOCCifiCBOfi H'iCHH. Bdk 0C06eHH0CTH 3a- 

na^Eoi PocciH h IIoJiBmH bctp^thjhcb TenepB npnuo, ctojib- 
HyjcHCB. Bi T^ BpeiieHa pejiKrio3Haro oacHBjeHiA, ctojib- 
HOBenie Bcixi ocodeHHOcret Hes^y sana^Hofi Poecieft h 



H BO BTOpofi nOAOBHH^ XeCHTftTQ TOHft HCTOpiH pjCCKOi I^epKBH HHTpO- 

noiHTa MaRapifl, hsx* 1881 r. Kada^ecTB'b — co^HHeme H. H. Kocto- 
xapoBa, H3X. HcnpasjeHHoe h xonojueHHoe, 1870 r.,— BorxaHi Xm'I&jeb- 
HHi^idfi, TpH TOHa. Bi nepBofi rjiaB^ nepBaro TOHa sioro co^HHemfl 
ecTB Kpaisafl HCTopia BOSHHBHOBemfl sasa^ecTBa. 



-'- * — A- > 



— 206 — 

nojiBinefi BUJiH JOCB, KaK'b 6u boujiothjiocb b'b pejcHriosHom 
CTOJiSHOBeHiH, vb pejHrio3Ho& 6opB6£. npa30GjiaBHue sa- 
naAHofi FocciH BupaacaJiH napoAHua ea crpeiuema. IIo- 
jijiKH noAi SHaifeHeirB jiaTHHCTBa cTpeMHJtHCB B^bnojtoHH- 
sai^iH CTpanu. IIodToiiy-TO iesjHTCTBO 6hjo B'b to speHA 
caHUMi jorHqHHicb flBjemeifb hjih nocj^^tCTBieM'b xs>6- 
JHHCKO& jHiH, H B'b ero 6opb6i ci npoTecTaHTaMH h npa- 
BocjfaBHQMH Aase HeBOJbHO ;(jia iesjUTOVb ^ocTHrajscb i^^h 
UoAhmvL. IleyOTBHTaibHO, hto upa TaKofi odcTaeoBKA ie- 
syHTH, Bi caMOM!b CBopoM'b BpeMeHH, ;^ocTH^J£H HeBipoaT- 
Haro Moryni^ecTBa h HaneGJiH dana^Ho-pyccsHM'b Ha^ajaii^b 
SH3HII caMoe acecTOKoe nopaaseHie. 

Mu BHA'i^JH, ?T0 yase npn EaTopiH iesjuTU. ctbjiis wh 
sana^Hofi Poccin na TBep;i;yH) Hory. Ho Bce emie ohh Torw 
npio6piTaJiH 60.1^ odn^ecTBOHHoe, niwh rocyAapcTBOHHoe 
SHa^enie. UocjA xb BaTopia nwb npe^CTaBajcacb bosmos- 
HOCTb AOCTHraTB cbohx> jijbjie& ae TOJibBO o6ffl;ecTBeHHUMa, 
HO H ^HCTO-rocyxapeTBeHHUMH, iipaBHTejtBCTBeHHiiMH ny- 
TaMH. nocjit BaTopia BCTynajib aa JiHTOBCKO-nojEBCKift npe- 
CTOJi (1587 r.) CHrH3MyH;i;% III, hotomoki no ateHCKoft 
Aimm po^a SvsAau^ mBeACBia KopojieBu^'b, KOTopoK% 
MU yace ynoMHnajiH. lesynxu, mosho CRasaTB, BHaa^ajiH 
wb JCEDJEBB^, BUHaHHHjH 3Toro GHrH3MyHAa. nodTOHy^ SaK'B 
TOJiBKo owh BCTynHJCb Ha npecTOJi'b, to aeMe^jreHHo ie3yHTH 
OKpyatHJiH ero co Bcixi CTopoH'b. Ohh 6hjih ero AyxoB- 
HHBaHH, nponoB^AHUBaMH, ceapeTapaMH. 3a 3thmh aBHUHH 
lesyHTaMH Majo no Majy CTaJin no;i;xoAHTB k% npecTOJiy a 
oapyacaTb ero iesynTH Tafinue, — Mipane h BOoCn^e peB- 
BHOCTHHe jiaTHHane, t. e. Apy3Ba iesyaTOB'B. Ohh naqajH 
3aHHMaTB npH;i;BopHHa, rocy^apcTBeanHa ^ojanocTH, ot- 
Ticnaa 6ojiie h Cojiie anoB^pn.eB'B, Tas'B nasuBaeMUXi 



•3^ V 



— 207 — 



;(H0CH;(eHTOB'b, t. e. nporecraHTOB'B h npaBOCJiaBRiix^. B'b 
cenaT^ ofipasoBajocB tfojiBiUHHeTBo u noToirB p'bmHTejb- 
Hoe npeo6jaAaHie jiaTHHflH^. HanpaBJieme yiioB'b na cei- 
]fax% ABHrajEOCL ^am^e h Han^e no yBasaHijiM'B iesyjuTowh. 

BOTbj CB KaBHMH BparaMH H npH KaKHX^b o6cToaTejiL* 

CTBaxi npHinjocB san^HiiijaTb caMo6uTHua oco6eHHOCTH aa*- 
naAHofi FocciH — npaBocjiaBHiiMi h nporecTaHTau'b buc* 
maro cocjOBifl, hoa'b SHaHeHeHi B^pu. 06iii;aA onacHOCTB 
ecTecTBeHHO c6jiHsaj[a h coe^^iHifjia t^X'b h Apyrnx'B, — 
npaBOCjasHHX'B h npoTecTanTOBi. TaK-B eo^e b'b 1570 r. 
npoTecTaHTu coerasjiajiH B'B Bbjibh^ h GaHXOHHpii CBid^u 

M&KKJ C060X> A*IA SpHMHpeHifl paSHUX'B CBOHX'B CeKTl H 

Ha 9T0 A^jo npHrjEamajiH npasocjiaBHUX'B, oitb KOToput'B 
^^ficTBRxejiBHO 6buh A^HyTaTu. IIpHMHpeHie, Kani ecxe-^ 

CTBeHHO, H6 MOFJIO BUpafiOTaTBCA. Cj[HmKOHl> paSJIH^HU 

6BLIH npHHi](Hnu asaiaBmiix'B mhphtbca, h cjihiokoicb boc- 
luaHeHeHU 6uisi hx'b crpacTH. lesjHTU o6paTHjiH bb na* 
CM^msy Bce axo myHHoe a^o ^HCCHAeHTOB'B, pacnycKaji 
^epesTB ne^aTB, hto no BonpocaM'B'o Bip'6 TaH'B Morjia 
6uTb TOJBKO ApaBa^ hto coGctbohho MHpHUA 6ectAU[ He»Ay 
nacTopaHH npoHCxo^HjH o toh^b, no ^ewb oBecB, Kas'B 
j^opoFH flfti^a H T. n. 

Eoji^e ycnixa o^in;ajra xpyraa nonuTKa ahcchaohtob'b 
upoTHB'B jiaTHHCTBa, B'B 1572 To^^y. Tor^a yMep'B CnrHS- 
MyHA'B AsrycTB. HsSHpaju noBaro Kopojfl. JI,HccHAeHTu 
cocraBHJH Tasi nasHBaeMyi) K0H4)eAepai;ii) k norpe^oBa- 
JH, ^To6u npHSHanu 6nj[h bi rocyAapcTff]^ hx'b npaBa^ 
vtQ6vL H3'B-3a B^pu HHKTO HO ChLATt ycTpanaeicB OT'B npas'B 
H Buro;^'B B'B jHTOBCKo-noJiBCKOMB rocy;i;apcTB4. HocTanoB- 
Jienie aroS R0H<i)eAepai(iH 6ujio npHHiflTO noJE^saMH h3'b 
onaceHk CHyrB; npHcarajH BcnojEHaxB ero h TeHpnx'B h 



EaTopift H Anse CBTmujBXh III, ho jxe Bta 
nocj^ 3T0& EOH^AepaiiiH JLarauaHe HacHtxaiHCi 
o6i>aexasii ee BexbifftBVTesbaoit, npoTHBHOfl bi 

Co CTOpOHU nOlXKOBl-XaTHHAHl 9T0 filUO COBej 

cjiAOBaTeibHO. H nana, h jainBCcoe AyxoseHcri 
Bcer^a oTBepraiu nocraHOKieniE arofi soH^tOAflpi 
TecTOBajH , npoTHBi nea, noroiiy vto jaTimcKa; 
BODpeRH yB'^peniflHi HHornxt hojaeobi, hekofj 
snaBftja h Toneps ne npESHaen cbo6oabi cosic 
xeHxaiirb Dpaxos^ocb npHHHuaTB noBua uipu. 
■cmwh coCopt 1596 row, no ^-feiy ynlH, npoieci 
paJHCB A^ScTBOBaib whtrb ch npaBoci&BHUMH, 
Ha wroTh co6Qp% bo wHOxecTBt, npe^^oxHJiH 
nuHi OAHHi otimHpHHt nporecTaBTCKift aohs a- 
Hifi u yqacTBOBajH bi sthxi coBbntanlaxi ci 
HUHH uipanavH ocoSo on npaBOCjaBnaro jq 
cocraBJjiBinaro'AyxoBBuB cofiopt. Ho h otI bio 
fiiijio nojbsu, a HanpoTHBi BuniejB BpeAl. H 
npaBocjiaBiK) enHCKonu 3&rjei?hjh ci jaTBHae 
He otipaiQaa BHHHaHiH Ha npaBo&iaBHufl co6op- 
emfi yEOpflTb opaBocjaBHiixi sa to, iro ohb, 

COeAHHHTLCa Cb JaTHHAHaVH, KOTOpEIXl B^pa 

OTJu^aerca on hfl fftpH, coeAHHaB)TCH ct ( 
jiH>TepaHaiiH, KaJbBHHHcraira. Maio Toro, nepe^i 
paanecJiBCb cjysB, vto npaBOCJasHQe pi npoi 
co6HpaE>n BoeHHyo cbjj. IIojLCKoe npaBHreib 
Hu yse ynoKBHaiB, CHJbno BcrpeBOSHJOCb, ee 
cocrasHTb napoAHofi co6opi no xiij jbIb, ^osbi 
^bssaTb Ha coGop'B tojibbo xyxoBHuirb, TaiTb qTO 
Ha HOHt iripaHx-npaBocjaBHuxi. s nporecTaHTOB' 

npOTHBOaaSOHBUlTL H BC^ HX'L A^fiCTBlH H TpOl 



— 209 — 



9T0My iioBOAy MorjiH 6uTb He yBaaseHU, KaK'b ^McTBHTejiBHO 
H CA^jraJTO nojiBCBoe npaeHTejiBCTBO. lesynTH ues&flj t^m'b 

CB HOBHMH GOlDSHHRaMH-yHiaTaMH HaJTerJH C% HOBOH) CHJrOD 

Ha nporecraHTOBi h npaBocjraBHUX'b. T'&m'b h ^^pyrmcb He- 
o6xoAHMO 6hi6 co60paTL bhobb cboh CHJrii h npH^^yMUBaTB 
em^e hobua Mipu b'b sao^HT^. Ohh npHAytfajH, hobh^ch- 
MOMy, caMyBD piniHTaiBHyH) Mftpy. 

B'B 1599 r. npoTecTaHTu h npasocjaBHue cooraBHJH 
mbsxh B% Bhjtbh^. Cothh t^x^b h jtpyrHX'B co6paj[HCB Ha 
9T0T% cfbisflih. HjreHH crb1^d]f,h OTxpuTO BHCRasaiiHCB, ^n*o 
He HoryrB ^oiBme 'repn']bTB BomK)Hi;i^xrB HapyHxenift cbohx'b 

npaB^B H CnOROfiCTBiH, H OTSpUTO ase 3a.BBHJ[H, ^TO 6jJ[,yTb 

6opoTBCA CB jaTHHJiHaMH Ha SH3HB, Ha CMepTB. BopB^y 
OHH ofi^yHajH TaKHiTB otfpasoiTB: KaacAufi CHJiBHufi npa- 

BOCJiaBHBtfi HJEH npOTeCTaHITB JlflJLTReWb Ha BCix'B nyTAxrB 

asHSHH 3aii],Hni;aTB BCHBaro crpaacj^ymiaro-npaBocjaBHaro Hjm 
npoTecTaHTa, no nepBOMy TpefioBamE) hjh H3BicTiK>. jl^jm 
6oj[Bniaro ycn^xa h y^o^cTBa b'b stom'b x^% beji^hcbIu 

C'B%33;!B BUfipaj'B TaS'B Ha3£IBaeMUX'B npOBHBOpOBB HJH CjLJO" 

CTHTejiefi, K'B BOTopuMx MorjiH o6pan;aTBCJi bc^ . roHHMue 
H BOTop£[e wb CBoeM'B Kpyry npHHHMajH Bcixi uxi noA^ 
cbod saiqHTJr. 

» Ho ^ieH£i BHJencKaro c^B^s^a hohijih ;i;aJiBme, ^^m^b 
(^Aosajo. Ohh sa^^ystajH emfi hphmhphtb, coeAHHHTB 
npaBociaBie h npoTecTaHTCXBo. GocTaBJieHLi 6qjivl npoeKTu 
OToro x*Jia, HoniJiH neAoyMima, pas^opu. HpaBOCJiaBHaa 
iepapxia 0TKa3aj[acB ovb BcaKaro ynacTia bb noAo6HOMTb 
A&ii. He HOAHHcajcHCB H MHorie npoTecTaHTU. JIaTHHflne 
H ymaTB nojifisum cTpamHHd myMi; uocunajiHCB hobbta 
ofiBBHeniH Ha upaBocjiaBHBixi vb eAHHOMucjiiH cb epeTH- 
IpaMH. BHJieHCKift cb^s^'b ne npHHecB oajnAaeMaro Ao6pa, 



210 — 



• 



nocj'^AHflfl nonuTKa BHcmaro sanaAHO-pyccKaro o5ii;e- 
cTBa m> 3aiii;HTi CBoeii poAHHu otb jiaTHHCRaro rocnoj^cTBa 
6uM cjAxpoia^sM. leayHTCKoe ppeo6jiaAaHie b'b rocyA^p- 
CTB'b ^aBHO He npasHJiocb mhofhm'b h vh canoft IIojBiiri^, 
n em,e vh j^eBAHocTUX'b roxax'B XVI croj^Tifl RopojvB aoj- 
seHi 6ujrb oTKpuTo samiHis^aTBCA Ha ceftMax'B h npHHHMaTB 
Viijiu npoTHB'B BoscTaHijf. B'B 1607 ro^y TaRoe BOseTanie 
HOAnHJii 3e6sHAOBCRid. Hm'b pyROBO^HJH no6ys;(eHifl, ro- 
TopuA He MorjiH 6uTh 0601HKH. 3e6»HAOBCRift 6£iJi'b npe- 
AaHi aBCTpificRoS AHHacTin h xot^jtb ee bha'&tb na noab- 
CROifB npecTOJi^; ho jiikjiei sthx'b oh'b ho 3HCTaBjrajrrB, a 
BoscTaBaj'b npoTHBi CHFHSMyHAa, RaRi npoTHB'B HapyniH- 
Teja HapoAHUxi npaBi. DodTOMy npeAnpiflxie ero CHa- 
^ajia BCTptTHJio 6ojBmoe co^yBCTBie. HlecTiiWcaTx thchtb 
mjrjixTM noAHHcajiHCB na ROH<{)e;(epaiiiiD 3e6acHAOBCBaro; 
CHFHdMyHA'B o6^ABjieH^ HHSJToseHHUM'B c^B HpecTOja H npo- 
npoBosrjianieHO Mes^yi^apcTBie. JI,py3BJi o^HaRO noMorjH 
CHPHSMyHAy BunyTaTBCii hs'b 6bji,u. Ob He6ojiBniH]rB bo£- 
CROH'B OH'B nopasHji ROH({)e;i;epaTOB'B, pascTpoeHHUXi y«e 
H jip Toro pa3o6j[a?eHieH'B ;(']^£cTBHTejBHux'B i^^eA 3e6sH- 
AOBCRaro. 

B'B ^Kcii dTHX'B R0H4>e;i;epaT0B'B 6ujio mhofo marflXTu 
H MarnaTOB'B sana^cnoil PoccIh. Ji^jia hhx'b oco6eHHO Cuxo 
^yscTBHTejiBHo nopasenie. npona^ajro hx'b B^ROBoe ji^^jto, — 
flfbjio Hapo^Hoe, h Hey;^HBHTeJIBHo, ^to nponaAaJO. IIpaBO- 
cjaBHue 3ana;i;Ho-pyccRie, coewnaacB ct npoxecTaHTaHH, 
yase ocjia6jrAJH STHifb cBoe pyccRoe, npaBocjraBHoe SHa^enie. 
TenepB xe ohh coej^HHAjHCB en^e cb nojiARaHH. HnTepecB 
po;^Hoft, HHTepecB napo^a crjraaHBajiCH, Hcqesaj'B, — BHcry- 
naji-B 6ojie h fiojiie HHTepecB nijraxeTCTBa. CjiHBajocB 
in^rnxeTCTBO sanaAHO-pyccRoe cb mjAxeTCTBOBTB ho^bcrhm'b 



— 211 — 

H Haxo^Hjo cefii cirepTB, BOo6pa3Kaji, ^to noAABpsHBaerb 
SH3HB. dry CHepTb npeBocxoAHo H3o6pasaeTi> aBTopx 
SHaifeHHTaro co^HHemA „6pHH0c:b^ (1610) MejieTit Gmo- 
TpHi^Riil. Os'B onjTEBHBaerb orb JrH^a npaBocjasHoS i^epBBH 
norH6ejib bi jiaTHHCTBi jiy^niHX'b poAOQi sanaAHO-pyc- 
crhx'b; ho B'b dTOiiTb pej[Hrio3HOirb m&^i acho cjiuniHTCA 
lua'^'B poj^HHii norH6ejH STHX'b xfojsfik vh nojOHHSiit. 
Bora 3aM']^HaTejibHoe m^to dToro ujia^a: 

yiTfijk T^nepb TOT^b HOOI^'faHeHHIlfi BaMeHb, SOTOptlH A, 

roBopHTTb CifOTpHiiBifi OTb HMBBH sanaAHO-pyccBoi ii;epKBH, 
HOCHjia BH'i^cTi Cb ]s,pjTsiuK 6pHJLiiaHTaMH Ha HOBH ro- 
jOBi, B'b BfeHU,i, KaKb coJH^e cpe^H 38434,1, — rxk Tenepb 

AOWb KBASeS OCTp0»CKHX'b, BOTOpufi OpOBOCXOAHJ'b BCiX'b 

iipsHifb 6j6cbom% CBoeft ApeBHeft (npaBocjaBHofl) Btpu? 
Tfiib H Apyrie TaEsce Heoi^^neHHue BaMHH uoero B^niiia, 
cjaBHbie po4.u pyccKHX'b BBflseft, hoh can^inpuL h ajiMasu: 
KflflSbji Gjyi^Bie, SacjaBCBie, 36apascBie, BsniHeBei^Kie, 
CanryHiBH, HapTopuiicBie, DpoHCxie, PosHHCRie, Cojoho- 
pei^Bie, FojoB^Bi^Rie, * KomnpcBie, MaccajbCBie, FopcBie, 
CoKOJiHHCBie, JlyBOMCRie, IlysuHU u Apyrie 6e3'b ^Hcja? 

Tjfjk BH^CTi eb HHMH H APyriO pOAH, — ApeBHie, HMOHH- 

TEje, CHjbH£ie poAEJ cjaBHaro no Bcemy Hipy chj[or) h mo- 
rynj^ecTBOMrb Hapo^a pyccBaro: Xoabobh^h, rj46oBH?H, 
Ehbibh, Cslu^th, Jl^oporocTa&CRie, Bohhu, Bojtobh^h, 3e- 
HOBH^H, nan;br, Xajei^sie, TuoiBeBH^H, EopcasH, Xpe6- 
tobh^h, TpHSHu, FopHocTaH, EoB^H, MuniKOBCBie, FypBH, 
OlnaoiBH, FyjeBHHH, .^pMOJiHHCBie, HeJEHOHCBie, EajHHOB- 
CKie, Ehpaob, 3a6opoBCBie, MejiemKH, BoroBBTUHH, IlaB- 
JOBHTO, CocHOBCBie, CByMHHU, non;iH h Apyrie?.. Bh, 

SJIHe ilOAH, (CBOeiO H3H']^H0K>) 06Ha«HJII HLBEK OTB dTOfi 

Aoporofi Moeg pHsu h xenepb Hacflfixaexecb HaAi* HeMom;- 



^ 



V 



— 212 — 



miWb MOHMX T^JIOMl, HS^b BOTOpaFO OAHaRO BU BC% ^blinji H 

Ho noMHHTe: opoKJEaxii Bc^irb, OTspuBaioiipH HaroTy esoeH 
HETepH! npoRjraTU 6yAeTe h bu Bdb, HacirbxaDiii^iecff sa;^ 
Moefi HaroToft, paAy]Diii.ieca eft. HaGTaHeT!b Bpen^, btq bg^ 
BH 67ABre CTUAHTbca cbohx'b ;i,McTBid*'. 

Kor4.a naja sanaAHO-pyccKaA apHCTOKpaiiir, Hapo;z(Hoe 
sana^HO'pyccKoe a^jo nepesuo no^'h saiocHTy epe^Haro 
cocjobIh, — ropo;^csoro, H'bii^aHCKaro h em;e 6ojBnie, n^Wb 
y apHCTOEpaTiM, cocpeAoroiHJOCb wh Bonpoci o Bipi. 3a- 
M'j^qaTejTBHo, HTO Heo6xoAHMOCTL 9T0& nepew^H 3a6orb o 
i^epRBH paBbme Bcix^b noH^ji^b h cepBesBO eft coaMctbo- 
Bajfb uepB^ftmift hs'b sanaAHO^pyccsHX'B BBiiBHoaE^ h nep- 
B^ftmift samiHTHHK'B npaBocjaeia, rhasl SoHCTaHTHH^ Koh- 

CTaHTHHOBH^'b Oei^OmCKift, dTOTO^ BC^MH IipHSHaBaeHBlft 

CTOJin'b sanaAHO-pyccKaro npasocjaBk, ho jioaiHO Taoase CKa- 
3aTb, — BocjiAHift sana^HO-pyccKift Ay6i, Kpjrowb Boroparo 
naAaJTH jipyvie pyccKie jsj6u h y Koroparo ^aae caMoro, 
BaiTb Mu BHA'^H, 6ucTpo yBJi^aj^H H sacuxajH Kb nojo- 

HHSM'b H JaXHHCTB'fa ero COfiCTBeSHHA MOJIOAUA B^TBH, 

POAHUA A'^TH. 

Haifb yse hsb-I^ctho nojEoaBeme sanaAHO-pyocRHX'b ropo- 
AOBi. PyecKie jiso^h b% hbx'b 6iiIjih CHJbHH npesAe ecero 
CBoeft ^HCjeHHocTiH), Bair&M'B CBOHifb MarAe6yprcBBM'b 

yCTpofiCTBOM'b, A&BaBBIHM'b EWb BOBtfOSHQCTB CtpynilHpO- 

BaTb CBOH ciiJLU u A'^ficTBOBaTb sa ojiflo. Ho eiii;e dojf^e 
6uJiK cHJbHU aanaABO-pyccKie M%in;aHe cbohmx HenocpeA- 
CTBeHHEiH'b oTuonieHieM^ Kb 3aii],Hiii;aeM0My a^mj. KaK% 
jioAH iipocTue, OHH Bcei^^jo oTAasajHCb sanijHT^ cBoeft 
BipH. Hxi He jerKO 6ujio CABHHyTb ct &Toro nyiH. Hpa- 

TOMl, 6yAy?H 6JH3KHMH K-B HapO^y no CBOeft aCHSHH, Hi 

CBoemy o6pa3y Hiicjeft h ^jbctb'b, ohh hoctobeho ossr 



— 213 — 
BiirjHCB 9 o6hobjiaj[ro& ^hcto - Hapo;^HUHH HanajiaHH, 

POB&IHCB BeSJSfk H npHUURaJH KX EBVCh 6paTCTBa CeJBCRifl. 

HasoHei^, itiiiiiaHe Haxo^HJiH o^chb BaatHyn onopy b'b 
ocTaTsaxrB Bucmaro CBoerb cocjEOBk, HeesiriHHBnnix'B cbo- 
eiiy Hapo;^y. HiKOTopue hkb d^wxh ^0CJ!^6;^HHX'B, ne CHorp^ 
HH HH Kasia saTpy^aeHifl, Honojnifljn nocTaHOBJremji bh- 
j[6HeKaro eb'itew, 6iijrs ^'^icTBHrejiBHUiiH none^BTejMMii 
Haji^ 3aiiaj2^ao-pyccRHHi Hapa^^oirB, CTpa^^aBnmic'B 01% no- 
joHHSKa H jaTHHCTBa, A^icTBHTejiBHo 3aii(Hin;aj[H ero b'b 
pasHQo^pasHHX'b cjiyqajEX'B shshh, Men^y BOTopuMs oco- 
6efiHy» BaaKHOCTB mAjPb cjAjijt)m\i. Kasi jidah fiitaro- 
po;(Haro (nujixeTCRaro) cocjroBk^ ohh nv^jm npaso 6utb 
g^enyraTaHH Ha oefiiiaxi, fijiaroAapA y^acTiio dTHxi jiid- 
;(efi, 6^AcmA H Hysj^tf Hapo^a ?acTo saflBjjieMS duiu 
Ha ceftHax'B, Jt% Rpa&HeMy HsyHJieniio h HeroAOBamx) nojB- 

GROB JEaTHBCROS HUHXTH, HB XOriBSieft 3HaTB HpaB'B HH 

xi^n^aHCTsa, hh xjioncTBa. TeirepB 6opB6a Hes^y JtaTHH^ 
CROK) HojTBmeft H npaBOCjraBHOiD sana^Hon Pycbp ecTe- 
CTBeBHo AOJr»Ha 6wia c^^aTBCA ynopn^, secTo^e. YRa- 
seifb Ha H^ROJBRo (i)ftRTOB'B, xapaRTepH3yx)n^HXi axy 

Gbpomhhhh cbohmh ycHJiiflMH, icajniMH wh ot^'I^jibhocth, 
HO BeJHRHHH B'B Hi&ioeTH) M^n^aHe-dpaT^HRH, Ha MHoro- 
^HCJieHHUX'B . nyHRTftx^B sana^^Hofi PoggIh, sauinnjEH cboh- 
HH Tpy^aHH npesHie Tpy;i;£i CBoeg apHcroRpaf Ih Ha hojb- 
sy cBoero Bapo;i;a. Hx^ y^HjEHHi^a, hx'b HS^aHia rhhfb, 
HX!fi CHomeHiH HeaRAY C060A cjiysHjH Heo^ojiHMOH) no^- 
jfl&pasmn HfipoAHaro oaRSBJEeniH, ^po^Haro sana^HO-pyc- 
CRaro jsjxsLi BascH^fimHirb cpe;i;oTomeM!B Bceit dTofi js^i- 
aTe^BHOCTH 6aM BHJiBHa. djsjbch B'b TpoHnisoirB MonacTU- 



— 214 — 

p%, Txb Tenepb ceMHHapui, 6ui% nevrpb BueHCsaro 6paT- 
CTBa. Ha Hero-TO jiaTHHaHe h yaiaTu HanpaBHjra c% oco- 
6eHH0» peBHocriK) cboh yAftpu* Bb 1608 r. ohh pbniH- 
jiHCb jEjmTomnrb arora nfivrpb^ bsajih xpoHi^Kift Mona- 
CTupB Ha 7Hi». Becb ropoA*B BcrpeBOSHJiGA no droicy 
noBOxy. HanojiHHJiacb HapoAOifB MOHacrupcsaA orpa- 
Aa. UpaBOCJiaBHue He nosBOJfHJH ce&b ocKop6uTB ^hhob- 
HHKa, nepejg^aBaBmaro HosacTupB yHiaTam; ho 06% droirB 
jsikA ceftnacb axe saroBopHJiH hx'b Btpnue noBpoBHTejiH 
Ha ceftM^ H noAroTOBHJOi cyxi HaA^ ymaTaMH. 06paA0- 
BaHHue TaKHM^ o6opoTOH'b fi!bji&^ BHjreHCKie npaBocf aBHUe 
OTKpBiTO npasAHOBaxH ycntbxB npaBOCJiaBia, coaepmajiH 
npoi^ecciH, co^HpajHCL TopsecTBOHHo HSTHaTB H3B CBoero 
6paTCBaro menrpa HenaBHCTHaro hitb yHiaxcBaro apxH- 
MaHApHTa PyxcKaro. Ho TopasecTBO dxo 6hjo ho npo^oji- 

SHXeJIbHO, Oh fiOJbHIHllH BOeHHHUH CHJaHH npH^EIXb B*b 

BHJibHy (1609 r.) cairb Bopojb GHTHSHyHAi, HanpaBjiAB- 
miflcA Tor^a vb PocciD, ^to6h saBoeBaTb ee. UpaBocjiaB- 
Hue o6BHHeHU diuiE wb xflTesi, vb ocKop64eHiH Be^H- 
HecTBa, MHorie Hsrb bistb noABeprjHCb cy^y. BoJEbBiaA 
?acTb i^epftBeft o6pan^eHa bi ymio. UpaBocjiaBHue ui^n^a^ 
He sa^aBjeHU 6ujm secTOKO. He jryime 6hj[o nojoaiceHie 
H npoTecTaHTCBHXi H^n^aHB. PtmHTarbHoe nopasenie na- 
HeceHo HHi npH cjAfljnmfiwb o6cTOflTe«[bCTBt. Kto- 

TO BUCTp^HJTb Fb O^HH^ jaTHHCKift KOCTOJl. PaSOHLiaCb 

Hojsa, ^To 8T0 cA&jiajE'b npoTecraHTb. lesyHTii, BHicxi^ 

Ch CBOHHH HIBOJIbHHSaMH, ABHHyjHCb Ha HpOTeCTaHTCKyi) 

KHpxy, paspymHJTH ee, pascnnajHCb no ropo^y, ocKop6jaA 
H nopasafl BCJiBaro HHOB'i^pi^a. Eo^e xyse 6uao noioace- 
Hie H^H^aH'b BaBB npaBocjaBHux'b, Tasi h nporecTaHTOBrb 
vb npoBHHi^iaibHUX'b ropo^axB. Hx'b HCKJiD?aiH Hsrb i^e- 



— 215 — 

SBHHvaTbcs Toproaiefi, A^xe xsn vt, 
pyccKoe CpaiCKoe jmsjamfi, TairB pbx- 

803BpaiI(UHCb HSl JIHJIUI^a AOHOft c& 

iBBfLua. Ha HHxi HanaiajiH h 6iuh 

HKH, SOTOpue He A&BaiH SHTbfl H HH- 

TOXb 9T0 HDOBlipiia A^se 06vb9X&XK 
(ajexoe paacTO^Bie iesfHTCKla mBoiu. 

ffh FocciH, nocToaHHue iiepexoAU do- 
anaXHyx) Focciio no nyrH «h MocKBy, 
I CBXj Bceify noibCKOHy h jaTHH* 
Q AaBHJiK fice pyccKoe, npaBOCJiaBuoe. 
BHoraib H uaxaTb h sansAHO-pyccKoe 
•h Tssexie u 6e30TpaxH'ie 6ujo noione- 
DpasociaBHUsi, vro cb caiiaro eaqajia 

ABa iipaBocjiaBHUX'& apxiepea — o6a vb 
, a cib 1607 rOAa oabhi, HasoHeirb ci 
loro. BoTb ouHCasie noioxeHla pyccKKXt 
iHta El QOJBCKOHy cefivy bi 1623 ro^y 

pyecRHXi aana^Hoft Poccia: a&b Bt^o- 
H MoriueB^ B.iaAiiKa noJOAKift (loca- 

saneq&Taj'b itepsBH h yse natb xbfb 
h. B% Qojioi^B^ a BifreGcxi hh He ho- 
(SorocjiyneHia hh iiepKBH, bh AOHa. M'Jb- 
b BOCKpecHue h npasAHH^Hse ji,aB,.wro6u 
31 6otixsjxema, BusoAarb aa ropoA'B 
laEiTi ero, nfi, k to 663% cBan^eeHHita, 

SBOieHO HK^Tb CBaH^eHEHKa HB BTb ro- 

ropoAa. E'^AHUd HapoA'b, ne xejiaa ocra- 
■jonofok poAHJca, h apeAaTtea Apyrofi, 
la KpeBieHi& Aajbme, vhwL sa A^carb 
epcTb), HpH lewb HBoria a^xh yuHpaiorb 



— 216 — 

6ewb Bpen^eHJA ote x^ahocth h BejMfiCnoctii ny^H. To^ho 
TOKse AaJieso aoxshu ^ahtb BCTjHavnUe kb 6paB%. 
Mhofo yse ecTB xaKHX'b, ^ro bo bck> jusbb He kofjos, 

CnOAOdHTBCA HH RCUOVbjIJB^ HH npH^aCTUi H OTXOASTS Ha 

TOTB cvbvb 6e3fh xpHcriaHCBaro HanyrcTBia. Ho ^fo seero 
xyse, "vro cocraBxaeriB BapaapcTBo h sb^pctbo Bmne tA- 
poam, vh TOu% se 6tjopyccBoirb IIojioii^K^, tot% sb' 
oTCTynEHK'E BiaAHBa oojioi^Kift (KyHi^eBHH'b)t Tro6Ei Aoca* 
;i;htb TaHoniHHHi uimjBLiLBWhj npHKaaax'B BnpuTB nexaBHo 
noxopoHeHHHfl uojifi'b i^epsBH xpHcriaHCsiA T&ia yMepioHX'B 
H 6pocHTB na CT>ijsfinie co6asaM%, saR% Baayjo na^^ajib. 
HeqecTiel neBUHocHHaa neaojEa! H noAo6H£ia 6e3- 
saBOHia h npHT^eeHia, noAo6HyD HOBOiii), xyaie Typei^* 
K0& HeBOJH, xepn^u'B no bc^% BooBOACTBaxi h noBiraicB 
HH, pyccsifi HapoA^, ho c^'knaBinifi HH^ero xypsoro hh 
npoTHB^B ero sejHHecTBa, hh npoTHBi oxeneeTBa. ^BaAO^airB 
BoceiCB yse xbTh xepoHM^B mi 9th roneHia. ^Ba^a^^ 
BoceMB jiirh^ Easj^ui ceflH^B roBopHH'B o&b hhx^b, lua- 
neif^, yMOJiaeAfB o MHjocepAiH, cnpaBe;i(jiHBOCTH h ho mo- 
xewh nojLjmiTh HX'B... Hh^to ho npH^HHaeri Taxi^ CKopo 
ocjadjienia h na^eHia rocyAapcTfi:B, roBopuj^B i^opoJiB Ba- 
TopiH, saBi^ Hacujiie, npecj'&AOBaHie Bipn. ^afi. Bor's^ 
w£o6hi flMejio 6ujio OT'B Hact HcnoJEHenie SToro Bopojea- 
CBaro npoBi^enia!" HHate mh yBH;^HM'B, ^to bto npe^caa* 
aanie 6BL10 BUCBasano Tor^a se saibCBOMy npaBHxejiBCTBy 
yse BaB% upaMaa yrposa h hto oho nanajo HcnojEHavBca 

npH COA'^fiCTBiH MaJIOpOCCiSCBEX^ BOdaBOBl, BOTOpHe 60JE^ 

u 6ojiie BucTynaaH, sass BupasHTejiH napo^^eux'B cHjrb 
H napo^^HHX'B CTpeMJEBHiS sana^cHoi FocciK^ 

CqHTaeifB Heo6xoAHMUM% hbjioshtb b^ bpbtbom'b bh^'^ 
HCTopiiD o6pa30BaHia ROsanecTBa, npe»;i;e ^iwb CTaneMi 



1^ 



— 217 — 
Haaarai% ero jic&sa na sauiiHTy pojsjunu on nojbCRofi h 

Eosa^ecTBO pasBHBajiocb ne bi o^Hofi sana^Hofi PoccIh. 
KoBa^ecTBO (|)opHHpoBajoGB H B'b BocTo^HQg PogcIh Ha 

AOHJ, Ha YpaJKi, B'B Gh(5hPH« Y H)SHUX'b CJiaBAH'b MU 

TaEse BHAHM!E o6hi;hhu, coBepmeHHO noxoada na Hame 
KOsa^ecTBo. Tas^, bcji ^epnoropm copaBe;(jHBO Moa^erb 
611TB Ha3BaH^ Rosa^ecTBOM^. l&mfi He^aBHO b% Cep6iH h 
BairapiH, na ^paHH^ax'E (yb Typi^ieft, Tose 6£[Baj[H eo- 
sai^RiA rpyans, hsb'^^cthua hoai HMeneM^ ycROKOBi. 9th 

OAHHaSOBUA AB^eHia B% paSHUX'B niCTaX^ JSfiLlOTh boshos- 

HocTb onpe/t^iSHTB o6mjiM npH^HBUi BH3HBaBiniH Bosa^e- 
^TBO, H FJiasHHA ero na'iajia. Kosa^ecTBo Bea^'ib abje^jocb 
;ua dBJOjiesu po^HHU h j[,a& 6ofh6u ci asiaTCKHM'b mI- 
poM!b KpaaHHHH K^paMH, ROF^^a o6uBHOBeHHua, rocyMP- 

CTBeHHHA CpeACTBa ORaSUBaJCHCb HBAOCTaTO^HHlfH. Ti »e 

eaxua o($CTaJiTeji{»CTBa susBajiH h npH-^H^itpoBCBoe R03a- 

Bcji HUH'i^niHflA K)a&HaA PoeciA fiuja 663jk)ahoe), neo- 
tfospHMOK) nycTUHei, ROTopaa ein;e AaJiBme no^^HHyjiacb 
Ha c^Bep'b CO BpeMOHH TaxapcRaro HamecTBia. AsiaTCRie 
BapisapH no BpeHeHam^ npoxo^^iJEH ee ao ciBepHuxi 
iq[^eB% H onycTomajH hx%, yBO^HJiH napoA^. IIpoTHB's 
HHxrb Hymna 6uja nocTOAHHaa sas^HTa, nocTOjaiHHoe oxpa- 
HeHie HorpaHH^HUX'b a&HTejeft. Mosrho ^yMaTB, ?to TaRaa 
samiHTa (j^opuHpoBajiacb em;« so apeMeHa ^anrnja rajHi];^ 
saro; ho oco6e^Ho chjibho cTajca ona o6pa30BUBaTBca bi 
XY CTOJ^Tin. B'B ROHi^'b XIV B^Ra TaTapcRift Mipi, RaRi 
KH yaRe ynoMHHajH, cxaJifB pacnaAaTBcis na ^acTH. O^Ha 
laevB ero noABSHyjiacB na H)ro*3anaA^ orb Bojirs h yiipo- 
HHjra CBoe epe^OTO^ie b% Kpuxy, t* e^ ona npH^BiiHyjacB 



— 218 — 

icB aanaxHoft PocciH h ctoj^ qan^e h ^an^e 6e3iioROHTB 
ee. B'B dTo-To oco6&hho BpeHa CTaJO otipasosuBaTBCA nps- 
;^HinpoBCEoe Rosa^ecTBo. GHJBHOe wb HajopocciScBOH's 
njieHeHH o6mHHHoe ycrpoficTBO Aasajio bosmosrhoctb jerRO 

H CROpO COCraBJIJiTB CaMOdUTHUJI, HeSaBHCHHtIA BOeHHUfl 

o6n^BHEi, ROTopux BUCTynajiH npoTHB'B EeufisreM. duouj 
noMorajia TaRse MajOHHCJieHHocTB wb MajiopocciH jD;(e& 
Bucmaro cocjosiji, js^ia Roroparo shshb dujia B^'i^b o^eHb 
HeyAo6Ha. He vHorie, »HBmie 3;^cb ^BOpHHCRie po^^u, so- 
HeBOjA c6jirH3Raj[HCB c% napoAOM'B, npoHHRaJiHCB ero cxpe- 

HJieBmMH, H CraHOBHJHCB BO TJlSLBi ROSai^RHX'b OrpiTAOB'b B'b 

RanecTB^ EX'S renraHOBi. TaRHHH reTMaHaMH^ oAHOBpeiieHHo 
6£iBajru B^ pa3HEixi Hicrax'b MajopocciH BHrneeBei^Rie, Ro- 
peuRie, KoHOi^oojBCRie, PoacHHCRie. B% XVI ctoj^tIh, Ror^a 
RpuMCRoe i^apcTBO OHOHB ycHJHjiocB, Bc£ Rosai^Rifl rpyflDH 
CTajH cjiHBaTBCfl H HapoAHUfl Ha^aja nojy^HJH pimHTOJib- 
Hufi nepeB^ci. reTHaHU nan^e h nan^e abjiuhcb no HsfipaHiio 
HapoAa H BjracTB hx^b 6ojiBine h fiojBine o^HHMajia Bce Rosa- 
HecTBo. Tor^a ROsa^ecTBO caHO, HesaBHCHMO npe^^npHHHMa- 
jio BoeHHUA ji^ijiA. GeapjisajiHCB dRcneAHi];iH, Roropufl rpo- 
HHJiH KpuiTB, saxo^HJH Ha asiaTCRio 6epera Typi^ia, ocMi- 

JIHBaJHCb nOflBJATBOI JlfiXe Vb ORpeCTHOCTAX'B KOHCTaHTH- 

Honojrfl. GM^jraA 6opB6a ROsa^ecTBa cb asiaTCRHMi MipoH<B 
oTB^qaja BnojH^ Hapo^^HiiM'B TpefioBaHiHM^B sanaAHoft 
PocciH, HO OHa Tian^e h nan^e npoTHBop^HHjia rocy^ap- 

CTBeHHUlTB HHTepecaiTB nOJBmH. ^H^npOBCRie ROSaRH C^H- 

TajiHCB noAAaHUMH nojBCRaro rocyxapcTBa. Hxi jsfbjia, vb 
Kpimy H vb Typi^iH ho pas'B rpoSHJH naRJERaTB^Ha 
IIojiBmy TaxapcRO-TypeniRyiD Boftny. IIojiBCRoe npaBHTejB- 

CTBO JSflJlXEO 6UJ10 npHHHMaTB H^pU Rl o6j^}lflMW BOHH- 

CTBeHHOCTH ROsaROB'B, Tpe6oBaTB, ^to6h ohh Oes'B ero B'b- 



— 219 — 
IHMUH BoeHHHzi sjtcaenvnijk «b Kpintt 

ElCHeHiS 9TH CHJbHO napaiHSHpOBOJlH RO- 

(tficTBOBaJiB TOHy, iTo so3a?ecTBo uajo 

pXTb HTb hSJIJ IIAVBJJO HCTOpHieCEyi) 

iptfiy ch asiaxcBHiTb HipoHi, h roroBH- 
[ Fb peHecjieHnux'B 6opi[0B% ji^a BCHKa- 
•h, BOXHiftinaa Ae]iopajiH.iaitiH Eosane- 
IHO ci xpyrofi CToponu. KosanecTBo fiu- 
•b aoibCKOK) Teopiefi QuuxercTBa h uoq- 
[H no3»e AO-iKtHO (Siuro o6paTHTb Ha fx6a 
h a. BUSBaTb ci hxi CTopoHU bc^ cpex- 
BJieHin. 

>uj[o uonCTBOHi. KosasH nocrodHHO cpa- 
b nojbCKHHi nUAxerHUxi BoftcEoirb h 
H ero CBOHHH noABBrauH. Ho KoaaiecTBo 
10 6aTh npHSHaHo mxa^efrevsowh. Kosa* 

Hanoiajijocb hs'b npocroro sanaAHO-pyc- 
'opult Ttu'b Gojrte BoaBumaj'b wh cbo- 
)3a^ecTB0 H T^iTb 6oJile crpeuHJCH k'b 

sacajFacb ero nojibCEaH Teopifl xjoncTBa. 
> vb BeofixoAHHOCTH — KaKrb BHtJyAb oape- 

K03a<iecTBa, nocTasHTb ero wb rpaHHiiu, 
lefi TeopiH nuflxeTCTBa h xJionCTBa. IIo- 
taiopiH aoHUH awjja onaCHocTb fjis 
lecTBa H nocrapaiBCb najosHTb na eero 
ui,iK), sOTopaa, nox^ fijaroBHABuirb npe^' 

, KOSa^eCTBO Wb CftHUX'b EOpeHHUXl bTO 

UH xaaaTb KOsaKEH'b npaBo H36HpaTb rert- 
xjtfl.tb Hxi AOJisoH'b Cmn, Kopojb. 3a- 
HJH KQsaKaM'b onpeA^CHHoe sajoBaRbe, 

IXH A<UXHU 6UTb HpHBeXeHlI «b HitB^CT' 



— 220 — 

HOCTB H AOJUBHH 6jXVh Vh (mpeA^iBBHOUl ^»CJK'6 (6 T.). 

9to SHa^Juo, qTO BOsasaMH 67;^!rb yopaBJATB jrai^t, 6ojAe 
HJiH MdH'Jte 0TBi?ai)ni;is Tpe6oBaHiflHi npaBHrai^CTBa, h 
rjiEBHoe, "vro saTpyAHaercfl xocTjirb b% BosaiecTBO xxoa- 
CTEj. Eosa^ecTBo orpuBaioc^ ottb Hapo^a h jlavl 6u ufM- 
CAiivamoch ki nLiaxercrBj. KosaiCH CHa^ajia He nofi^iH 
nocji'b^^GTBift 9T0i j[OB]Bofi, HO nary6Hoil H^pH. BjiHau&it- 
HiHU'b nociijB^TBiewh ea fiujia HOBan A^MopaJHsai^ia ko- 
sanecTBa. CocTaBjiAiXHeb oco6ua, nesaBHCHMHA rpynna so- 
sasoBi, H A^&CTBOBajiH Bas^aji ho CBoeicy. Ha^iaia, i^&kh 
Rosa^ecTBa cnyTHBajiHCB 6ojiBHie h fioJibHie. 



^EHiE xn. 

OpraHHsai^ifl KOsanecTBa bi» 1590 r. Ea nocji^ACTBia bi> cbash c:b i^epROBHos) 
jHiefi. Bonpoci K03ai9cift OTcpo^nBaeTca BOJiHemflMH mjiaxTH bi no;iBiii'J& 
H caMosBaHHecKHHH evjTaMH vb Poccin. KpaftHfla nopna eaiajTb RosanecTBa 
bp Bpexfl sTHXii CKfTb. IIpo^y^SAeHie BapoxBaro cosnasifl bi» Koaaisarb. Ko- 
HameBHH'b CarafiAStHHufi. noBopoTi bi uojiHTHHecKHxi> cTpeMJiemflxi Kosa- 
kObi. XoTHHCKaa 6HTBa. B-fe^^cTBia Bana^Ho-pyccKaro Hapo;(ai KyaneBEHi — 
BHpasHTejib jaTBHo-nojiBCKaro ^aaaTHSia; ero cMepTB. HapoAHuft npHSUBi 
KosaKOB'b. roHeaie npaBocjiaBHux'b. JlEmeaie E03asoB7> Bcikxi npaBi. Hxi bojt- 
Henia h nopaseaia. GHepTB GarHdMyHAa III, PacnoJioseHHOCTb BjiaAHCJiaBa IV 
Kb KosaRaM'b. IIpoTHBOA'i^ficTBia nojiaKOBi> n HOBua M-i^pu npoTHB'b KosaKOB'b 
Bi 1635 r. HoBue dyaTu. M%pu ceflMa 1637. Kpafiae diACTBeaaoe nojroseaie 

MaJiopocciH. noaBJieme XH^jiBBinpcaro *), 



nepBHH(B Hocjt^ACTBieK'b cnyTdHHOCTu RosauBHX'B tra- 

UaJKl, KOTOpHXI^ HU rOBOpHJlH B'b Hpe^'BHAymeH'B ^a^HlH, 

*) Kosasaxi sa 9to Bpena: asTti h o^'bacHeaie hxi Hsj^aaH vh 
1 T. 3-JI; HacTH ApxHBa Dro-sanaxHoft PocoIhj Hs^aBaeHaro nieBCE. 
BOHHHCciet, Hane^. 1863 r. KouameBH^ Gai^fiAft^Hovi ck. bo 2 



— 221 — 

9T0 OHR qauije H ^aii;e craiH npeBpanmTboa 
KyjaqHUXi 6opiioB:b, peMecJeHEHKOBi £opuSu 
[% 6e3i pa36op7 aa cBouxt h Ha ^jshx'e. J(o- 
S.VI CTOJifiTia BanoJiHeHu acaioCiaiiH Ha HXi iSea- 
a pasto^BHq&H HauaAeHis, rpa6ejcH h y6ificTBa. 

npSBHTeJIbCTBO p&mHlOCb npHHHTb HOBUH irbpij 

iToi'o SZA, HO npBBAJO Taitia Hipa, soropuH ne 
ynejiH^HTb ero. B% 1590 r. oho nocTaHOBHJio: 
sosaKOBTb «h samiCHuocTb on HOJbCKaro rjasHo- 
m^ro, EOpoHHaro rerHana, fJesi bojh Boroparo 
)JisBU HHiero upeAiipHHHiiaTi-; HeunqHTL b% 
BCitsi Be peecrpoBuxi sosaKOBi, ho h peecrpo- 
ixvib jaabio vb noitay naHOBi. 3to sna^iijo 
Tb HCTopH^ecRyiD saiiaqy BosasoBi, — 6opi>6y gl 

, nOpBaiL BX'B CBa3b Cb HapOAOVB H, ^TO co- 
CaHJK) XasejyK) HOBOCTb, BS^Tb HS^b BSl Heuo- 

Hoft waCTH Eopout, yTBcpajuiBniaro npeajte 
BsGpaBHaro reruaRa, h noA^HHHTb sxh, bl jibh^ 
reniana, BOJibCKot miBx.Th. 8th TJiacejufi h 

IBUfl M-tpU nOBftJB Kt wt^tyomHlTb HOCjiA' 

Ele saiaBmie buSi^ bbi Boaa^ecTBa h HBorie 
poBurb KosaKOfii naniJiB ce6i TaaoK Buxo^'b 

HscjiAOBaBui od yHia. H trhi BsiaraiD a^o ^- ocuo- 
MSBRzi DoseMsqecKBx'B , co^MHeHiS, m, ocoSeHHocni Ha 
paron^HHETO npttBDCxaBoaro coimeHU — Weryficatia Die- 
621 r.). BosCTfiao&ieaiB npasi DpaBociaRBoft itepKBB 

r. CM. HexaBHo BinneADiee (188S r.), dov&ioe no paspa- 
HCTa covHueaie C. T. ro.iySeBa — KiescEJIt nHrponoiHTi 
ajia K ero caon^xaeKu. BHyipeaaee coctofluie y aiaTCEot 
^BpHTO Fi co^. lyji. EpaMOBCKato; O^epBi c 
tBH, HreBiH mqck. o6m,. Apeie. b xciop. 1671 r. 



— 222 — 

ESI TAftejaro nojioaseHia, Roropui pacniHpjiJCA no iii^pt 
HOBUxx CT^oeHiJI H nocTaBHJH BCBopt nojbmy na Kpaft 

J(aBHO yse (bi tom^b ace o^^HaBo XVI cr.) hsi yKpaHH- 
CKaro BOsa^ecTBa CTajia BUA^Atbck oco6aji rpyana h 
yTBepAHjacb sa J[,Hinp%, sa noporaHH ero, vh xaB'B na- 
BUBaeHofi Ci^H. Tyn ofipasoBajacb ocofiaa o6ii^HHa jid- 
Aeg, nocBJimaBniHX'b ce6ii Ao6poBOABO HcumHTejiBHog 

60Pb6'& Cb aBiaTCKHM'b MipOH'By HJIH nOpBaBBIBX'ir BCi CBflSH 

CB noJBCBHH^B rocyAapcTBOMi H HCBaBinHxii ce6i sj^^^ 
cnaceHijf. Obh ofipasosajiH HOByi> oTpacjb yKpaHHCKaro 
BosanecTBa, TaB^B HaauBaeMys) sanopoxcByio C'&hl. Gi)Aa*To 
ycTpeHHJEHCB Bci BOsasH, BOTopue He HOrJIH BunecTH HO- 
Baro nop^ABa, ycTaHOBjeHHaro b'b 1590 r., h oco6eHHO 
Bci HeaBejiaBmie 6htb xjionaMH. Ohh cbo6oabo, nesaBH- 
CHHO B36Hpaj[H FeTMaHOB'B, cocxaBJijiJiH OTpfl^H A^iA Hana- 
jifimsL na TaTapi, TypoB'B, a xasse h jijas. HanaA^HiA na 

nOJABOB'B. B'B A^BAHOCTUX'B rOA<iX'B XVI QTtoxbnsL A^Baiu 

nojABaH'B snaTB o C^hh bosah: KocHHCKifi, JIo6oAa, Ha- 
jTHBafiso, BOTopue BJbiCTyaHJTH TenepB en^e c'b HOBuifB sna- 
MeHeifB, He tojbbo cb SHaMeneM'B rpaacAascBofi pyccBoS 
HesaBHCHMOCTH, HO H C'B sHaMeHeiii HeaaBHCHMOCTH pejH- 
rio3Hofi npoTHBi HOBOBosHHBinefi TenepB yniH. IIojihbh 

BCTpeBOaCHJTHCB H CTaJIH »eCTOBO paCnpaBJflTbCa C'B HOBUMH 

BosaniKHMH CHJiaMH. BonpocB Bosai^Big roroBHJiCfl npn^jn-^ 
BHTBca B'B paspi^meniiD, ho ero OTcpo^njH nocTopoHnifl 
o6cTOflTeJiBCTBa, OTBjreBnrifl BHHManie hojtabob'b b'b Apyrifl 

CTOpOHH. 

Bi AGBanocTHX'B ae roAaxi* XVI cTOJixia nanajiHCB 
HSfiicTHUA yase naH'B BOJHeHiH nurflXTU npoTHBx Ghfhs- 
HyHAa III, BOJrneHifl, botoplia npoAOJsajiHCB h b'b naqajt 




— 223 — 
XYII CTOJi^Tia. Q&riwh Ha^ajHCb vb PoccIh caHOSeaHTO- 

CJSUL CBiyTH, KOTOpUA, BaR'B HSB^CTHO, SaHflJIH SOJIflBOB'b 

emfi 6ojLhme. IIojakh Teneps Majo o^paiu^aniH BHHMaHiji 
Ha CBoeBOJiifl BosasoFb, HanpoTHS'b, roToeu 6ujin TepntTb 

HX'B, TOJIBBO 6U BOSaBH IHJIH BUiffTk Ch HHHft BTi PoCCilO. 

MHorie ROsaRH- mrknu CesraRTHocTb ysjie^LCfl o6ii^iiii'b 
noTOROifb H o^HapysHTB RpailHee HSBpan^enie cbohxi hcto- 
pH^ecBHX'B saAa^'b. Ohh bm^j^ct^ cb noJAKaMH nomjH b'b 
BocTo^HjK) PoccId, bIeIct^ cb HHMH paspjinajLH ea roey- 
AapcTBeHHocTb H BM']^CT^ Cb HHBffH TspsajiH pyceBig Ha- 
poA'B. Ki ^ecTH o^HaRO sanaAHo-pyccRaro HapoAa, abh- 

JHCb B'b dTOfi CTpaH'b JIE9;(H, ROTOpUe nORasaJH HCTHHHOe 

noHEManie a'^ji'b, HifeEHO, uoHHMaHie Toro, hto vb bo* 
CTOHHod H 3anaAH0& Poccin HapoA'b o^^HH'b, hto dthmi no- 
jioBHHau'b o^Horo H Toro me Hapo^a se cjrk^jerb spaxAO- 
BaTb, a HyasHo AyxaTb o6i o6ii^eMi ii%% Bpar'6 — Ilojbmt, 
nojjiRax'b. TaRoe napo^Hoe noHHMaHie a'^jig^ blibijio HS'b 
jy^maro xorAa no hhctot^ chjib nynRTa 6paTCRofi a*^- 
TejibHocTH, Hsrb BHj[bHHr. KoFAa CHrnsMyHA'b III mejn» Kb 
GifOjeHCRy B'b 1 609 roAy, noABopraa na nyrn npaBocjaB- 
HiJX'b npecji^AOBaniK) sa npoTHBOA'i^ficTBie yHin, to BHJieH- 
cRie H%n(aHe-6paTHiiRH nocjajiH B'b GMOJencR'b' npoAOCTe- 
peacenie, hto6u pyccRie snajH, ?ero oacsAaTb oirb nojb- 
eRaro Ropojia, Roropufi xohoti BjacTBOBaTb h B'b boctoh- 
Hofi PocciH; a RorAa CHmsMyHA'^ noAomej'b rx GHOjeHCRy 
H Tpe6oBajn CAa^n, to nojuiRH yBHAiJiii na CT&Hax'b Rp%- 
nocTH H H']^ROTopux'b if'i^n^aH'b sanaAHo-pyccRHxii. IIoa'b 
BjdiiHieMi dTHX'b-To HSB^CTig H dTinTh JEOAod, acHTejH Gmo- 
jencRa o&bUBiisn nojARaifb, ^to CRop^e canH sa.piT&jT'h 
SBOHX'b soH'b H a^t6& h bc^ noPHdnyT'b, ^fbwb CAaAyTca 
iiojARaH'b.^ Majo no Majy h RosaRH CTajH uponiiRaTbCA 



^\.'. 



— 224 — 

rhm se cb^tjiuhh BsrjM^^aicH, Roropue BUcsaaaHiii jfyn- 
BiHHH sanaxHO-pyccRHHH jiDABMH. ODycTomaA Poccifit) Bll%- 
014 ci noJARaifH, Tepsaa BvtcTt c% hrmh pycCRHX'b, Ko- 

SaRH HeBOJIBHO npHXOWJIH Kl COSHaHiH), ^TO OQyCTOma]DT*& 

H TepsaiQTQ^ po;i;Hoe. Hapoji^Hoe e^piHCTBO 0Ra3£iBaji(ycL ne- 
BOJiBHO H saroBapHBajo oe6i cpe^H caMuxi cTpanmax'b 

HeHCTOBCTFB. Ho ROSaRH BM^CT^ Cl ¥blS% BpHXOJ^HJIH H 

Rt ;i;pyroMy y&kR]i,emv), Roropoe ^.ojrajio feiro RopeffHiiM^ 
o6pa36M'b HSM^HHTB HX'b nojHTH^ecRoe HianpaBjieHie. Ohh 
BH^i.'fejiH, qTo po;i;Hoe pyccRoe, npaBOCjaBHoe CTpa^aerb h 
Ha BOCTOR^ H Ha sana^i^ FoccIh ottb oxHoro h Toro se 

Bpara: JiaTHHCROfi IIoJrLHIH, OVb HOJflROB'b-JaTHHAHlb. , 

06a 9TH j6^7Rjsfima jicho CRasajKCL u p^oiHTejiBHO 

H3M%HHJ[H nOJHTHRy ROSaROB'b, RaR'L TOJTIrRO IfOCROBCBOe 

rocy^apcTBO na^ajo oapaBJATBCfl orb caMoseaH^ecRHX'B 
CHyrb. ^BHraT^jeu'B aroro noBaro HanpaBJieeifl K03aROBi» 
6ujvb ssL^'k^SLTexhRHik ^ejioB^Rip CBoero BpeifenH, xo chx% 
Hopi He oi^'i^eeHHuft B'b HcropiH Majopocciu, KoHame- 
BHqx-Cara3;];a^Hiid, cbo6o;ii;ho H86paHHug Rosai^Rid rer- 
MaH'B, ynpaejarflBmlg o&bmuL HacTHim ROsanecTBa: yRpasH- 
CROE) IS. sanopomcROB), h nuABmik TaROe dHa^eHle, ^to ho- 
jTARif He ocH%jHBajiHC& He npHSHaBaTB ero reTMancTBa. 

' Kor;i;a bi 1618 — 18 r. Bja3;HCjraB%, cuwb CarHSMyHj^a, 
nocjit Heyj;a^Haro ^oxo;^a b^b Pocciro, npHHyat^eHx 6}iiJrh 

8aRJ[H)TIHTB CB HeS) MHp'B, TO ROSaRH, 6EIBinie TOSe B'B aTOMrb 

noxoA'6, 3aRj[fi)Hnj[n beo6yK) HnpoByi), hjih jiy^me CRasaTB, 
;^py»6y Cb pyccRHMH bocto^hoS Poccia. Majo Toro, ohh 
TopsecTBeHHo cosHaJtHCB vh CBoeMo^ rptx"]^, ^To BoesaJiH 
npoTHB-B pyccRHxi, H npumiJiH pasptmeHie oitb 9Toro rptxa 
oTb diiBinaro Tor^a B'B PocciH iepycajiHMCRaro naTpiapxa 
Oeo^ana. Uo^h Bjri»HieMT& aroro uosaro sanpasjieHia h 



— 225 — 

no;^ pyKOBOAGTBoifB KoHameBH^a-Caradjca^iHaro, RosaKH 
crajTB ((jHse h 6j[Hflce CTaHOBRT&cfl m> ?HCTo-Hapo;(HHM'b 
HHTepecaM'& sanaj^Hoil PoccIh, acwbe h ACirito onpej^ijjn'B 
CBOH OTHomeHiH Bi nojLmt. npH HX'b coaMctbIh h noA'B 
HX!B oxpaHOK) BTb 1620 TOjs,j BoscTaHOBJieHa vh sanaAHo-: 
pyccBoS qepicBH rkwh ase naTpiapxoM^b Oeo^aHOifB Bucma^ 
iepapxifl, 663% noTopoft Hapo^;^ HsneHora^ vh 6ofh6^ sa 
B^py H BOTopafl CHjiLHo nojuHjiia ero He to^ilbo peiHrios- 

HUft, BO H HapO^HElft J^JXT,. PyBOnOJI02KeHU 6uj[H: B'S CSLWb 

MHTponojiHTa 3anaxHO«pyccBo& u^epsBii Iokb Bopei^sii h 
BATB ennCBonoB'B ^^jsji sanaAHo-pyecsHxi enHCsonii, vh toitb 
TOCJ'b pyBonojioaceHi ^hui vb c&wb nojOABaro apxienH- 
CBona MejeTifi CMOTpHi^Bifi. Bh^ct^ erb Tbwb b'b nojHXHBi 
Bosai^Bofi npoHsomejTB (iJFb?jJOJnj& nepeBopoTb. Yacehbi 
ce6^, ^TO PocciH mn> poAnaa CTpana, a IIojiBina Bpar:B, 

SOSaBH HSM'^HErjrH CBOH CTapUfl HGTOpH^eCSiA OTHOmeHlfl 

B'b aaiaTCBOHy Hipy, Kb TaTapairB h Typsaui. T"^ h xpy- 
rie npejccTaBJDijrHCL hiitb TeiiepL ^^pysBAMH B'b cpaBHeHin 
Cb IIojbineK). no eBH^TejiLCTBy noJbCBHX'b nncaTeji^, bo- 
sasH BcrynaJTH xenepb vb Apy^Kecsin oTHoineHk B:b vbwb 
H j^pjTBWb Ha norH6ej[b IIoJbniH. Hbejlch godshhb'b B03a- 

BaBTb H Ha npOTHBOnOJ[0»HOd CTOpOH*]^ no OXHOHieHilD B'b 

KpuMy H TypmiH, mBOACKid Bopoi'b TyciaB'b Ajsfijib^'by c^b 
soTopuMib Bpas;i[OBaj[x nojibCBii BopoJb GHrnsMyHA^ III, 
H saB'b cb conepHHBOifb no A^jaH'b mBeAcsaro rocy;i;ap- 
CTBa, H BaBi ci rjiaBOE) npoTecTaHTOB'b. RosaBH hh^h 
jq[)ysecBiji cHomema h cb BTHsrb nparoifb UoifbHiH. IIpo- 
THBi noJbmH Tenepb jerBo mofb o6pa30BaTbCA coiodb 
HlBeuiH, PocciH H Typi^iH (Poccia Tor^a Toae roTOBHjacb 
BoeBaTb nojibmy), u B'b axoM'b coK)3i 3ana;i;H0-pyccBie bo- 
saBH uoTjm .3aHATb nepByjD pqjeb, ot^b Boiopofi saBuctjo 

15 



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.* 



— V226 — 

6u 6uTb EJin He 6htb nojBnrk.. 9tot% cTpamHHft BpH- 
SHci npH^JHSHJCJi SI nojubm^ B'B 1621 r. H pasp^meme 

erO AifiCTBHTejLHO SaBHCijIOOTB EOSEBOBl. 

UpOTHBIb IIOJLinH BEICTynHJIl 0;(HHI H3% yRasaHHHX^B 

BparoBo^, caMHft cTpamHui h cHJBHiifi Tor^a, Typei^Kifi 
cyjiTani OcMani 11, npH KOTopoiix Typi^ia HMijra orpoM- 
Hoe Horyn^ecTBo. IIojiLma co^pajra cboh chjih, ho rjiasHafl 
ea BSLX^SR^a, bi sTofi ^pl6% 6ujra na sana^o^-pyccKifi na- 
po^^'B, Ha KosaBOBi. PyccKie 3anaji;Hot PocciH o^enB xopomo 
noHHvaiH, ^To cyAB0a IlQJirBniH TenepB vh hx% pysax'B h 
p^mHjincB npHMO BHCsasaTB ed 9to, krk'b 6£i vb uoojAa- 
hIh pas'B BpasyMJUiH ee fl,o6fuwb cjobomi. Eor;i;a 3% 1620 r. 
Ha ceHxb otfcys^aJacB npe^CTOflBmaa Boftna g% TypsaMH, 
TO nocoji BOJ[£iHCKO& soHJiH, JTaBpeHTifi Xp^bk^^^R^^ ^^^^ 
pHJKi Mesiy npo^HiTB: „6i TasoBOH'B nameiTB npoTHsy 
rjraBBaro Bpara CBjrraro KpecTa npe^npuiTiH (cm&io Mory 
CKasaTB, ?To Banie KopojreBCRoe BejiH^ecxBo e^Ba xa ne 
6ojrBniyiD ^acTB paTHHKOBi noxpefiyeTe ottb Hapo;i;a .i^ko- 
poccificBaro HcnoBiAaHiH, — Toro napo^a, KOTopuft, ecjH 
enne ne yAOBjreTBopen'B npe6yj!i;e'rB bi^ cbohxib nys^^ax'B h 
npomeHijBix'B, to Kas'B Hosex^ B'B san^Hxy Bameft xepsaBH 
^pe^pa;^0E) rpyjuB cbok) npe;iiCTaBHTB? KaB^s MoaerB ycHjie 
CBoe ynoTpefiHTB B'B ;^0CTaBJIemK) BH^niHaro Mnpa, Bnyr- 
peHHflro vh AOM^ CBoeiii hoboa ne hm^? G^ saBOio 
HCBpeHHocTiiD, MjxecuBowb, peBHocTiio Ha^neT'B yramaTB 
CBoero BpoBiK) ropjini;ia cTinn CBoero OTenecTBa, BnyTpen- 
Haro njraMOHH nujaioniiHX'B AOHaniHHX'& CTiH!B» yramaeifaro 
He BH^fl? KToaicB, Bose shbeiS! ABCTBenHo cero ne bh- 
^^HT^B, CBOJiB BejHBiA npHT^CHemA H HecHocHHfl orop^eHifl 
cei ApeBHiS poccificBiS Hapo^i bi pascyaB^eHiH 6j[aro?e- 
cTia CBoero npeTepn^Baexi?.. H TaBi, sasjoLD^aerB ^peBHH- 



— 227 — 

tpAia pa^H 6ox\a, RueHeMi Bce« (JpaiiH Hamefl 
e upoiii; Bame EopojeBCEoe sejiHiecTBo c»a- 
o6sKb He sameS, ho 6oxieg... 6i dpothbhohi 
' la oTBpaTHra Bon), ecjM eoBepmeHHoe ycno- 
:efiHt H jepaqeBame tojs tahckhx'b .asb'l He 
, TO npHHyacAOBHEirB ce6a ysHARH'B cb npopo- 
BTi: cyAii UK Eose, h pascy^iH npn ■on!" Ca- 
laBi <Sh b% HOATuepXAeHie cjob'b Jl^peBHHCKsro, 

POHU, 00'BHBHJ'b HOJaEaVb, ?T0 BOSaRH HO HHa^e 

aerie «h lypeaicofi boBhIi, rmh ecJiH DOJECRoe j 

FBO EpHSHaerL HOBOHocraBieHHyn npaBOCJiaBHyio :\ 

ocraHOBHTb ronenie 3aHa;i,Ho-pyccEaro napoAa. '^ 

Vh B& 9T0 coMacie, no Bceny BH;^HO, ycTHoe- Q 

xs p«AOUi crb nojaicaiiH. Hojibma npn coa%3- .^ 

wepaaja SHaMeHHTyi) noCiAy naj'^ TypKaniH [J 

>3tj non XoTHBOMi, TaKi HasHBaeiiyB) xothh- -] 

T- S 

BeCTOKO OTHiaTHJTH 3a 9Ty nOMOlHiB. OhH BCDO- • '4 

:pi> BCD OnaCBOCTIi, EaKOn rpOSHJH HU'L K03a- I 

THJIH BCi^ CBOK CH^U Ha TO, Tro6u CAaBRTb ^ 

[H OHH s,iso, Bnpo^eiTb, He npsHO ci xosasoBi, '. '■* 

Bt pyccKaro Haposa. IIocHnaJBCb hs nero ct 

u yKOpH Bi H3iriH% ore^ecTBy, sh fotobdocth j 

rypKaui. yEopu h npecJiiAOBanifl odpymsjiicL ^. 

ro Ha rj[aBHuft TOFAa iieHrp'B HpaBocjiaBi£, na ^ 

JpaTCTBO, KOTOpOe HeCOHH^HHO HH&IO 6o^bQioe J 

o6pa3i A^ficTBiS reTHana KonameBH^a h b'b ,:•• 

r Ha BoscTaHOB^eiiie sucmefl npaeocjiaBHoA n> 

[paBocjiaBHux'b npecfiAOBajiH wb cyAast, na 

AOHaxib; Banpentajia HuiTb c% hhuu Kask-fiu -^ 

» CHomeHifl, Aaae rpBopHTt ch hhmh; bi fipai- 



— 228 — 

csift MOHacTHpB CB. ^xa — HOBoe cpe^^oTO^ie BHjeHCKaro 
6paTCTBa noej'b oTHaiia y Hero TpoHn;Karo MonacTHpa — 
6poe&iH KaMHH Ed's upaiii;efi h rojiOBemKH. £uio 9To fb 
caxyD CTpacTHyD cej^BMHuy. IIpecjribAOBaHm 9th 6iuh ;^o 
KpatHOCTH secTOEH H HeBUHOCHMti. „Bu, saB'B oroHB no- 
sHpaiDi^iS, HasHHyjHCb nsL Haci, roBopHJH noTOiTE spa- 
BocjiaBHHe JiaTHHJiHaM'b; bu noBepHyjiH HaMi^ bcjd Ajmy h 
nepenoJHHJH ee rope^BX). Mu ;i;yMaJH, ?to Hacrynaerx 
noeiizmd ;^eHL Hipa h cTpamHufi cy;(%". 

OcooeHHO BH^HUMi H HeyTOMHMUH'B npe^tcTaBHT&xeirB 
jaTHHO-nojbCKaro 4>&HaTH3va 6uji% b% to Bpevfl nojomEin 
yHiaTCRifi enscKOirB IocB,ijfB,Tb Kyni^eBHTB, HencTOBCTBOBaB- 
mift B'B B'kiopycciH. SECecToxocTH ero bubojh hs'b Tepn^- 
ms. pyccKHxi h ohh ero j6vlaii vh BHTe6cK'& vh 1623 r. 
Ha pasdnpaTejUiCTB^ SToro sjiofl^^ma oOnapyacHjocB o^ho 

ABJieHie, KOTOpOe 6£ICTp0 HOTOM'B paSBHJIOCB H nOTpHCJfO 

Bc*]^ ocHOBU nojBCBaro rocy^^apcTsa. SRiirejm BiiTe6cKa, 
saHumjiflA y6BTB EyHi];eBH9a, bobijeh b% TaAnas. CHomeHiA 
c% KoaaKaMH h ycjioBHJiHCB, ?to(5ei, BaBi» tojbko 6y3;eTrB 
y6HrB EyHi^eBHq'B, EOsaBH ho^hhajih BOSCTame h BCTynnjiH 
B'B Bijiopycciro. B'B O-kiopyccKoft cTpant, 64;^Hofi nacejie- 
HieifB, pa36pocaHH£iH'B Ha orpoHHom npocTpancTB^, saro- 
Bopi 9T0TB He yj^ajiCH. Ko3aKH He ycnijiH ;^BHHyTBca, 
npaBocy^ije nopasHJo bhhobhux'b B'B y6i1tCTB^. Ho mucjib o 
npHSUB']^ BosaKOB'B vh 3ani;HT% napoj^naro jsjkJiB, ynajia Ha 
»H3HeHHyE) no^By h t^h^ 6ucTpte C03ptBajia, ^to dTo 
js,1^jio BHnajo H3a^ pyB'B apncTORpaTiH h noABeprajocB Te- 
nepB Tofi ace y^acxH bt> HsneMoseHHUx'B, AposannHxi py- 
Bax'B M'J^n^ancTBa. 

Co^HTie BHTe6cBoe, fb botopomi> 6bijih saMimanii h 
RosaBH, noBe^o i^^b ohoqb Baa^nuMi nocji'^jsfiTBiairh. J[a- 



— 229 — 

1 npHBUBajH Bcix'& "Bh npeciixo- 
CKoe npasHTeibCTBo Eanuo leaept 
e^HTb [rfiiiuiTenHiifl H^pu npoiEBi 
I HX'L vckch npaN h chobb aofr 
lopoHHaro remaHa. KosasH ctojh 
lanopoxcBaa O&u BiiCTaBJ^aa, oa- 
KKAeS, KdB'b HanpHH^pi, Tapaca, 
ymajH noncsyD tsaxnh Ha yxpafi- 
:4jHCb c% uafiaKH, XHAaHH h Kxms.- 

la npOTHBl HHXl BOftCKO. 3aBa3u- 
i, ycnizt lanie Bcero (SiiBajrb Ha 
'Xa eiqe o^eHL BOHHCTBeBHUXi. Ho 
iH^aiaiBHO pacnpaBHTLca ei Kosa- 
niBeACEaA Bofina vb 1626^9 r. 

ch fiaiLmen p^ioHTeiLHOCTiK) «b 
^ui se naBJiDKOHt H reTHaHOH'& 
jHflTb HeosHsaHHoe coiSune oxcpo- 
,y yifepi CHTHaHyaxb in, CTapug 

45 Avb TOHHBmifl pyceiufi na- 

naUBH saHfljHCb HslSpaHieirb ho- 
ai%aiH saj^esxH aa jy^mee 6yxy- 
a nojbCKift npecroiib cuhi Chphs- 
oxii HHe&em IV-ro. 
MHoro BpeseHH h cjyiaeBrb iipHCHO- 

npasjeBiB oTQa h ot^^BHTb HXi. 
loe roenoxcTBo KpafiHefi jaTHHCKoA, 
ojiy^EJii XI Hett CHJbBoe nepacao- 

7T0 OHa BHOCHJta BTB JHTOBCKO- , 

HHoseuHoe BjiaHie, paapymaBinee 
:h3hb, He To^bKo aanaxHO-pyccKoft 
jCJiaffb sajijiuui ocJiafiHTb uituh- 



— 230 H 

CKyD, iesyHTCicyx) napTis) h oneperBCA Ha rjdejmua chjuei 
nojELcm H sanaAHo-pyccKui. Ho wb noij^mt ohi ysH- 
js,ijsi> Ha dTOM^b nyTH caHUA rpycTHsa h Heo;(OJHM£ifl npe- 

HflTCTBifl. BlfbCTi CB JiaT^HCKHlfB, iesyHTCKHlTb rOCHOA* 

CTBom, Bi nojBHrb pasBHJocB Heo6£[HadHO CBoeBo^e, 
pasHysAAHHOCTL HMAXTu, KOTopafl c% nopasHTaibHOK) ne- 
HacHTHOCTiD 6j[araMH cbo6oah h em,e ch CojLie nopasH- 
TejLHUM^b HepasyifieH^ CTapajacb, KaK% hosdo 6ojrbe, 
orpaHH^HTB BjacTB H cpe;i(CTBa jsopoxa. ^Ja Mojo^oro, 
AapoBHTaro h BOHHCXBeHHaro Bja^HCJiaBa Tasoe nojose- 

Hie 6fiJ0 H6BUH0CHM0. OhI Sa^QTHaJl yCHJHTB CBOH) BJaCTb. 

TBepiojfi) onopy a^^al flo;^o6Haro jsikia. oh^ BH;i^'6jrB b'b sa- 
naAHO-pyccKOH^B HapoA^. ^CTopH^ecKia o6cTOATaiBCTBa no- 
ctslbAjlh ero b:b Heofixo^HMocTB ysHaTB 6jHse pyccsi& Ha- 
poA'B. ^0 ero cjyxa c:b caiioft paHneft idhocth aoxo^hjih 
BonjH dToro Hapo^a, cxpaAaBmaro ot:b HencTOBHS^B npe- 
cj['b;^OBaHi£ sa Btpy h napoAHOCTB. Oh'b 6ujlt> Hsdpan'B 
Ha HocROBCKid npecTOJ'B h jhhihjeca ero, 6j[aroA&PA xony 
se 4>&HaTH?ecK0My OTHomeHiK) IIoJBmH k% pyccKOMy Ha- 
po^y* Oho^ He MorB ne BHHKHyTB B'B nojoaseHie, b:b cboS- 
cTBa dToro napo^a, ne Mor:B ne hohatb, ?to pyccsit Ha- 
poATt HMieTTb Ha CBoeft cropofli npaBOTy A^-^a* h> ^t6 oco- 
6eHH0 6ujio BasHO js^a Bja^HCjaBa, ?to dTor^B Hapo^l, He 
cifOTpA Ha Bcb paspyniHTejBHUA bjIahIji IIoiBniH, TBop^o 
xpaHHTi Bi ce&b na^a^a MonapxHSMa, cjd^AOBaTejBHo, xo- 
su&Th cjyaKHTB fl,jL& B^aAHCJiaBa caMoio HaAesHoK) onopoD 
B'B ero 6opB6t Cb huaxtoe) sa npaBa BjacTH. IIpeACTa- 
BHTejEH sanaAHO-pyccKaro napo^a — BosaBH BucTynajH Tjrb 
uepeA^ BjaAHCjaBOH^ caHH co6ok) Ha nepBuft HjraHi. 

KosaKH SHasoHu 6uj[h cb o6pa30MfB Mucjeft Bja^HCjaBa. 
£iii,e Ha HsfinpaxejiBHud ceiiwh ohh nocjaJH cBo^rB jifi" 



— 231 — 

nyraTOB^ m iiOTpe(k)BaiH hb^tojilko BoscTaHOMemji cbo- 
HX'b npaBi, HO, HecjuxaHuoe ao t^x^ nop^b Tpe6oBaHie, 
Tpe6oBaj[H, Tro6H hx^b ^^onycTHJK K'b HsfipaHii) Bopojfl, 
T. e. sejajH cTaxL pfl;i;oM!B c% nojCBCBoio huulxtod. Bjal- 
AHCJiaBi, He coMH^BaBmificA vb CBoeniB HsfipaniH, cu^jlo 
HOAA^psHBajTB sejiaHie pyccKHX^b, jacsaji^b BosaxoB'B. Ji^Ao. 
npaBOCjaBHKxi^ BQo6mfi no js^bAawh B'bpu oh'b j^Mctbh- 

XeJHkHO H CA'&JaJl HHOrO,-^A06HJCA 3Ha^]ITej[BHUX:B JBrOTtb. 

IIpHdHaHO sasoHHUM'B , cym^ecTBOBanie sieBCBofi npaBooiaB- 
Hofi HHTponojiH, Ha saeeApy KOTopoi Tor^a ace BosseAeH'B 
6ujii» SHaHeHHTud Ilerpi Mornja, ocHOBaxejb sieBcsoH 
asa^eMiH; ^ano npaBO 6iitb en^e ^erjupeM'B npaBOCjaBHUMi 
enapxiflifb: jiBBOBCBoft, nepeHunuBCKOfi^ jiyi^Koft h na Hi- 
CTO noj[Oi];ROH y^ipes^ena enapxifl HorHjeBCKafl; B03Bpa- 
m;eHU TaBse npaBOCjiaBHUirb HtbBOTopue HOHacrupH h npn- 
xoAcsifl i^epBBH, H BciH% rpaaB^aHaHi rocy^apcTBa bh£- 
HeHo B'b o6ji3aHHOCTB SHTB B'B MHp% H Hs^b-sa pasJHqifl 
no vbpb He napymaiB npani APyrx ;(pyra; ^osBOJreH'B ^a^Ke 
cBo6o;^Hui nepexoA^ BaBi h3% upaBocjiaBm wb ynix), TaR'B h 
HS'B ymn B'B npaBOCjaBiS. He CMOTpa na npoTecTii co cto- 
poHEi yniaTCKaro, jcaTHHCBaro ^yxoBencTBa n nanu, KopojiB 

yTBepAHJTB HXl. Ho AJTH BOSaKOB^B Bja^HCJEaB'B He HOr'B 

CA^JiaTB HH^ero. 

HojiflBH noHAjiH emfi ach^o, ^jbinh npes&jifiy onacnocTB 
OTTb B03a?ecTBa h HaBHHyjtHCB na Hero ch 6oju>niHMi en^e 
03Jo6jeHieirB. KosanjBie AenyxaTH ycTpaneHii 6ujai on 

H36paHiJB BOpOJ[fl, H Ha C^eiTB HX'B npaKB flJBLBU CaHUA 

coMHUTejtBHUfl ofi^nj^amA. ^ifiCTBHTejiBHUfi Bsrja^i^^B no- 

JflBOKB H A^fiCTBHTeJEBHUA HXl HaM^peHifl HO OTHOmeHiH) 

KB BosaBaM'B o6AapysHJ[HCB na 6:uixa&mewh cefiHi kb 
1635 r. nocTanoBjieHO bhobb h BaBi HoaKHO CTpo»e noA- 



— 232 — 

nasuTb sosaxoKb KopoHHOiiy remaHy. Ho Tan Kax'B dro 
SEsmMSO ycHJHTB sanoposcKyD Ok^h h buzesltb sa ce6a 
OTTjAa HOByi) caiy, to pknasKCb ynorpe^HTB HOByio iri^py 
npoTHBOb dToro HecospyniHMaro mi^^ sosaaoB^b. IIocTa- 
HOBHJH nocrpoHTB no^^t Oimi (Heiraoro Buine) Kp&nocTB 
Eo^aK'b. EpinocTL ara AOJaKsa 6iua HaHecTH CMepreoiB- 
HHft y^api sanoposcaoMy aosa^ecTBy h. Bcexy sana^HO- 
pyccEOMy A^Jiy. Ona sannpaia aosasoB'b bb C^hh, y^ep- 
SHBaja lofh dRcneAHipH b^b croposy IIojuuiih, b'e EpmrB, 
vb TypiUH), CJOBOHI, A^psajia C^hb b^ ocaAHOM:& nojo- 
seniH Bo BCAsoe BpenA. CaHo co6ok) pasyM^ercA, sosaBH 
CHorp^kiH Ha diy apinocTB cb caMHMH BpasA^HUHH ?yB- 
CTBaMH H HeHeAJeHHo se CTaJH 6yHT0BaTBca h rpoMHTB 
ee. Ho ^nepB 6ujeo bp^ma, BecBHa nedjiaronpiaTHoe jsjui 
EosaKOB'B. nojBina, cnoKoiflaa orB BH^mnax^ BparoBB h 

02KHBJ16HHafl H36paHieMl HOBarO KOpOJA, MOrja ABHHyTB 
npOTHBI. HHXl 60Jlhm& H 60APHA CHJH. ChJOI dTH ^JC^S- 

CTBHTejiBHo ABHHyjHCB, KosaxH a;ecTORO nopaseHs 6ujm 
reTMaHOM^B IIotoi^kem^ wb canofi Ob^a. YcwkTb duorh 
BusBajB HOByH) H eni^e Cojrke TAacejiyD Mipy npoTHBX ko* 
saaoB^. Ho onpe^^tjieHiK) cefiua 1637 r., ohh no;(?HHeHH 
HOBofiBjiacTH — cefiMOBUMB KOMMHCcapaiTB. M^padTaHu^a 
cjvbjijiomjilk CMKCJTB. Eor;(a KOsaKH caMH H36HpaJH ce6i 
reTMaHa, ohh saBHci^H np^MO ovb KopoJH, a IIojiBniH sas'B 
611 He SHajH. noAHHHenie hx^b RoponnoMy (noJiBCEOny) 
reTHany osna^ajo oasa^Jteme na^^ hhmh aopojeBCBoi 
BJiacTH H ycHjEOHie hojibceoS HULaxercKoi, otl BOTopod 
sHa^HTeJBHO saBHciji^B BopoHHUft rexuaHi. TenepB se, hoa- 
mm&& BOsaBOB^B yse ne rexMany, a cefiMOBUiTB bommhc- 
capaM^, nojBCBafl mjusxra, p^HiHxeJBHO safinpaja BosasoB^ 
b:b cboh pyBH. 



— 233 — 



BspHBH OTHaAHHHX'B BOSCTanift, 0C0(5eHH0 nOA'B Ha^&IB 

CTBoicb HesaBHCUMO H36paHHaro rexMaHa OcTpaHHipi, 6ujih- 
OTB^TOH's KOsaKOB'b Ha dTH HOBUA pacnopflseHlfl. Ho CBUia 
nojiBCEajBi H TenepB fipaja Bepx'B. Oco6eHHO chjilhhS y^apb 
HaHec^ TenepB KosaBaifB CBofi ^ejioB&CB, npe^^aBnnica no- 
jiaxaM'by KHASB lepeHia BHniHeBeii;Kifi, o kotopoh'b napoA- 
Hoe npe^^anie noroiirB rjracHjid, hto eHy sa dTO nirb irb- 
era Ha toicb cwbrk. BniiiHeBei^Kifi secTORO paaopHJi'B ca- 
noe rH^;^o KOsa^ecTBa, — C^^b sanopoascKji). 

IIocjA 9Toro, nepe^'B nojARaMH Cujlbl oTKpuTa h CTa- 
HOBHJiacB 6e3onacHOS) bca Majopoccifl. I^ijiHA tojebu na- 

HOBX H KCeS^^SOBl JCTpeMH JHCB CD^a H Sa^HpajH BCe, ?T0 

npHHa^Jiesajo xase peecxpoBUM'B RosaxaM'B. dTnwh ny- 
TeM^ iSBHJHCB orpoHHMmui HM^Hui BflniHeBei^RHxi, no- 

TOI^KHX'B, E0HeI^I0JIBCKHX!B, EajHHOBCRHX'B. Bh^T% C^B JIH- 

MSBieirB 8eHJ[H, Bci ROsaRH ofipam^aJiHCB B!B xjohctbo h 
HOABepraJEHCB HeHCTOBOMj yrHeTemio. IIoJEflRn pyROBo^- 

CTBOBaJHCB ACHO MUCJUK) HCTpefiHTB coBepmeHHO Rosa^o- 

CTBO. Ohh ^SLjsjusuLiiL flfiLX/d 3aAepacaTB jBeJLwieme usao- 
poccificRaro HacejeHia. C% dTOD a^bd ohh HajrosHjiH 
oco6yK> Hjaxy sa 6paRH h oco6yi) norojoBHyE) njaxy sa 
RaaRxaro HOBopoa&AeHHaro MyasecRaro nojia. HaROHeoi'B, 6e3- 
pascyAH^Amee rjiyMjeme: 9x0611 HSBjeRaxB butojsji h3i 
Bcero H BO BceiTB A^BaxB nyBCXBOBaxB Hapo^^y cBoe 4)a- 
HaxHHecRoe tochoactbo nax^ hhmi, ohh ox^aBajH b:b apen- 
xy sHjM^iTB npaBOGJiaBflUfl i^epRBH. 

UOA'h TASeCTBS) BCilCB 8THX'B H^pi, RasajtocB, HCXOni;H- 

JHCB Bct jy^HiiH CHJU sana^Hoft Pocdn, bca e& E&jifixffjgk 
Ha RosaqecxBO. Ho hojarh omndJiHCB wb cbohxi pasc^e- 
Tax'B. MaJopocciicRafl seiUA h MajopoccificRiA HaxepH 
6h4h 6ojiie HJioji^opoAHU, h^m'b AyvajiH hojearh. HesaMix- 



— 234 — 

HO, KaRi 6u cjEj^aftHo, BCTajTE ojijiwb Majopocciftcsii ^e- 
jiOBiE'B, ROTopui BAVJVh noAHJMTB norH6aBHiee Hapo;(Hoe 
jijkjo sana^HoS Poccin h BCB0je6aji'b caMUx ochobh hojib- 
csaro rocjAapcTBa. 3to 6uz'h BorjsjaiWh XH'6jBHHipii&, cot- 
HHKrb H noToiTB HHcapB Bosai^sifi. XM^jBHHi^Bifi npHHa;^- 
xexBJVb Ki> peecTpoBuiTB KosasaiTB h Bja^^jii HM^nieirB 
Cy6oTOBO. nijiJixTH^^ ^anjHHCKifl, cxb^f^ n^mrbpy ^py- 

THX'B UaHOB^B, OTEHJTb J XMij[BHHI],KarO GjfiOTOBO, HajQ 

Toro — noxHTHJi y Hero ateny h nyfijiH^HO bhc^ki ero 
M&ioj'J^THAro cuna. XMij[BHHi^Ri6 b'b 1647 r. noixaxBBi 
BapmaBy h na ceHwk sajOBajCA na ^anjHHCBaro. TLozar 
Ku CHtflJHCB HaA'B msLJLo6oio XirbjBHHiiiKaro na noxHOce- 
Hie senu, h yirbmajH t^m'b, hto MHoro octb xpacaBHi^'B 
Ha CB^ji, Xid^jiBHHiiiBiS vom&Th Bu6paTB ApyryK) aseny; 
HTO se Kacaercfl ;i;o Hir&Hifl, to h b'b stoitb cjy^ai 061- 

flBHJTH, TTO yjl^OBjeTBOpemJi He MOSeXB 6UTB. XM^JIBHHUIKii 

OTnpaBHjicji c% acaiofiod b:b KopojD, ex BOTopuui a^bho y»e 
6ujrB SHafiosTB jih^ho. BjaAHCjaBX npHHJiJii SHBoe y^ac- 
Tie B'B noJoseniH XirbjiBHHi^Karo; ho jsjoJLxewb 6jijn> 061- 

ABHTB, ^TO CaifB HHHerO He Bl COCTOlIHiH CA'&JiaTB; HpH 

dTowh OHx npH6aBHj[i> TO, ^To roBopHJx em,e npn cboohi 
H36paHiH B03ai^KUMi AenyTaTaiTB, hto ohh mrkv^rb ca6jH, 
HH'B ocTaeTCfl caMHiTB ;^o6HTBca CBOHxx npaB'B. 8Ty hlicjb 
BopoJEB ;i;ase BUCBasaji'B nncBMeHHO, ifBcajTB b'b stoicb cmuc- 
jit Kx B03an;B0My noJBOBHHBy Eapa6aniy. XM'J^j[BHHn;Bift no- 
inajTb HasaA'B h no nyTH js^bjiiiJica c% cbohmh poAH^aMH cbo- 

ISWb rOpeifB H COB'&TOMX KOpOJia. MUCJH XH'i^JBHHD^KarO 6UCT- 

po o6jeTaj[H o6jacTH u no^nHHiiajiH jsjilt, Hapo^a. IIojhbh 
odpaTHJH BHHMaHie Ha nponaraH^y XnijiBHHij^Baro, Hofi* 
MajiH ero h ^ocTasHJiH b'b reTMany IIoToii;BOMy« Hapo^- 
Huu BoacA^ o^yTHjicH Ha BpaD rnfiaiH. Ho ho ^apoMX owb 



— 235 — 

ABHraeHi raxejon XHsmio. He jifLpcm, 6arh sna- 
. iesyHTCKHiTb ofipasoBameui. Owb pasurpajb ne- 

TOllRHHX TaKyS) HeBHHHOCTb, TaKl HCEpCHHO OpOJH- 

B3bi, %T0 reruaH'B DOBipeurb ero HesHSHocTB h Aa- 

BHy XHSHb. XuijfcHHmuS DOJieT^'B Kb O&^b, GT- 

;bod Ayiny ocTaTsaiTb BOJbHaro Kosa^ecTBa, npH- 
h cnaceBiD poAHsu; eo ifLKb sas'B chjh sosai^- 
iH cjiafiu, TO XHij&HHiiKifi noHecca bi KpuH'b, 
pHSBaiB Ha nouoii(b HCTOpmecEHXi BparoBi sa- 
PocciH, Tarap'b. HpzsuBB XHtjibHai^Earo isexnj 
i^eiarb sana^Hyv Poccio; kb Ci^ crpeuHiHCb 
r KOsasH; Maiopoccia no^uHaJiacb aa CHeprejb- 
ib6y Cb Ilojbmea. 

^ITEHIE Xin. 

ptfia Xxt.ibHEi[arD cb nojiaitaiiK k Eo^eCada ero noui SmCTi- 
nofitxii BaAi> HHkB. JlBBseHie XvliiiflaiiKU'o BsyTpi. HojibiiiH 
pTH BuiMCJuiBa H ero nrapone juoEa. ^Hxesie nouKOBi npo- 
HHHKEaro uocxk HSftjusia Hosaro Eopejta. A^jo SdopoBcsoe i cfo 
a. GfttiKs X]iinHMi(Karo et, na.iaEaKi. raflxaaaEB a Iepe*ia 
uft.HeBoaHoaBocTb BuooJiEHTb sdopoBCEifi TpaKiarii.HaBaafiapifia 
mro ci DOUEaHH. Heyiasa aosaKOBi. BiaOKSpEOBCEiB xapi a 
1. KpHTH^ecEia mbhjtu BaoaxBo-pfCCKaio Akia. FasptmeBJe era 
D aspDAa. Hepecejeaia Hapafta aa Bocia^Hyw CTopoaj ^aiopa bi 
■ocEOBCBaro roeyjapcTBa.' SanajiBafl PoMia npHsaaeTi Bucib 
HnfiiOBH^a. Bo&aa Ajeacta HflisfiioBaia ci Ilouiaefi Hni-sa 
tAHoB. niBeiva Boneri Qoibaiy. BftAOTBeHatie aojoBeaie Hoibdib. 
jeiBa, HsDaBEBmis ee on aorHfiejB h npaitHHU Hejsaii ha&tabs 
AjOBH^a. nepeaapie ct Iloumelt, cmepii XafcitHHiQcaio *) 

cxaBEiH XH^bHHi^Baro Bi QpomeAMifi pasx vb 
noioxeBiH: caacmHCb (JitrCTBoicb oTb noiasoKb, 




BBHoe coumeHie H. S. KocroiiapoBa— BoMaBi XxinHaii- 
10 ECTopBH. ^^T&nbHocTE Borxaiia Xn&TbHHiiBaro cou. r. 



— 236 — 

owb 6&KajrB vh C^m> h, nocj^ neperoBopoBi cfh B^pnHidi 
ApysBAHH, y^a^B^cJi b^e EpuHib npocHTL TaTapcRoi no- 
uomji wb npej^cTOAn^ei 6opB6i c:b IIoJBniefl. EpuHCsift 
xaH'B EcjaH^b-rHpefi He JierEO mofb noBipsTb xpys^'b h 

HaAeSAAMl XM^JEBEHQEarO H pimHTBCA Ha pHCSOBaHHy£> 
BOdHJ Ch nOJBHiefi. n03T0Hy OH'B XOJO^^HO JipilBEJl'h 

XM&KBHHi^saro H oTKasajiCH caM^b — jhhho npHHATB y^a- 
CTie Vh ero 6opB6£ c^b UojLhmei; ho corjacHJCA aeltb 
euj noMonu» RaRi 611 ^acTHUM'B ofipaaoiTB, aosbojlhjtb abh- 
HyTBCA nepeBoncKOMy xany Tyraft-Bei), BOTopuft 6ujg[% 
no^TH HesaBHCHiTB orB BpHHCBaro xana. nocjrb^HiS, vh 
cjij^sA Hey^a^H, mofb otbjeohhtb otb ce6a OTBiTCTBen- 
HOCTB sa ero A^dcTBiA. IlepeKoncKifi xasB CTaJirB co(5HpaTB 
H ABHraiB Kb ^H^npy cboh Bo&cKa, a XM']^j[BHHi^Bi£ no- 
ctrkmnjub vb C^^b. B'b srynefi pb^m e'b KOsaBaifB oh^ 
BucTasHJi'B Heo6xo;(HMocTB 6opb6u cb noJBHiei Ha aan^HTy 
pojiflEU H Heo6xoAHUocTB BocHOJBSoBaTBCA TaTapesoD no- 
mohi;bk), BOTopan yse roTOBa. EosaBH cb paAocTuo npH- 
HAJiH npHSUB'B Xiii^BHHi^Baro, H36pajiH ero cbohmi bos- 
AeifB-reTHaHOHi h no^^i ero na^ajiBCTBOMi hohijh npo- 

THBI^ nOJIBCBHX'B BO&CBl, C06HpaBniHXCa Vh 7BpaftH&. Ta- 
TapH BIJIH 3a HHMH. B!B AByX'B SHaHeHHTUXl tfHTBHX'B, HpH 

SBCejiTHx^ Bo;^axi h no;i;i SopcyHBp, BoaaBH o^epsajH 
HaA% nojiAKauH ^jHcraTOJiBHUH jio6ij^i. IIojBCBie oTpa^ti 



KapnoBa, vs^. 1879. RieBcsaji Apxeorpaj^H^ecsax RommhccLi Hs^^aia 
He^aBHo (1878 r.) BasH^&nui jitToimcH Toro BpeneHE nox^ aaria- 
Biem: JE^toiihcb caMOBH;i(i^a no HOBOOTKpHTmrb cnHCRaiTB cb npiuo- 
xeHievB Tpex-L MajopocciHCKHX'b xpoHHKi... boSeA AieKcifl Mh- 
xafijioBH^a ci UoiBinei KpoM^ yKasaHHaro co^HHema H. H. Rocto- 
MapoBa HOSHo HHTaTB Bi X T. HCTopiH PocciH C. M. CoJOBBeBa^ 
rjiaBH ni H lY. 






— 237 — 
an. OCia remaHa — (rjaBHufi) IIOTOitKifi H-noib- 

JB^HHICb) RaJHHOBCRifl, KHOXeCT&O nOJBCROfi SHaTK 

{ mjrHXTH BSATU 6u3B tn> arbwh, orxanu raia- 

TBeACHH m> KpUlTB. 

eHHo no BceS yKpafiffS crajra caepraTi. hto 
H OTxaBajiHCb BO B^acT^ Xtf^bBHitsaro. HeofiuK- 
, 6ut?rpu& jCuiKh bhahho osaj^qiui Xniib- 

OhI DtfltHO TOpXeCTBOBaj'B CBOH noCrJMu; HO 

leHJS, BonpcKH HeocnopHKofi ero Haxofl^HBOCTH, 

ftHSraaJH HHEaEHXl A&^H^finiKXIL A^^CVBifi, KO- 

ynpoqHjHero ycntx'b. HepiniHTejtHocTB Xsrikib- 

Siua HeH36'£]KHa. y Hero ne xocTasa^o nporpax- 

le. Jln^myv necTb obi ^.noBJieTBopHjrb, ys,OBMe- 

H HapOAHyn MecTb, — Basasaji k nocpaMHj^ 

10 ^TO «e XAXbrne"} Eopifiy obi na^ai'L no co- 

vbiy KOpojifl, EOTOpoHy ho nyu&rb HSHiBKTi>. Ha 9T0ifi 

o6pHBajHct BJiaBu X]ijbii>HHiviaFO. ^ajiuae ho npeABH^'b- 

iocb csHOCToareibBun x^ScTBid. HysHo tiiuo osHxaxb 

pacuopAseHift Kopo:ifi am boshoshocth BCTyoHTb (tb hhih 

KB npaHHH CHonreHiH. 

Heo«HASflHoe otJcToarejiBCTBO BUBeJio XiiijbHiniKaro hsi 

9Toro saTpyAHeHla h yHKiTOXHJio ero HepimHrejibHOCTb. 

RiasHOiaBi. yMopi (1648 r.). Doj«kh 3aHHJiHc& iiatfpa- 

Kopoja. PyKH y XirfcibHHiiKaro paaBaaaJHCB. 

S El BpeA^^m nOJbmH, BCTjaTSST, BT, F&- 

isn, Kb JEi6jiHBCKyn o&iacTb, noEopas ce6b 
OCTH wni noTyqaa c% hhxi osynx. Abbo owl 
HHCJii, vto npHlSJHsaeTca m wfecTy H36pa- 
[ sovefTh noATcpxuiTb estSpaBie flBa KaSBiiipa, 
Ha CitrH3uyHA0Ba, xt KOTopoMy xosaEH 6o- 
caoiOKeHii, Tbiiib Kt crapmeHy Kapjy, boj(- 



' — 238 — 

^tepxHBaeHOiiy sHa^HTeiBHon, ^hcto-hoi&ckoi) napTien; ho 
ea K^i 7 Xiii^bHHiiKaro Sazii xpyria hucjik. Y Hero 
Teaepb tmpbB&xb luaHi mHpoKofi HesasHCHKocTH sanaAHoft 
PocciH. Offs yae chochjca ci nocTopOHHHMH rocyflapcTBa- 
HH — MojAftsieg, Poccied, QlBeiUefl, He roBopKHi o Kpu- 

H^, CHOCHZCfl, KdX-h nOBeiHiejIi CTpaHH. ^McTBHTeJbHO 

ci^ ero 3axBaTLiBaja st npeA^am HoibniH see npo- 
iHCTBo pyccKaro HjeiieHH. Tyrt see esy npnHa^ie- 
[0, ecjni He Ha ii.ii% to vb npej^aHHocTH napoj^a. 
^HBi^utl cosHasan CBoe Horyn^ecTBO, a .acreiiu ewfi 
ie ero yBeJHqHBaiH ffh ero rjasaxi iHryjanH rocno- 
a MaiopocciH, Knaaa YEpaftHEi h t. n. Bi nopuBi 
ea XM'&ihHiiitRig rposHXL aojiatan-i, ^to saroHHTb hzi 
Buoy, jia emfi h Taui HsiitHHirs vx-h nasHTHiecKifl 
•h, BOSCTaHOBHTb ;i%&CTBHTejlBHyD BJaCTb sopoxH. Cio- 
"h, XuiJbHHiisi& o<SruBJiHn> paspuBS saiiaAHofi Poccih 

nojbmefi H rpo3iLr& H0TH6eJLiD canoft nuHxercsofi 
[bstb, HHa?e rosopa, ohtb oi^bhj'& TorxaniHeft Hojb- 

6oph6j Ha XBSHL-aa cueprb h BUSSBaJTb Ha sry 6opL(Sy. 

[OJAKH JtOJXHU (JUJIH npHHATb BTOTl BU30B% H HpH- 

)BJi.aTtcH s-h Heiry. Ohh HOTOpomuHCb aaGpatb HOBaro 
ojia (Bs6p&3K a^B, KasHHipa), coftpaiH Boficsa h ;ibk- 

HCb HpOTHB'B XM^JtbHHI^KarO. Ob BOfiCEOHl mejl H 
Uft KOpOJb. 

LHtJibHHiuuS 6aA% Bi 9T0 BpeHH Hb PaiRiuH y 36a- 
la, r^cfe, BvkcTb cb TaTapaiCH, 6ubhihhh yse Ho^rb 
ilBOAH'pejibCTBOsrb caHOro xaea, ct^hhji'l ro HocjriAH^ft 
Bhocth oTpAA'i HOibCKaro BofiCKa, a sai^nTb Haiuurb y 
poBa aa npHraexmee bm^t^ cb Kopoffiirb HOBoe nojib- 

i BOftCEO H CrajI'b CO BCtob CTOpOHt HaHOCHTb CMy HO- 

enie. FiKSeu noxasovh k axbwb Kopoxa xaaaiucb He- 



1 



— 239 — 

MHHyeMHHH. Ho B% TO caMoe Bpeui7, Eorxa ocTaBajocB Ha- 
HecTH uocjAji^mA y^napi, Xif&iLHHi^sift ocTaHOBHj'b cpa* 
senie h, ABHEinHCB s% sopasD, sacBH^TejBCTBOBajTB eMy 
CBoe B%pHOQo;(ji;aHHH^ecTBO h fotobhoctb okoh^htb pacnpK) 

HHpHHM^ ^^OrOBOpOHl. SaKID^eHl 6llJl% JifiTOBOph B'b 36o- 

poB^f no EOTopoHy KOsaKOBX AOJIXHO 6jizo 6uTh COpOE'b 
TiicA^x. 9th copoK'B THCflH'b RosaBOB'b HOJiy^ajH Bct npes- 
Hifl npaBa h, xpoH^ Toro, npaBo npej^CTaBHrejiBCTBa, bo- 
Topoe pacnpocTpanoHO h Ha npaBocjasHyH) sana^^HO-pyc- 
CKyH) iepapxiD, npH^OMi nocTanoBJieHo ynlE) yHH^oacHTB, 
T. e. pyccRift napoA'b h pyccBaa B;6pa sana^Hot Poccin 
noJiynajiH nojHonpaBHocTB wb hojibcbomi rocyji^apcTBi^, 

CTaaOBHJTHCB pAJHOMl C% HOJIBCKHMl HapOAOH'B H JiaTHHCKOS 
Bd^pOH). Ho BCaKOMy O^eBHJliHO, HTO TyTTB, BO-nepBHxi, cxk- 

jaHO OTCTynjenie OTh mnpoKofi sa^a^n o.nojiHofi nesaBH- 
CHHocTH Bced sana^Hod Poccin, o ^om'b He;^aBHo em;e Taxx 

flCHO rOBOpHJ'B XM'bjBHHABifi; B0-BT0pHX%, BCfl HOJHOnpaB- 

HOCTB, xaRaH j^aBajracB sanajiiHofi PoccIh s^opobcshmi ao- 
roBopoHi^, orpaHH^HBajracB copoEa TUca^aMH EosasoBi. 
CjOBoifB, HH no npocxpancTBy sana^Hofi Poccin, hh no 
^Hcjy pyccEHxi joojifiA ne o6e3ne?HBaj[acB ;i;ase nojHo- 
npaBHOCTB aTOH CTpaHEi, npHBnsHBaeMoiK CHOBa s^opobcehm'b 
TpaBxaTOMi El noJiBm-i. t 

^To no6yAHjro XH^JiBHHi^Earo c^'^jraTB TaEofi ueosHAaH- 
Hufi, HeB^poATHufi msLVb Hasa^^'B? OT^acTH HeHa^eacHOCTB 
TaTapcEod AP73c6Br, ho rjaBHHM'B h pimHTejBHHH'B o6pa- 
30irB Ta CTpafflHaa ninpoTa pyccEO-nojBCEoft aa^a^H, eo- 
TopyiD 6oJiBnie h dojBme pas^ijBHraji'B sanaAHO-pyccKift na- 

pOX:b OAHOBpeMOHHO CGb T^Ml, EaE'B XM^JtBHHI^Kig BBJIl 

npaBHJiBHyK) BoSny cb IIojBnied. 
Bi TO BpeMii, EaE'B XuiJiBEm^Bift codHpaJii, ycTpojf Ji 



— 240 — 

CBOH BOtCKa n BO^HJTB EX'S B^ 6hTBU CE HOJIBCKHMH BOft- 

CRaMH, Ha npocrpaHCTB^ sana^inofi Poccm nua cboa, oco- 
6ajsr, 6oj[LineK) ^acTBD nesaBHCHMafl BofiHa pyccRaro ni^^a 
C7h no4iiKaHH. OjUHH xjronu nuH e% XMijnbHHi];icoHy, xpj- 
rie ycTpoAJH cboh orpji^^ii h noA% npe;i:Bo;i;HTejirBCTBOif'B 
6ydHUX'b rojofi'b pasdHBajH vh nyx'B h npax'b Bce nojiB- 
cRoe Ha pyccKofi seMJ'b. GTenHUfl ic&CTa IIoi^ojiH, jiicHC- 

TSfl H 6OJOTHCTHJI M^Ta BOJHHH H BCefi HO^H B&JO- 

pycciH o^eHB djaronpiflTCTBOsajiH TaEHM'B napTHsaHCRHH'b 
inafiRaMi. Sxrb naHHoacHjocB fies'B HHCja h ho 6bijo sa- 
KoyjBa, By^a 611 ohh ne upoHHsajH h ne HCTpe6j[ajH 

mJIflXTU, BCeH^^SOBl H SH;|;0BI. SjieHeHTH Ji,JL& XJTOnCBOfi 

boShu HojniHHMajrHCB vb canoi noJiBmi h rposHJH paspy- 
HiHTb rnisAO nijAxeTCTBa. IIojEBCBie otpa;i;u BudHBaJHCB 
HSi cHJi B'B 6opB6% ex f aftAaMaKaHH. Bojiie ycn'&inHO 
BoeBajii CB HHMH lepeHifl BiiniHeBei^Bifi, saBJATufi sparrb 
Bosa^ecTBa ,h xjoncTBa. Owb Basx 6£i Bupa^oTani 6hj'b 
HCTopiefi ji^jiSL dTofi 6opB6ir. BHrnneBei^Bid ex bucobhm'b 
o6pa30BaHieM'B h np^MOTofi xapasTepa coe^HEJiJix bx ee6i 
HenacuTHoe SB'bpcTBO. Owh ntjiuMH TUCfl^aMH HeTpedjraji'B 
pycesifi Hapo;^^, Bu;(yHUBajrB saTiSjiiBua HysH, eairb 
npncyTeTBOBajx npn hhxx h roBopHJi'B: „My9BTe hxx TaR%, 

?T06{)I ohh ^yseTBOBaJEH, ^TO JMBpanTX^. Ho H »l3eT0KiH 

H^pu BHmneBei^Raro HH^ero He HorJTH ej^^aTB. Ha uicTO 
OAHog HeTpe6jeHHofi nxaSBE ABjAjaeB noBan; nocjii HCTpe6- 
jenk ojjHoro ropo;i;a hjh ;i;epeBHH, ;^py^ofl ropo^x, ^pyraji 
^cepeBHH HanpamHBajHCB na HCTpe6jeHie, hjIth neTpefijuiJiH 
nojuiBOBx. PsajiHCB Bei cbash, eoej^HHABmia PyeB ex IIojib- 
mefi. Bee nojrBCBoe bx sana^^Hoft Poeein, ?to HacJiaacAa- 
JoeB B^BaMH H, noBH;i;H]ffOMy, ^ocTHrajio nojHaro pasBH- 
Tifl, npeBpaHi,ajoeB bx rpy^ii TpynoBx h paseaJiHHx. 



— 241 — 

j^BTeihBH j^aa nojiasowb. Ho noJABi 
'opLBitt omrrb noBceiriCTHaro paapjone 
naABOft FocdH. ITo afiopOBcsoiiy AoroBi 

[MBO B03BpaTjmC4: nO^TH BO BC^ CBOH C 

vth no QpesaeHy, t. e. o6paTflTL Bt xj 

i pyCCKBX'b, EOTOpue BUniJfl HSl XJ 

0K8 Tucfl^i sosa^ecTBa. Ho raEi be 
BJH xjoncTBo H (Eoibinafl ?acTB h3i he 
b crpaniBoe szo, to npHinj&CL BOSciaH 

PUOBK CHJOD. IlaHB npH&aJIHCB 3a 
I He AOCT&BaJO J HHXl CBOett CBJIU, D] 

IHQB8T0 yHorpefiHTb ero aiacTL. Hapo. 
Vb Bi CTpaniHoe bchi^obctbo npoTHSi 
troftOBaTB sa Xx^LBHi^Earo. Hapojct 

BO H HO BtJXO^HJI'b H3% EOBaTOCTBa. I 

naHOBi, A&BaBiDHX'b JLroTu, H cait 
npoB3BaiBHO yBeiH^RBaBinaro ^oio 
rajH. IpaKTarB siSopOBCEift Hapymaj 
■sxx%; Hapymajca b co cropoHu na 
iBmHxt npaBocjaBHyn iepapxin ei up 
lacToaja Heo6xOARH0CTb paspbniHTb ii 
'ccEO-HOJBCBaro Bonpoca. 

yBEA^Jl HeofixOAHHOCTb BATB 3a Ha 
ipaTB BOficsa, o6paTHJica cnOBa sn, to; 
an OTEaauBajiHCL, flp6iiaca y Typi^ia d] 
I CTb KOsasaHH ea BoflHy npoTHBx Ila 
7 BOfiHy. Ho ciacTie OTBepnyjiocL orh i 
epecre^KOH'L ohh nonecjiH CTpamnoe ] 

I BSH^HHJIIf, yBJlOEJH Cfc C060V) ^a 

Iponajo, sasajoct, Bce, ^to ao chx% ho 
16 



— 242 — 

' AoCbto. XiriubBBiiEift BOSBpaToica on 
ro yse He Hora nonpasHT^. IIpHinjiocb 
H^sy eh nojLasauH. SaKiu^HJiH HOBufi Tp 
)D l^epKOBiD, emfi 6adie HesuroABuft, < 

06% yHHiTcnesiH ynifl h opeACTKBHrej 
ia He 6iuo Tenepb h noHHHy; noiHoapi 

orpBHEHfiHa em.e fioume, — tojueo xa&n 

[ KWiUCOBl. nOJMXB H XlTklBHHIlKift B8« 

H OTOTi Tpaxrarb, — npHHyamaiH, u 
., HO onan. Heyj(arao. Hapojuioe xkxo '■ 

6a3o renepb m, cauoirb TpyxBoir& nojo 
:b, TTO era ;(yiiajiH ycrpoHTB na yxoue: 
HTejibHaro HeHbuiHBCTBa. IIpHSHaHHoe 
qecTBo Jt^ajocb Karb 6b nuasercTBom 
KoiTb Hapoj^ HapoxB npHzoAHJi bi c 

IKHBajTE QOnHTBH BOSCTaib H DpOTHBl na 

> XH%jLHHi^saro; ho oui y nero leoep: 
's oxHofi 6oph6it CB nojbinefl. 
b dTOHi orqaaHHOiTb DOJOxemH, HSi koi 
, Hejbsa 6euo buSth, HapoA'^ npBAyvaJ^ 
'jcih. Obib b% paSHux'L u^cTax'B crajTB 
nosRTKH Ha B03U, saHHpaji'B H36u ax 

HABHeSH H XBHHyJCa Kb BOCTOKy sa X^ 

I HOCKOBcsaro rocyAapcTsa, HcnpanraBaj 
^mnefl xypcRoft, &0JTaBCK0tt, Bocxo^HOft ' 
KUaBcsoft, ffB xapbKOBCEofi ryOepHLHxrb k 
aifi. JtfiaasEie 9to soahajocl He toibxo 

B, HpH-AF&npOBCKHXX CXpBHaS^ HO HO 

Ih, nflse vh sanaAHoS ea ?acTH, na B 
wke, HOTovy nro ajijich ocofieHHo laseza 
UHoacecTBa hojukobi b on 6zh3octh 



\' 



— 243 — 

HHHuajiH caxhsas H^pu npoTHirb bu- 
o6o3Ei, pa^fiHBaza hs% h ocraTSH bo3- 
:o He KorjH yxepaaTE. aapoxa on ne- 
5eHHHe CHOBa yxoflajTH, Csofloact ci 
nepiflKo atecTOKHK-B iSoeMTb npoKJiaflu- 
tb poAHOfl BoCTo^HoS Pobcuf. 8to)(;-to 
f rojocy Hapo^a, o6uBjaBiiTaro, ^ro 
-KB BocTo^Hoft PocciH, nocj4j;oBajr£ H 

)nieHi£ Cb nR^ewh Ajenc^eirB MaxaS' 
' AHBHO. Cnepsa mej'L BonpocL o nepe- 
jfijracTH Bcero vajopocciitCBaro sapojia, 

CTBCHHO 6tM0 OKHJtaTb, BODpOfTB QpH- 

ft PocciH Ki HOCKOBCBOHy rocyjiapCTBy. 
flHsapH cocraBHjracb si HepeacjaBJii^ 
oS rySepHiB) BceHapoAuaA paja b no- 
lyiCTBin KocKOBCKHii nocJiOBi, Topse- 
enie ki MocKOBCBOMy rocyiapcTBy iia- 

locj^ACTBieiTb 3Toro Hapo^Haro asTa 
■a MHKaftjoBHHa ct naibmeit. Heo6- 
HTb HOBonpHcoejiHHeHHyBj cTpany orb 
ee on hhxi, c:ioBoiirb, yQpoiHTb sa 
[ofi H sanaxHoS Poccin xopomo hobh- 
iBie BToro jiiksi. Bofina nsii-sa Maio- 
la xapa&reprb BofiHu sa Bcn saaa^HyD 
cift MnxafijioBHHi BHCTyDHJH «b no- 
)BCBHxi rocyjapofi c^najocB o^enb 
H HaspaBHXHCb Bi sanaj^Bys) Foccin 
jaBHHfl CHJiu, nos^h rjia^Buu:b Ha^ajtb- 
txa&ioBHHa H nox^ fijHsafimHuib Tpy- 
16* 



— 244 — 

GenfitLTo, ci> HajHH'B toji.ro hhcjoiti Kosasoi 

Kb E^jopyccin. HeCkubmofi pyccitifl orpu-B, 

CTBDUTb ByrypjiHHa, nomeiB vh Maiopocci 

BBi^KHxi. TaKoe pacDpejdueHie cvxh am. 

H^cTHuiTb cpexcTBaiTb sanajHofi PocciB. E 

ycnixH (JucTpo conpoBoautaiB noxoAi Azesi 

BB^a Kb o6^Erh apKiaxi. Bi BJ^opyccm : 

iBCb OAHHi sa ApyrHirb. PjccEan ca^a otfz 

9Ty crpaBy b AOCTBrajia hocj^ahbxi sauajti 

IJijopyccEftro BieKeHH, bi Bbj^h^, Fpoxffi 

BOH'E. G-b Apyroft CTopoHU, XirMbBHiqcii ti 

ABKrajca Kb Ilojbin^ aa vro-aanaA^, iipoi 

AHBCEJD oCtiacTb H Toxe j^omBTb Ao rpas 

cificKaro BjeueBH... Gjioboitb, bca sanaAoaa 

raja ei, ce6a aro BoibCKoe h BOSCTaHOBJiHj 

cjAapcTBeHHoe cBoe ewHeaie cb BOcro^Hofi 

nojibma <Suja tofaa bi caMOwh desDOUi 

«eBia. Bi aeS aoAHBHajiocb cb hoboo ch. 

BOJEeaie, — BOJEeeie sjobobi npotHBi mjiai 

paspyaiBTb caayio ocaoay aojbCEoS acropaq 

Kpoa^ Toro, Xii^bBHi[Ri£ Bomeji «b CHon 

ipefi H DoGyAHJTB mBexcBaro Kopoaa Uapji 

aa^aTb Boflay ci Ilojbinefi. mseAU lepes* 

Jhtbt h npyccin npoHBKia vb BaaHsyi) 1 

[ ee, OTTyAa apOHBua m, utayto U' 

I, cjOBOH'b, saBoeeajiB bcd nojui 

, HopaseBHaa yca^oirb aiBeAOBt, c 

•b Bawb, KopaiL ocTaBzeai Ces'h l 

sx GfljesiD. IIpa6jHsajioCL, bobba 

BojBoe paspimoHie pyecKO-nojbCEar 

JBie acibCKaro rocyAapCTBa aa pyc 



— 245 — 

lacTb jt^tse ch nopafionieHieirb noibCKot ?acTB bbo- 

id RiacrH. OAHaso 9tot% npHroBopi Haji Ilojbffiefl, 

.acHo o6o3Ba^eHHufi TorAamHaHH coOuTkuB, He 

opoasHeceHi b% Ty uopy; oqil dujii oTcpoqesi Ha 
e 610,6 Bpeiia. Teoeps orcpo^HJiH 6ro cj 
aiejBCTBa: 

PAa AjeKcifi MHiafijoBR^i saBoesaj'B Bi 
, Bi CBO& THTyji Ha3BaBie — jHTOBCKifi. na 
OBajiBCB »TiiH'& yBjeqeaiem h passMH era 
cTSJiii BHymaTb A^eitciD MRxaftjoBH^y, ?T( 

6uTi. Focyxap6H'& Bcefi IIojibmH, 67x^x1 
Muu uocjii^ KasHidpa. Bthki canUHt yxi 
B, vro pyocRie spxama jtypHo asoTp^Ti. aa 
iin (ypHiiHaHyrb CyAymJA BjajcibHia Ajibrc^ 
ut. 3totx HOBUfi luaHi Heue^jreHHo 6iui 

HCTopH^ecKon ai«n coB^THuieg cjasHHi— 
flBHjacb Bi sa^ecTB^ nocpejtHHitu veacAy I 
meg H oEOHvaTejibHo BOBiesjia A^eKC^a '. 

Kb BotHy cb msei^iefl. Chju pyccsia cr 
iBTBcn, ocjia6^BaTB. IlonuU neyxa^H, oxHa 
SapoA'B sanaAHofl FocciH ecreciBeHHo cuorp 
i TaKoA o6opOT^ ;^'b, cTan oxjiaA'&BaTb 
ecairb; na^aiHCb HeAC^asyuima, ccopu, u 

npCAcraBJUJiacb na Kaac^OH'b mary. Bit t^ 
jsa Boflea 6iua HscpaBHeHHO (SixcTBeHH^ 
ia, qtiTfc T6nepi>. Torji;a oTb Hea ^acio c 
,aiiB sarb TJ^, Koxopuxi BoeBajm, Tasib h 

saniHii^aiH. Oaho nepejiBHseHie BoflcKa g 
iCRJibHO 6sBajo HBorAa neypoaiaio hjih uoj 
ID. Bopo^eu'b, HyacHO csaaaib, hto TorAa a 

pasBHTa H >DpKBU?Ba El uoao6beih% 6t 



— 246 — 
H^TB comh^hU, ^to HapoA'B sanaAHofi Pocdn noHHMaj'B 

HeH36&KHOCTI> nOA06HUX'& He7A06cTB!B H He H3^-3a HEX'S 

oxjtaA^BajE'B Kb cBOHiTb BocTOHHo-pycesHiTb 6paTUiH'B. Bas- 

H^e 6UJ[H rb CTOJIRHOBeHifl, BOTOpUH 61IJH HeH86%»HHM'& 

DOGJi'bACTBieM^ AOJiroBpeMeHHaro HCTopR^ecKaro pas'sejn^- 
Hifl BocTOHHOi H saoaAHofi Pocciu. TenepB c^BHrajEHCB h 

CTajBHBaJIHCB BCi 0C06eHH0CTH, BUpa60TaHHlIfl OTA'i^bHOlD 

shshIe) boctoihoS h 3ana;(Hofi Poccm. Jlyqmifi pyccBiH 

HejIOB'bK'B TOrO BpeHeHH; HOCEOBCKift 6oflpHH:by OpAHH'b-Ha- 

mjOBUH'b ACHO noHHuaJi 9to 3aTpyAH6Hie h npHrjamaJii 

CBOaXl COOXe^eCTBeHHHKOB'B HOCTynaTB OCTOpOSHO B'B 3a- 

na^Hog PocciH, othochtbca ryiiaHHO k^b sanaAHO-pyccKOMy 
HacejeHiK), CHHCBHBaTB ero j[]d6obb. Ho stotx saMt^aTeiB- 
HUH rojiocB pad^aBaJicji Tor^a, Kas^B b'b nycTBiH*]^. PyccKie 
6oflpe, hhhobhhbh tofo BpeneHH, huh kslk'b 6hi naMipenHo 
HanepeKopx Op;i,HHy-HamiOKHHy h rpy6o pa3pyniajra pac- 
nojomenie bi ce6i 3ana;i;Hofi PoccIh cbohh:b BopucTOJKidi- 
eM^B, CTacT0J[K)6ieM:B h A^cnoTHSMOHi. Gam Op^HHi-Ha- 

H^OKHH'B HeB3JnD6HJIX KOSaKOB'B H OTHOCHJ[CH K'B HHH% BpaS- 

Ae6H0 BonpeKH co($CTBeHHog 3aHBjeHHoS nporpaHHt. Bee 

9T0 npOH3BOAHJ[0 CaHEIA Hary^HHH nOCJI^ACTBiH. nojBCBaH 

HiJ[AXTa CTaJia HOAHHHaTB roJOBy h CMyu^aTB napo^'B cbo- 
HMH HHTpnraMH. B% E^JopycciH mjiaxTa 6£iJia oco6eHH0 
cHJLLHa H Hapo;^^ oco^chho cja6:B. Orb Toro s^icB ^an^e 
Bcero noBTopHJiHCB Hey;i;a?H pyccsHxi. PopoAa oahh^b 3a 
^HpyrHH'B BosBpan^aji^CB hoa'b BjiacTB IIojbhih. FpanHi^a 
pyccKUx^ saBoeBaHift jsjBLJLhme h jsftjLhme OTOABHrajHCB na 
BOCTOK'B Kx ^Hinpy. B^ 1656 ro;i;y AjieKctfi MnxaSjo- 
Bu^'B, cMym,eHHu£ Hey^anaMH, corjacHjCH na nepeHHpie 
CB UoAhmeik^ ROTopoe eu^e 6oj[Bine oxjaAHJo 3anaAH0-pyc- 
CKift HapoA^* HeyAOBOJBCTBiji, pouoTB cTaxH pacnpocxpa- 



15S.JL. 



X 



•r • 



— 24T — 

HflTBCA H Vb MaJTOpOCCiH. XM^JIBHHlliKifl, BOTOparO. OAHO 

HMfl Bce eu^e CAepacHBaio pasBHiie ne^UBHUxi Hapo^HUxi 
EHTHnaTid, He j^ojtro nposHJ[i» nocjii sthx^b HeyAaTb, h 
He AoasHJinb jsfi hobijxi ysacHux'b noTpAceniS, KOTopux'b 
CD^Hofi c^'bJiajiacB ohjitl MaJiopocciH. Oh:b yicepi b'b 
1657 r. 



HTEHIE XIV. 

CiiyTu Bi MajiopocciH bo BTopott nojioBHai XVII h bi nepBot XVIII cto- 
jitTui. HcTC^HHecKia napxiH wb MajopocciH, UapTui K03a^Kafl, npoHHKHjrafl 
BLiflxeTCKO-nojiBCKHMH fla^ajiaMH. IIpeACTaBHTeJiL ea BuroBCKifl. FaAflHCKift 
XoroBopi Bi 1658 r. UpoTHBOAMcTBie BuroBCKOHj. IIpHBepaceHi^u cooah- 
Hema MaxopocciE e'b.MooKOBCKHM'B rocjAapcTBOH'b. YcHJieHie b^l HajopocciH 
MocEOBCKaro BJiiflHia. PasjiaA^b xesAj najiopocciftCBHMH h mockobckhmh 
jnoABMH. Gmjtu. AHApjcoBCKift AoroBopi*. Tjpemcaa Kosai^Kaa napxia. IIpeA- 
CTaBHTejib ea JljopomeHKO. Bofiaa TjpipH c:b IIojiBinefl. YcTynKH IIojtbniH. 
B^ACTBia MaJiopocciH. naAeme Typeiucoft Kosai^Koft napim h ycsuieHie pyc- 
GKofi. Boftaa Poccin ci» Typi^ieft. B'bHHHfi Hnpi FoccIh Cb nojiBmefi. Bes- 
njioAHOCTB ero ^Jia Majiopoccin. naAeme KosanecTBa. HoBua cTpoHiejiBHKa 
CHJDi MaJiopocciH. IlaJiift h ero savucjiu. neipi I h ero noJiHTHKa no otho- 
nieHiu K'B sanaAHOfi Poccm. HcTopHHecBaa odcTaaoBKa Maiopoccm vb XVIII 
CToatxiH. Kpuxi h Typi^ia 0CJia6jieHu n oTp-bsaHu Poccieft orb IIojniinH. 
BesHaAesHoe nojoasenie MaJiopocciH h Bceft sanaAHoft Poccin okojio hojiobhhu 

XVIII CT. *). 



Mu roBopHjni bi npoHie;i;mift pas^, hto sanaAHO-pyc- 
CKia A'^ia vb 1656 r. n^HHajH OHent jnypnoft o(5opoTrb, — 



*) cocToaRiH MaJiopocciH nocjt CHepTH XM^jDbHKi^Karo moikbo 
iHraTB: vb 11 t. EcTopin GoJiOBBeBa rji. I, 11 h m h bi 12 t. 
riftBH I— lY. nojiTaBCKofi 6htb:&, TaM:B se t. 15, riaBa lY. IlajiiH 
OHeHB noApo6HO h o6cToaTeiBHO roBopHica vb npeAHCJiOBin ko 2 t. 
3 ?acTH ApxHBa Dro-sanaAHofi PocciH, hsa* 1868 r.; bi coiHHemH 
H. S. KocTOifapoBa — Masena, hsa. 1883 r. ra. YII, vb KOHncb IX 
H Vb KOH];t XIY. 



. ^. 



f 



►.a. 



— 248 — 

6ajii>inafl qacTB daBoeBaHaux'b Poccieft otfjracTeft 6um bos- 
Bpas^ena IIoJBiHi h, ?to eo^e BaasHie, HeasXT pyccBHup 
BOCTo^Hofi H 3anaj;H0fi PocciH npoHSomeji CHJbHud paa- 
jiaA'B. B'i^jopycciA, npR ea He6jaroiipiflTHiixib reorpa^H- 
necKHxi H o6ii^ecTBeHHKxa^ ycJOBiflX's shshh, He Morla 
saaBHTB ce6fl dneprHHHO npu aTHX'b hobuxi j^a nea 06- 
CToaTejiLCTBaxt. Ho ;i;pyroe ^jo Maiopoccia. Bi neS 
aHTHnaTiH Kosa^ecTBa b% BejHKopyccaM^s noBejra, nocjii 
CMepTH Xifi^jLEHi^Baro, e'b 6e3ROHe?HUM% h caMUM'b 6%^- 
CTBeHHUicB nowijifiiBmwb. Bb nei TenepB (ucrpb CTaio 
pacxpuBaTBca Bce, ?to BupaOoTaJia HCTopia. UoAHHirajHCB 
BB RosanecTsi o^na sa ApyroK) BCTopHqecsia napTia h 
Ra»^aa, o6j[aAak fiojBinoiD chjioid, npoHssoAHja 6ojiBiEoe 
aso, noKa ne hsshjocb caHO EOsa^ecTBO. 

Ilpesj^e Bcero BucrynHjra na ci^eHy napTia, npoHHKHyTaa 
nuaxercKHMH npHHi^HnaHH uoJBCsoi shshh. Ha^ajo ei 
nojioaceno 6ujio wb BOsa^ecTB^ bb oqeeB ^^aBHee Bpeic^. 
Mu yace ynoMHHaJH, ^to bb Rosa^ecTBo aocTyuajH h uojb- 
CBie mjAXTH^H, Hey»HBaBniieca noneMy jlh6o b'b noarBCBOMB 
rocyAapcTB^. IIojtfcCRoe ynpaBjreHie, Taic^ ^acTo Tarori^- 
mee na^B ROsaRaMH, caM03BaH?ecRia h nojiBCRUi CMyru 
yeejiH^HBaiH ^hcjo noJiaROBB MesAy ROsaRaMn u noMora- 
jiH nocji^AHHMB npio6p']^TaTB SHa^enie. OnojiaqeHiE) Bosa- 
ROBB oco6eHHO HHOFo co;(McTBOBaj[o cjr]^AyK>in.ee o6ctoa- 
TejiBCTBo: H^wb 6oAbme RosaRH BiicrynajH na nonpnii^e 
nojHTH^ecRoS A^aTejisHOCTH, t^mb 6oj[Bine nyBCTBOsajiH 
Heo6xo;^HMOCTB wb o6pa30BaBiH. UpHTOirB h nojvastf ao- 
cToaHHo jifiBBum HMB ^yBCTBOBaTB HeAocTaTORB o6pa30Ba- 
Hia, i];HBHjrH3ai^iif, yaadtiBaa Ha nero, RaRB na rjraBfloe 
npenaTCTBie E'B ypaBHeniE) RoaaROBB cb mjaxroK). EosaRH 

HOdTOMy O^eHB HaCTO HCRaJIH Cpe^CTBB RB o6pa30BaHiK) H 




— ^19 — 

HUXl iesyHTCKHXTb IBBOJiaX%. C!B TpHAI^aTHX'B TOj^OFB XVII 

CTOJ['&Tia Kosa^eexBy oxEpHJacB bosmoshoctl noJiy^aTB 06- 
pasoBaHie y cedfl ;i;0Ha, wh MaJiopocciH, h y cbohx'b — 
iipaBOCjraBHim&. Bi 9to Bpexji bi KieB-b ocHOBajiacB asa- 
jsfiMia MHTponojiHTa Ilexpa MorHjn, ocHOBajacL no npa- 
irbpy H no Ha^ajiaui nojBCKHX'b, iesynTCKHX^E niROjrb. Ko- 
3aKH cna^ajra 6uj[ii npoTHBi dToft msojcu, ho noroifB ohh 
3&jBflmj3LXJi ee, .noA;(epacHBaj|H. H^tb coMH^niji, ?to niKOJa 
^a B'B AOJiroBpeMeHHo6 CBoed HCTopn^ecKofi shshh coBep- 
mnja mhofo cjaBHUX'B, BisoB^^HHxi a^jii h o6pa30BajEa 
nejiHEifl eoHH'B npocsini^eHHUx'B, rj[y6oso npexannEiX'B CTpa- 
H^ jifD^efL. ^oBOjnbHo yKasaTB, hto B'B neft y^HJiHCB xaBie, 
jitDjifl, saK'B CB. JIJHMHTpii pocTOBCKifi, FeopriS KonnccKifi:. 
Ho .H^TB couuinis, n b^b tom'b, ?to jiaTHHO-nojBCEie npie* 

MH yH€HiA, npHHATHe B'B HOH, npOHSBO^^HJH HO MaJTO 3ja 

H HHOFHrB OTpiiBajiH oTh Hapo^^a H ero CTpeMjreniSf. 

IIpHSHaKH dTofi oTopBannocTH, Bupa6aTBiBa6Moi h mso- 
joi) Ilerpa Mornjiu, h' ;i;pyrHMH yKasanHHMH ceS^acB 06- 
CTOATeiBCTBaMH, MU saM^^ajiH en^e npn XnijiBHHiiBOH'Bf 
B'B ero TpaKxaTaxi gl UojLhmei — sfiopoBCKOM'B h oco6eHHO 

diJIOI^lCOBCBOH'B, OCHOBaHHUX'B Ha npe^OCTaBJieHiH HCRJK)- 

^HxejBHKfX'B npaBi tojibbo MeHBmHHCTBy 3ana;^HO-pyccKaro 
nacejeHiH. Uocxb XirbjEBHHi^Raro xeopia axa nojiy^nja 
AaJiBH^mee pasBHTie n Ha ;i;ojiroe BpeHJi saHyrHja sa- 
na^HO-pyccKia j^ija, ^BnraTejieM'B nuwixeTCKO-nojiBCKOH Te- 
opin vb Bosa^ecTBi 6bijh BuroBCKiS, renepajiBHH& nncapB 
npH XMiJ[BHH^BOU'B, a nocj'& ero CMepTH cnepBa no^e^n- 
TejB Hoaaro rerMana, MOJiofliaro ctiHa XMijiBEHUiKaro — 
JOfUL^ a noTOMib npoHCKaHH ji,o6vLBmiica caM'B rexMaHCTBa. 
BiiroBCBifi 3aHaj['B canoe AByjnqHoe nojio»eHie. Oh'b noc- 



TOdHBO TBJbpaJl HOCBOBCBOe DpaBBieJBCTBO Vh I 

H Bi TO se Bpeiia chochjca ci doimu 
FBoiTb. TaKOe uojoxeHie ohi saHaJi, Bnp 
OAHHocTH. npacToit HapoA'B B HHSmee Eosa? 

6ujH MocBB^ H onacHO (iiuo cpaay 
lapoAHHa CHHnaTiH vb Foccis. IltUbcm 
Bi Bucmem. Kosa^ecTB^ u orvacTB bi u 

wbniiEVTttb. Oauo-co6on oneBHAHo, hto a 
iro — OTopsaTbCfl ora Poccih k OTxaTbca Ho 
!b 6ojibDie pyqaT&iBCTBi bi ycatxt Ha sani 
^H^npa, 6oite onoia^eHHofi h omiaz&nm 
CToqHofi, KOTopaa sacei&iacB c&huhk ro] 
■HapoAHUHH peBHHTaumH iiaiopocciScKBX' 
[)jiAOBaTaibHo, BoroBcicifi ecrecTBeHHoxo^a 
rbca, ?To npH nepBOMi ;(8HseHiH eio b' 
m, BoCTomaa CTopona ^H^npa BOSCTanen 
a Hoxen noAopBax^ ero ycn^xi A^xe aa 
li, noTouy tto ojtea iiu&n o pasx^eHiK 
L ABdt ^acTB cuoco<5Ha Cuja osjiaAHTb cant 
no6opnHKOB'B coEtsa cb IIojibine&. Eabhctj 
, 3a KOTopyn lan HflOro yace 6ujo npojii 
ixiHiiiKOM'B Aoporo KaxAOuy uajopoccy, bi 
: OBI HE npuHa.tieuLi'B. 

Bcixi 3THZ'B saTpyAueEdfi BuroBCKifl xsua 
omjm-b ofipaaoH'B: obi eiapajca BUCiaBja 
Bonpoci ifajopoccificKofl cauocTOflTejLHf 
shIh ea Mockbod. 3to (Suji'b BODpoct cai 
tut. Owb He HOPB iJuTL pasp^QieHib 6e3'B : 
>>ace npH caxuxi 6jiaronpiaTHiixrb oScioaxe 
occijs, san^Hii^aBinaii otb pecnySjUEaHCKoB 
3Hb-Ha CNepTb CBOH B^ksOBUfl DpaBa, Dpi 



— 251 — 

ou-j, caHOAepauBHOHy rocjA^pcTBy i 
b npaBi*). En^e sa nepexciaBCKofi 
a 7 EosasoBi oqeob ecrecTBeHHaa i 
. upasi AMesckeuT, MiixafijoBR^e 
ipmeHHo ecrecTBeHHut co crepoHt 
lib OTsasi rapaHTHpoBaTb hx'b kju 

! COrjaCHJTHCb AaTl orb HHeHH CBOe 

rjtn^aHJe, vto npaBa EosasoBi He 6] 
ta Bi STOWb ciyiufi se oTAaTb ni 
aojHTHqecKOMy TaKxy TorAaoiHArc 
'ejiGTsa. nojiHTHqecRaa CHCireHa, a. 
la TorAa pyccKoe i^apcTBo, He uovAt 
vaaieHia u noxpUBBTb CBOft npHi 
— sTofl cjyqaftBofi, BpeHeBHofi, Hec 

paAH BLiroA'b HeHbinHHCTBa Hapo 
maro&a sav^HHTb co6ok), xaa'b m. 

pcTajiLHofl HapoA'b. Ho ecjH TaE 
HHjeua; CH^a Beiii,efi, iotessl arasBi 
CBoe; npaBa soaaiiKLH pasbine kiu 

yciyiiHTb uicco ofiiqeiiy cipon ni 
BHaro rocyxapcTBa; oti^iqaHie coxp 
)6so;!lHicocTH A0X»HO 6aio pasbine 
•ji. BuroBCKifi H BOcnojibsOBajca i 
l6fi3CHUK'b uocxbj^ctBitwb iCOrHEH a 
ce6a san^HTHEKOMi Haiopoccificsofi 
xe Bpeuji caBTb HacTponn kocrq 
.pymaTb ee. Tas'b, oH'b npoCHJTL npa 

D^ajBCL Bi CBoGoABOMi BsSpaaiB rem 
cieS DOcpexcTMirb cbobxi ace, Muiopocdj 



— 252 — 

KomHCcapoKb ma nposiipKH tosaiiKHXi peecrpo 
cai% paavtcTHTb uapcKHXi 6ospi bb HaJtopoccific 
poAaxi. Eosaiuuui crapmuHa, oco6eHHo,Ha sanaji 
poH^ ^aiupa^ npHXOAHia «b Goibmee h Cozwnet 
atenie npOTHVb Mockbu. Ho Ha BOCtoqHOfi CTOpoa 
pa BuroBCKig, HecKorpa Ha bc% cboh XHTpocn 

HenpHHHpHHUX'B BparOBl, 0C06eHH0 Oh 31iU,i HOJ 

naiKOBHHKa IlyinKapfl, soropui to h a^jo aoh( 
Hero Bi MocKBy h cofiBp&Jiib boAceo j^a 6opB6u 
BiiroBCKifi BCTjHHJB Bi 9Ty 6opi>6j, jtanaa bhai. 
EasBiBaert npocro He Hosopnaro iiojEOBHHsa. X- 
Aisa, oB-b nptiraaina.rb h HOCicoBCEoe npaBHieji 
TaKi KaKi OHO He pimaiocb QOuoraTb, to Baro 
B-ieKi H3i 3Toro HOBjn cefiji BuroAy. Ohi bctj 
CA^Ky ci'HepeKOHCKBirb xasoirb h npK ero co 
pasfiHfb H norylSifj'B IlymKapfl. BapoTOHi, sto ( 
xofi m&rh, noci^ Koroparo BuroBCKOHy Tpy^HO 6h 
BaTii jiflxme BpeUA HacToan^a cboh naiiipeHu. 
Tafipt 1658 r. oai coCparb pa^y bi ra^nt i 
iHJi AoroBopB ci Ilojbraeio. ^oroBopt arora oi 
Bajii>, EEKt aeibaa J[y<[nie, cipeiueHia HuuxercEO 
Ka9aiecTBa.(IIo ycjOBiaHt aroro AoroBopa Maiopo 
AHHaiacb ci nojbnieK na cii^Ay»Hi?i(^ rjaaHbn 
BUX'b: 

1) Majopoecia cocraBHTb pyccKoe EHaateciBo h( 
jHTOBCKaro KHaxecTsa h fiyxerb cocToarb h3% bo 
KieBcaaro, ^epHHroBCKaro h (SpaHJUBCKaro. 

2. KHa!KecT8o pyccEoe CyierE HaxoAHTbCA hoa 
jteHieui reiHana, npa Koropoui (Syserb sect 
cocTaB'b rocyAapcTBeHHHX'b vsaoB-h, Cjffin, r&xa 

BOfiCKO. 



M^- 



— 253 



3. TefrMB,wb nojiy^aen npaBo npexcraBJiATb Ha KasA^i 
eetiTb BanxHAaTOKB na miAxercKoe SBanie. 

EoppTBO CKasaTB, no BTony ^^oroBopy Majopoccia npe- 
Bpao^ajiacb vb nuflxercByi) pecny6j[nKy no o6pa8iQr IIo jliuh. 

BHroBCBifi nojuififXMBAJUh cnjy SToro TpaxxaTa nojB- 

CKBLWh H BpUMCBHH^B BOfiCSOH'b, C% KOTOpHltl OWh HaHeCl 

asecTOKoe nopasenie pyccKHM^B hoa'b KoHOTonomb h co6h- 
pajica HsreaTL jujjl n^a^ Bcefi MajopocciH. Ho ohi^ ropBso 
oniHGcfl B% CBOHx^B Ha^esAax'b na npo^nocxB HOBaro coioaa 
ch nojBmefl. E^Ba HapoA'B yanaji^B cyn^HocTB ra^fl^CKaro 
;(oroBopa, sasi Besjtjk noAHAJOCB BOscTanie npoTHB'B Bu- 
roBcsaro. Ohi jo^ojEseHi 6114% OTKasaTBCfl otb rerMaHCTBa 
H cnacaTB cbod shshb 6ircTB0Mx. 

Majiopoccificfiid HapoA^ emfi ACiAe, ^iwb upexflfi, no- 
HJurB neofixoAHMOCTB eAHQeniA ci Pocciei. K% Hec^acrii), 
BO vj&Bb ero pxanoBEJiHCB Tor^^a Jivyjifly uajo cnoco6HHe 

npOHHRHyXBCA HCTHHHUMH 610 HHTepecaMU. FeTKaHCTBO 

crajo npexMeroifB jh^huxi HHTepec(OB% n HHTpnn, vb 
KOTopuA BTflnyiTB 6uAi>y HosAy npo^HM'B, H cja6oAyniHHd 
ciiH'B XirbjBHHiiiRaro, lOpid, cKioHABmiScA to na CTopony 
pyecKHxi, TO Ha CTopony nojiaKowb h TypoB'B. CMyxH 
cidMoBajH oj^na sa APyroio. E^Ba Kb 1663 r. Majiopoc- 

Ciii XOTB H^KOJEBKO yCHOKOHJiaCB. B% 3X0 BpeHJI CfifkjlLSi.Wb 

6ujrB roTHaHou^B BpiDxoBeii,Kift, ^ejoBiEi, no Bpafinefi 
M^pi, 6e3yRopH3HeHHufi B'B nojHTUHecKHXi OTHomenuix^B 
Vb PoccIh. 

Mu yse aaif^^ajiH, ^to chjok) jiornBH shshh mocbob- 
csie nopiH^BH hbo^xoahmo aojshh 6ujh bxojpitb b:b Ma- 
jiopocciK) na h^cto oco6ux'b oa npaBB. Ma^o no vajy wb 
^Tpaai 9T0fi pasM-j^maJiHCB pyccm Boficsa, booboah h 
BHsmie HHHOBHHKH. HapoA'B, CTpa^aBmiH acecToico cpe^n 



— 254 — 

cxyrb, cam xeiarB npHcyrcTBid ; 
H Tpe6oBaA'b, VTo6u BiTB nepe^aBa 
jeHiu. BejHSOpyccu, Ki coaEaj^Hi 
BijopycdH, noaBOJWJH ce&k MHoro i 
H noibao&aaHcii jdxh napriH Buro 
oxoTHO AonyCKaBinit BejraKopyccKii 
pocciH, Hori> HBoro CA^art cbob 
HexAy BejiHsopyccaHH h vajopycc: 
Toro, cam noraaii no cihsfljii, i 
pyccoBTb H secTOEo rpatiflji cTpai 
DpH BTHXt sAoynorpeftieHum Biai 
sasaTb ycTo&^HBarO' no^oseeia. Me 
CTpacjracb Bosaa &k}ifl.. 

TpyAHoe nojoseme Poccin cpeAH 
pocciH sacrasHJCo ee HCsaTb otjoxb 
ona saKJiDiHJia ci nomnefi sh i 
CTBOHHo nepeHHpie b& rrpaxiIiiTL jA 
HHi^ei nesxy oCdhiui rocyAapCTBaii 
poceis HasHa^eHi ^aiinpL. Ha 3 
TojbKO EieBi ocraBaicB sa Pocciefi 
jopoccia laKHiTb oGpasoitrb HacHjacr 

IBt ?aCTH, BpOTHBB ^erO, MiTL HI 

Bosxyniajcu aapoA^. AB^pycoBCKifl 

■flOBaaie, Maaopoceifiatifl sapoji n| 

BID, TTO PoCCia 88-0^80 CL Ilojitnii 

C0K>3a npHHOCflTCH «h xcepTBj caH 

peCU, CTOHBBlie ctojilko spoBs. 9i 

CTBOBajia pyccsaa Baprk «h Majiof 

AHHenia K'l PocciH bc^xi pyccsi 

spycOBCKia Hzpi napajBSHpOBaj 

vh o6pa30iti. He vsovvwh jyu 



— 255 — 



nojEBCXofi napriH b% Kosa^ecTB'b. An^^pycoBCidfi MHpx ot- 
pHBaj^b OTh Bea BOCTO^Hyx) cropoHy JJ^H^npa h sacTEB- 
jfljTE cocpe^oTo^HTBCA TOJiBBO Ha sana^^Hofi, T. e.. SaCTEB- 
jsui'b CbysHTB njanu h npHBasuBaJTB ee k'b IIojrBin^ no- 
MHMO BOJiH. Ho npH HapoAHOifb pasApasemH, oapTiH 9Tog 
He jierBo 6ujio yTBeps^aTB cBoe rocno^^CTBo h s^^'i^CB. He- 
oGxojpmsL 6uja ji,jui SToro CHJBHafl nocTopoHHAfl noMoiii;B, — 
noMomjB noiBHiH, BOTopafl caHa TenepB Haxo^HjacB b'b 
RpafiHeMi pa3CJ[a6j[eHiH h Horj[oin;eHa finjra cbohhh BHyT- 
peHHHMH A^jaMH. B:b 1668 r. ea EopojiB Swh KasHidp'B, 
AOBe^^eHHiift jifl oTqaAHifl HeycrpofiCTBaHH CBoero rdcyj^ap- 
CTBa, cjtoisHjE'B CB ce6fl BopojreBCBift B'6Hen;'B h npHBTom 
TopsecTseHHO HpeACBasHBaji'B pasA'^Jcii IIojEBniH. Gjoboh'b, 
06^ BOsai^Blfl napriH^ pyccBaa h nojiBCKafl, o;i;HHaKOBo le- 
nepfr 6hjih napaJEflboBaHs; toS h jitpyroft HeBy;i;a 6qjlo 
HATH ^^ajBHie. Ex!B OT^aaHHEiH^B HOJoasenieH^B bochojebso- 
BAJiacB HOBaa HCTOpHqecRaA napiifl B'B BOsanecTBi — nap- 
tUl TaTapcRO-Typei^Baa. 

9jEeMeHTii ji^si 9Tofi napTin na^ajra cKJiaAUBaTBca TaiuKe 
xaBHo, BaRi H j^jia napiin hojibcboS. Boda hoctohhho cb 
TETapaMH^H TypBaMH, nacTo nona^^aji jvb hhmi» h sa^npaA 

HXO^ CaHHXl» B'B nJI^H'B, BOSaBH npOTHB'B BOJIH HOJI^rOTOB- 

jLRXBi wb ce6£ c6j[HseHie cb TaxapaMH h TypsaMH. dTOiiy 
oco6eHHo HHoro cnocodCTBOBajsn: Aony^oHie B'B B03a^ecTB0 

BCJlBarO, BTO HH npHXOAHJl, ^%H% Hep^AKO nOJIBSOBaJIHCB 

H TaTapu, H TypBH; 3anpen];eHie BOsaBaH^B co CTopoHu 
nojiBCBaro npaBHTOJEBCTBa BoeBaTB 9th cTpanii, HaBOHOUi'B 
nojiLCBifl HOHCTOBCTBa vh MajopocciH, BOTopHA no6y;(HjiH 
BosaxoBi HCBaTB js,pyx6u y TaTap'B h TypoB'B a^r 6o^h6u 
yh IIoJiBmeft. Typeipco-TaTapcBaA naprifl, Bnpa6oTaBmajica 
dTHMi nyieifB b:b BOdanecTB-]^, ne Morja hh£tb Ha^Jiesa- 



CKjrs, cam seaajs npHcyrcTsis y ce6a ar 
H Tpe6osaj['b, qtotSa hitb nepeAasuHCB f ^ 
Mnm. BejHEOpyccu, Kb mm&ibBis),j it § I 
EijopycciH, nosBoiaiH cefit KHoro ^ j § i " 
H noi&soBaiHCB JDAH napTiH BiV'j §' r ' 
oxOTHO AonycKaBndft B&iBEopycl § f ^ ^ 
pocciH, Moni KHoro (y(4jiaT& // 1 ^ ' j* *" 

uesAy BejHKOpyccaKH h if/i ^ « "^ t* j 'I*" 

Toro, caMi nomezi i ' f ^ ^ ' " 3 ''^'^ 

pyccoBL H aecTOEO r] / * i' ' f '' ''™'* 

DpH arBxt aioynorp^ i i ^ ) i ^™*' 

saHXTb ycToft^HBarO'-rf . i ' ■'"^ ^ 

cTpacJacb BOBaa Cf'// . ^^^^- Hobim 

TpyjHoe nMo:/// ' " aoChti. wy tbo- 

pocciH aacKiBF// ^ -rfMiaiiH ^tniiipoBCBaro 

CTBCHHo H'"'^ . iiei^KO-TaTapcicoft naprin fiiin BOft- 

HHnet V .'tpi J^opomesEo. ^opomeHio BOCDOibao- 

poi^oig ^.rt^eHieHt Taiapi h lypoKi npoiv^ naibmH 

<mi^- ^fiOBCKifi MHpi CL Pocdefi B HOAHflJl HKl UpO- 

jojbDiH, oetmaa TypipB noMftHCTBO MajiopocciH. 
'jg72 roay cyaxaBi MaroMerb IV ci MHoroHHCjeBBHMt 
yjoMt BCTyflBJi Kb MajiopocciB. HoBufi Kopow DOit- 
, MBXaaji BBBTBeBei^KiA, ne icorrb npeAopBH^ii X^^' 
TBJibBtixrb Mi&pi npoTBBi 9Tofi G^iu. TypBH iiotiixo- 
uoABHrajHCb ^epesi Majtopoccin fijBse h 6iExe 
lojbmib. IlepeAi hbhu aaji^b EaHesei^: syrb bi Ta- 
n 6uji OTKpuTi. BBmHeseiiEifi opBHya^AeHi i^HJ'b sa- 
iHTb HHpi BS EyzexaHOB^. no ycjoBuvb 9Toro lupa. 
TypiliH OTXOASja taxatia qacib saBa^Bofl Maiopoccii 
>iio& QepKBH. KpoHi Toro, BBBIBeBe^Eift otiasaiC 



— 257 — 

njETHTB Typii;iH a^hb. IIojiLMa fiiua CTpaniHo ynHseHa. 
CeSwh He corjiacHjcA npnsHaTB aio yHHasenie. SsaMeHH- 
TBifi nojBCBifi nojESOBo^ei^'b Toro apeifeHH, cjaoHEifi sno- 
cj^ACtbIh no6ijuiTejih TypoB'B noji.'b BiHoio, rerHani^ Rwb 
Co6iccKi£ cofipajTB hobua chjih if BexynHXB bi 6opB6y, 
KOTopyD HeyTOMHMO npo^ojaca^i h Tor^a, Kor^^a H86paH'B 
6£ij% Ha HOJBcsid npecTOJTB (1675) nocjA CMepTH Bhhi- 
HeBei](Baro; ho h oh:b h6 uori o^ojiiTB Typei^sofi chjh. 
B% 1676 ro^ Co6£ccKifi npHHys^^en'B 6ujrB sauio^HTB 
no;^ JIbboboui (bi ^ypaBHHi) HOBufi MHp:b, no BOTopony 
xoTfl Gjosena cb IIojiBmH a^hb h rpaHHi^a Typei^safl 
OTO^^BHHyTa Ha vyvh^ ho TypsH yAepsaiHCB b^ Maio- 
pocciH. 

JIjoponieHBo, noBHAHMOMy, xocTHrs ycnimno CBoeft i^^- 
jiH. Ha cjLomiX!h Typsn wBaJH MajopocciH nojinyH) nesa- 
BHCHHOCTB. Ho HO TaBi 6100 Ha A^jit. yTBeps^ijaacB Vh 
MajopoeciH ohh napymajcH eaMHH CBAn^enHUJi eji npaBa, — 
npeBpas^ajH i^epBBH Bi^xe^eTH, nonnpasH HoraMH npa- 

BOCJaBHyiD CBflTUHK), SafiHp&IH HapOA'B m^JOIMH COTHflMH 

H TUCH^aMH H o6pain;aj[H bi MaroMexaHCTBO. Hapo;^'B npH- 
ioflflJL'h wh oT^aflHie h npoBJHnaj^B ^opomeHKy. Majo- 
pocck xenepB HM&ia nojmyK) bosmoshoctb oi^^htb ujifiV) 

MaiOpOGCiiCBOfi HesaBHCHMOCXH H to, nOA'B ^BOfi BJiaCTBlD 

e£ JiyHHie ^utb. Hapo^cHUH cHMnaxlH Kb Poccin osnin 
CTB hobod chjiod. TenepB ohatb, BaB^B bo BpeMfl neyAa^^B 
XiiijBHHi^Baro, HapoA^ YBpaiHH ycxpeHEJiCfl na bocto?- 
HyK) CTopoHy Ji^Hinpa, b'b npeA'i^Jiu mocbobcb^fo rocy^ap- 
CTBa. C'b 1674 no 1678 roA'B sanaAHaA ?acTB Majiopoc- 
ciH CTpamHo ot:b axoro ofiesjiDA'^ja. GaH^b ^opoineHBo 
jjmfjkxh Heo(5xoAHMocTB h^^th no axoHy HanpaBjieHiD, h 
jMOJaai pyccBoe npaBHiejiBCTBo A&poBaxB eny npom^enie 

17 



— 258 — 

H npHHOTb noAi CBOE) BjacTt HecqacTByi) ^acn. U 
pocciz, nouaBQiyx) iiOAt Typei^soe nro. 

9THirs iiyreMi HeH36£atHO aaBaasBajiacB 6ApL6a Pc 
ci Tfpqiefi. Poccii Hor^a A^pxaTb ce6fl on Hea bib 
poB^, noKa ea noHon^H npocHia nojibma, ho tpjahc 
JO oTKasaiL Bi Heft MaiopoecificKoicy Hapojy. Jtoponn 
noHHJOBaHi. PyccEifl Boficsa ^(BHHyjiHCb npoiBBi Ty$ 
HeuoA-ieaHO tio^Binaa ?acTL aanoAaoft noiosHHU M 
poccin, He 3a.aaTB.il xypfcaHH, no^ajiacb Poccin. Type 
npaBHTejECTBO BU^^SHHyjo Bnepe;(% K)pi£ Xu^bHHi;i 
fiuBinaro y Hero bib pyKazi, ofiiHBHJo ero Haiopocciftci 
KHAseux H Hocjiajo cofinpaTb BofiCKa, a sa bewl m 
(1677 r.) H Typeiqtaa apHLa. Uajtopoccia azoxo cjyi 
BoasBanift K)pla Xs^BEHiiRaro, ho eft b nesEsaiL Pi 
npHHiJioCfc UEoro yaoTpeSnTL chjtb h iipojhtl KpoBi 
6opB64 ei TypsaKH. KoHnaJiacL 3Ta (Sop&6a (Seat bo: 
JIM PocciH H ch, Bpe;^OMt jija MajropocciH. Bi 1681 
Poccii sasjiDiaJia Cb TypiiieS fiaxHacapaftcsiS HHpi 
KOTopouy p^Ka ^HtnpB HasHa^eHa TpaHHiieft sesuty 
cieft H Typn;iefi, t. e. aH;;pyeoBeKaa rpaHHi^a uexsj 
cieft H noiLinefi npoAOJiaeHa AaJibme Ha jar% Maa( 
ciH. SanaAHaa Maiopoccin ocxaiacb ^acrbn Hojit BJiai 
nojibniH, ?acTbH) HOAX BjiacTbR) TypipH, T. e. bca h 
pocciftcnaa cipana co BKJio^eHieMt BocToqnoft pyceitoft 
A^JOHa Cwia, xenepb na ipH ^aciH. Bi 1686 ro^y 
Jiaaa Cujia nonuTica yHeHbniHTb xaKoe sceciOKoe pasj 
jenie MajiopocciH. Ilojibiiia saiuioqHJta cb Focciet Bi' 
uHpi (aoATBepAHJia aHApycoBCKifi) ex OKon^aTeAHOft yc 
soft Kiena hcx yoiOBieMx BOeBaxb Typi^H) Bidtcri ex 
Ho H sTa noHUTKa Cuxa laaae neyxaiHa, Kaxx h h 
ssz. HoBaa Typ^qcaa Boftna soH^Hiacb hh^ux; H 



\ 



— 259 — 



poccifl ocTasajiacB pasopBaHHOBO Ha Tpn ^acin Kasx 6u 

Ft COOTBiTCTBie TpeM'b CBOHMTi HCTOpHqeCKHMl napTiflMx — 

pyccKofi, noJLCKot h TypeniKod. 

Ho BSL^'h BC^MH aTHHH OapTiflMH H ETh A^^HH B03- 

HocHjicfl e^HHEiH — pyccKifi, npaBocjaBHHft j^yxt Majio- 
poccidcEaro Hapo;i;a, pasHO cxpeMHsmiica KaKS £*& xoMy, 
^to6h Maiopoccifl 6uab, e;i;HHa, Tajvh h Ji% TOMy, qTo6i>i 
B% &rowh efijuncTBi ona ocTajiacB pyccROS) h npaBOCJiaB- 
HOH). 3T0TI-T0 pyccKift, npaBOCJiaBtoft Ayx's Majropoccifi- 
CKaro nj^eneHH o6j[a;i;aji:B ;i;ase n TenepB CTpoBrejBHOD 
HCTopH^ecKOi) CHJioH) H o6Hapy»HJi'B ee btb xaKHxi nopa- 

SHTeJEBHHXl ABieHiflX^B, Ha;i;'B EOropUMH TJIJ6OKO HOSeTO^ 

sa^tyMaTLca bcaeIh MEicjHTejiB h npHHecTH ji;aHB rjyfioEa- 

ro ysaateHia HcropnqecKHM'B cnocofinocTaMi pyccKaro na- 

po^a K% Ao6jecTH. 

Kor;i;a npocTOH napoj^-B YKpafiBH h b'b Tpy^HHa Bpe* 

Hena XM^jiBHifi^Raro, h b'b em^e 6ojiie Tpy^HUfl speneHa 

npH J^opoffleHKi TOJuaMH nepecejajca b'b BOCTOHHyro Poc- 

ciio H yaseKaii 3a.co6oE) Bosai^EyK) HHxejjiHreHiijD, hq- 

cjrkj^u^a. nepeHocHja Ty;i;a h cboh mjiflxeTCEifl HaKJOHHO- 

CTH, soTopuA nanuH ceS*]^ d^icb HOBoe no^Ep'^^njieHie b% 

pyccKOM^B KpinocTHOM'B cocToaniH H B'b pyccEofi, npo^HO 

cJEosHBmeScA ^HHOBHHHBeS cpe;^^, h niHpoKO pacKpujHCB 

H B'B 3JioynoTpe6jeHiax'B BjiacTifio bb,js,i> Hapo;^OM^, h b'b 

noJHTH^eCKHxi HSM^Hax'B, EaE'B HdH-i^Ha BuroBCEaro h 

oco6eHHO Epynnafl h rpo3HBinafl 6i?,oiL Bcefi PoccIh h3- 

H'&Ha Ma3en£i nepe^'B caMofi nojiTaBcsoS ^htboS IleTpal 

ch KapjiOM^ XII. Bi 9TH-T0, HMeHHO, nocjii^Hia BpeMena, 

Ha sanaAHoft CTopoHi ^ntnpa, b'b 3Toft 3aHycTonieHHOH 

H o6e3JiH)AiBfflefi YKpafiHi, B;^py^'B na^ajiocB coBepineH- 

HO HOBoe cxpoenie h Hapo;i;Ho£ »h3hh, h caMoro Eosa^e- 

17* 



— 260 — 

[poCToft Hapo;irb, tulkl 6a noHSBnnft Ha 
h JlBJinpa emfi iSaiie (ijiara HapoAHoft 
lasa^^ on cbohxi mjiflxercEKX'E pjkob( 
syio yKpafisy, ocjmfiaTaxa&i-b xj^mia 
cosa^ecTBa h eiii,e fioibine n^aarb 61 
is ch BoCTOHHofi Poceiefi. 
HOBoe BejHEoe a^o. osapHsmee hobuu 
[ii[a ua:iopoccificKaro Hapojinaro xyx&, t 
K 6oraTupk, npocjiaBJceHHuft 6jiaroAapi 

.MflTLD naJlifi-rypKO, ^eJIOB'^K-B o6pa30B 

peufl HeHSH^HHo npejtaHHufi cBOeuy nj 
Bce& Foccia. Ohi yrBepAR-iCH Bt 6'i^( 
[, H npeduBaxb rjaBBUH'B o^pasoHi bi 
[aSHoe o6cTo.aTejibCTBo fijaronpi^TCTBOBi 
:TaHOBJieHiE> pyccKoS xhshu vh 3T0tt s 
aBo6epe»Hoft YEpafiKfi. 3HaHeHHTu3 
noji BiHOfi (1683 r,), Shi CofiiccKi 
[Hy rjiaBEUH'B oCpasoarb ma. loro, htc 
fAyii^ee, npHJia^Boe cyniecTBOBame cbq 
Ao6uTb KaKoe JUiSo KHasecTBO cBoevy c 
s y;tajioct aro b'l ABCTpiii; ne y;iajoct 
[unueHie nepefiiH j^jia •diok ii;ijiH Ha C] 
b, HasJiHEaBiniiz'b na ABCTpiio TypoiCb. 
BOH Bsopu na pyccsye schjih) h 3a;iyHaj 
TB He pasi BOSHHBaBmyK) ue^Ty sosi 

ieBCKOe EHflSeCTBO, HJIH npH COA^gCIBil 

!(Hofl Foccin jif)6inh sora HOj^aBCKoe 

xt, ueacAy opohhh'b, BSAax'L CodiccKiS 

paBO BOacraHOBJiaTB Eoaa^eciBO na aai 

[H'jbnpa. 

;aiiuc.au CodJIccEaro ^ticTpo €ujih paspyi 



!H BosjiiuH HOBaro Kosa^ecTBa wb yupi 
HHBca TaH'B ropa3j[o pasie paspimeHk 
zi OHH cTaHOBHJiHCb Ha cTopoHj Hapo; 

[ECKHI'L naHOBl. Ho HHBTO H3'b EHXrb He 
riES.!, 3aM^^ CI Ta&HH'b nOCTOflHCTBDKl, 

axh jiflxto (oKOJio TpHAii;aTH xhrh), u&u-h II 
sirbHaHiTE H HECTutCb ciyseHieifB 6i&v} 
1Kb BOSBumajiCfl Hajcb BciuH, hto He k 
H,ajizci> nepeji hhu'e, ho opeiuoHtiJiucb h 
Ht Aaxe jyHHiie nojibCKie nanu, h oh£ 
Koe cHJEHoe BneiaTJitHie na hhx-b, h' 

m-h uiax'h, KaEib eaHpHHip^b y ^io6oiiipc 
B, saGoTJiiiBOCTb 6jia,vi opocTuii ji 
Be wh noTOMCTBO. Ho 9Ta fijHsocTB najri 
^Hau'L He ssa^HJia, ?to oh'b Ho;iaeTca wl 
n. Bib Tose caHoe BpeHfl na.aiS Casii 
iparoHi HoJibniH h peBHocTHUM^ no6opHH 
Epa^HU cb PoccieS. IHiiflSTa, zcess&u 6oi 
a pyccEoe opaBHxejibCTBo He HHi:io hokoj 
[HHxi, HacTofiqHBUxi npoci.6i nsan. 

YspaflHy. 9to nocjiiflHee ero nocroaHer 
rb hm4jh Tpara^ecKifl nocjriscTBia. 
ipeMa Herpa I. H3b%ctho, hto oho Chjio bi 
aaro HanpaaeHia cajrb Poccia jijia bhcb 
[HHst i^^jieg BeJiHKaro ^ejioB^Ea, nps ?eHi 
aeuu 6ajiz bi npasrb ne TOJibso ofijiac 

XOTfl 6U TO CaHUfl ?HCTUa, HO H B^ts 

peujieHia BCefi PoccIh. He pasi npH & 
BejHiie reHia Ilerpa □epe^'b Bcefi Foe 
OHO H nepe^'b Hajiuui, iiomis,miouj, ex 
i Ilajia. Hajiifi noJiy^aj^ orb Herpa 



syHJCHie Be pas^pasaib IIojibiDH, ocTasaTbCA 
aiacTiiD, a Bt 1704 r., no naB^Tairb TaHBfflar< 
Maseau, Ilajift fibui apecTosaa^ a cocJiaat ■m> 
nyro GaCeph — EHHceScK'B. Ho npaBja Ilajiia 
Jiacb aepexh nojiraBCEoS 6HTBog. HeBHHHufi cr 
6sxb BOSBpantesi, o6JiacKaHi nerpoirt, h He 
Boscos^taHHaa DaJieHi YspafiHa He npneraja e 
Masenu, h cjiasHufi mxjifi ea Ilajiifl EwbJii. 

paj(OCTb BHA^Tb CBOIfX'b B^pEEIXl yspaHHIteVb H 

HojraBu, nooutpSTb hzi h sai^H^b BHA^Tb ofim 
ciasy nojiaBCsog noGim. HaEOHeifi, oat boe 
vb cbok) E^JioitepKOBiB;aHy, XHjfB cb npexEHx 
HiesTB fifi CBoeft ewepTH bi 1710 r. h mrhsj, c 
floatHTb jto HOBaro nosopa CBoero k cBoefi cxpaHH 
no npHFOBopy se Ilerpa Kb 1717 r. AO-i^Ha t 
saTbcx BJiaCTH IIoJibiuH H3x-3a BacniHX'b ii^efi, 
KOTOpHxi Bxo^Hja Apjx6a HcTpa ex noJBinet,- 
cocTaBjiaiom,aJt HecoMHiHHyio oniHfiKy BeJHKaro ' 

8Ta oinH(5Ka BeanRaro ^e^oBfeRa KopennjacB 
rajfioxo H o6HBHajia se Hajio Apymzrb noAo6Hux'£ 
OTAaBinBCB HHoseHi^au'b h aapaansniHCb ote Hsxt 
Ki HCKyccTBOHBOuy DepecosAaBii) Foccih, Ilerpib i 
cnpaBeA-iBBo h secToso nociyniui'b ci crpiibi^i 

KOTOpHrB HH^'b BO^HyiO B03U0SH0CTb m3JI.a,Tb 3 

BHyTpeHHioK) crpaxy. Osrb TaE»e He saxoribi 
srb ce6i roroBoe, rpoHaAHOe h AapOBoe bo3cro - 
CKHrb, noscsEXh KoaaKOBX. IIojtB ary ate hckhj 
naiH H AHinpoBCEie KOsasH, oco6eHBO nTb c: 
nocji^ HSBT^HH Maaenu, a Uevph cxaai 6oj£e 
saH^HATb 9Ty crapicHHy cbohhh qHHOBHHsaira 
]ii;HKaHH, a wl 1722 r. h cobc^hx :iHiinu'£ s 



— 263 — 

caHOCTOJfTejTBHaro, rerMaHCRaro ynpaRienm^ H£1 m^cto ito^ 
Toparo nocTaEieHa 6ujiSi ' MaJiopocciHCEafl KOJijierm. RdT> 
3a t£x:b ase npn^HH'b Ilerp^ otkjeohhji^b csoe BHHHaHie 
H OTh coBepmeHHO 6e3BUHHaro nepejo^i hhm:^ yEpaHHCRaro 
Kosa^ecTBa n iix!h cTpaHH. He roBopHMi yae o B.ijiopycciH, 
ROTopafl Qo BpeneHH aH;i;pycoBCKaro ^OFOBopa npegiiBajia 
wh Hapo;i;HOH JiexapriH, n tojtbko HesrcTOBCTBa noj^KOBi h 
IIIBeJ^oB!b BHSBajiH wb Bei/fiojiidEeBMua cyAopora. TaKHM-B, 
o6pa30Hi, paspimeme pyccRo-^nojiBCEaro Bonpoca, caMo 
C0601) ;i;aBaBffleeaa wb YRpaSni h jrerRO wh Bijopyccin, ot- 
CTpaHeHo6ujo IleTpoM'B h OTcpo^njocB no^TH na CTOJi^Tie. 
Ho BejiHRifi pyccRiS nejOB'j^R'B ne Mora ho ocTaeHTB h 
b:b 3ana;](Ho3 Poccin cj'J^^hobi CBoeS reniajTBHOCTH, npHEa- 
caflcB ;i;o napoAHKxi ea HHxepecoB'B flfissje He6pejKH0 h 6ed% 
Ha;^j[esaia;aro noHHManm. Oh% ocTaBHjLB cbohh;b npeeMHH- 
RaicB npHM^p^B ' pacnopAJRaTBCA IIojBineg, RaR^B cBoe& 06- 
jracTiH) H, HTo ropa3;i;o Basnie^ 6jaro;i;apA BjiflHiK) mhofo-* 

^HCJieHHUXG^ ^HyXOBHHX^ HaJEOpOCCOB'B H 6%J[0pyCC0Bl, HM^B- 

niHX'B npH Hem 6oJ[Binoe sHaneHie BnyTpH Poccin, ;i,aji'B 
en^e 6oJi£e o6A3aTej[BHiid npHMtp^B cbohmi npeeicHHRairB 
CTOATB Bcer;i;a 3a npaBOCjaBie bi 3ana;^Ho& Poccin. Hsb^ctho, 
HTO OWL ;i;aae coficTBennopy^Ho RasHHjx HiROTopHxi (j[)a- 
HaTH^ecRHX'B noSopHHROB^B KyflD;eBH?a b'b IIojioiiir^; 6i- 
raiH ovb Hero cb BejHRHM^B cTpaxoM^B yniaTCRie ;i;yxoB- 
HHe H B'B YRpafiHt, a o;i;hh'b hs'b hhxi», jryi^Rii enncRon^B 
JIjioHHCifi JSadoRpHTCRiS, He;i;aBHO npeAaBmiScar yniaTaM'B, 
6usjb cxsa^eH'B h cociaHi. 

Ho noRaM^ciTB bth npHMipn IleTpa bos'bhm'I^jih buo- 
cjii^CTBiH Ha^aeaKaiyiyH) CHjy, ;^ifiCTBOBaJI'B h ropa3;i;o 
paHBHie H CHJiBHie npHiflpi ero npeHe6pe»HTejiBHaro ot- 
HonieHifl R'B Hapo;i,HUiirB ^^tjiaM'B 3ana;i,HoS PoccIh. Pas'B 



^ 

y 



— 264 — 

noEasaaHufi npHiiipi npeADOvreBia ^jxhxi i 
eH7 poAHouy napoxy Biiiui caxbttie a orpa 
EeyjoBHHux'B H coBc^H'B HeDpe;2(ycH0TtriHHur 
IIojiLnia xfl3ie He paai nojiLsoBajracb B npi 
nocii Bero ^hcto Hapo^^HiiiiK Tpy^auH FocciH, 
ea 6opt6oft ct Typi^ieft. Taia Ilojbina npH bc 
ciax'h Co<S^ccEaro ne Horja buxhtb TypoKi s 
soft PoccIh; a xorxa nerp'h bsais Asobi h 
HasecTH Tjpnj.u 6oxb0 T^seJiufi yAEip'^i "to Tjp 
saiuD^HJH Cb IIo.[Bnie& hobuS HHpt (1699 r.] 
H3:b lIoAO^iB. Ho Hajio toto. BcsopI Docrb Ilerp 
upa Abh^ loaHBOBH^, Poccia saropoAHza cofioi 
OTL caMaro HaAoifliHBaro cociAa ea, ora K 
1739 r. DOCJi'£ ynopaoA h T^sejioft boAhu Poc 
^Hja ex Typi(ie& ^iirpaxcKifi nzpi, no Eoropo 
ycTyaajia PocciH, seauy npo^BHi, see CTensoe 
Hoe TorAa npocTpaHCreo vh mxEoA yspaflH^ h 
npoHi H ^BicrpOHi, xoT£ H 6e3i npasa sacc 
TflrocTii cocJiACTBa crt KpaHoin a 9epe3% Hen 
i^iefi najia aa ojay Pocciia, a Hoj^ma c% t 
aocTOaaao aasoj[iiJiacb ci TypsaHH Bib Apyx6i 
roTOBBOCTa apa BcaKoui ciy^a^ yBejta^fln. 1 
TarocTi- nepea^aa sia HHija caHua naryCau. 
ctbU fljia BceS saaa^iaofi Poccia, a Bi ocoGesi 
yBpaftBu. nojikma, ae 6oach yse Kpuaa, saro 
oTh aea Pocciefi, a saHaaaa trkso l5ojiie BUi 
zoaeaie h no OTHomeHi© ki Typipa, motj 
cuijio aa 3ana;(Bo-pyccKifi aapoA'^ b vh B'bj 
liu-b 6ojr^ SI yKpaAai. IIojoseBie SToro hi 

laJtOCl BeBHBOCHHO tUXeSUIPb. BOCTO^HO -Ai 

sosa^ecTBo 6uio orb aero oropBaHo. SaaaABt 



-- 265 — 

CKoe HJEH yBpaHHCBoe uocjA 1717 r. 6ucTpo HGTpe6jeHo. 
HapoA^ ocTajca 6e3'B bcaboS po^Hofi BepxHen chju h 
nonajTB Bceu^o b% pyKH naHOBi, BceH^HSOB'B, xaflflwb^ 

HK^BBIHX'b TBBepB B03UOSHOCTB CnOBOftHO SaHflTBCA BFO 

HyqeHieifB. B% cjAfljv)mfiuj> TremH mu yBH;^HH!B, bek^b 
cnacajTb ce6A 01% rnfiejiH 3Totb HecnacTHui napoA^ h 
saR'B uBLjifiiJOL ero BparH-My^HxejiH. 



HTEHIE XV. 

06ii^ift xapaKTepi HCTopiH mtAeHifl pyccKO-noJibCKaro rocjAapcTBa, ea ABoft- 
CTBeHHOCTB. HcTopifl mjiflxeTCKo-nojiLCKafl, AHnjioHaTHnecEan. HcTopia na- 
poAHafl, sanaAHO-pyccKafl. GocTOflnie IIojibmH npH ABrycit III. DoioaceHie 
sanaAHO-pyccKaro HapoAa. yHiaiCKaa nponaraHAa bi B-i^jiopycciH. nijiaxeT- 
CKaH KOJiOHHsainfl H jHiaTCKafl nponaraHAa hi Majiopoccml 3aHoficEid co- 
dopi. CiapaHifl bbocth ero nociaHOBjieHifl bi Majiopoccin. OsEBJieme sa- 
naAHO-pjccEaro napoAa co BCTjnjieHieM'b Ha npecTo:ii> EjiHcaBCTu neTpoBHU 
H ocodeHHO npH EKaTepHHi II. Feoprifi EoHHCCRi'ft, FepBacifi nepeacJiaBCKift 
H HejibXHceAeKi .SBopcRifi. ^ajiodu npaBocjiaBHuxi. J^^Jia TeopriH n Moji&xh- 
ceA^Ka. noc^v^eme FepBacieMi CBoeft nacxBii Ha sanaAHoft ciopoHik JtH-i^npa. 
Mipu ymaTOBi. MoKpui^Kifi. HeHCTOBCTsa hojilckhxi BoftcRi wb HepKa- 
cax'b, &a6otee% TejenHHt, MrjdeB^. Mj^qenHHeciBO J^aHHJiu Kymnepa h 
nepeHecenie ero rjianu bi IlepeflCJiaBJiB. SaTonenie MeJiLXHceAeRa. BoJHeme na- 
poAa. ycHJiifl FepBacifl h ocBodoAHBmarocH MejiBXHceAeRa jchokohtb ero. 
3a6oTu pjccKSTo npaBHTejbCTBa npaBocjaBHuxi. JlHCCHAeHTCKift Bonpoci. 
BapcKafl K0H$eAepai(ifl. FafiA^xaiucoe BOscTanie h ero nejAaHH. ApecTi^ jHiai- 
CKHTb CBfllQeHHHKOB'B. flepsHft pasA^Jii IIojiBniH. IIpocL^a HajiopoccoBi npH- 
HflTB HXB noAi BJiacTB PoccIh. GnoKofiHUfl BpeMOHa IIojiBmH, CTpexjieHie ki> 
jjiy^meHiflMB) pe(|^opMu. Boshjioahoctb hxb hjih Aa3Re npoTHBop^nie hhto- 
pecaMi dapoAa.napoAHUH CTpnAaHm.MyHeHHHecTBonpoToiepeHKHpHJuia Sojib- 
HHipcaro. MHiponojiHTi fiBcesifi. HasHaneme bi* nojiBCKoe rocyAapcTBo npaBO- 
ejiaBHaro enHCKona BHRTopa. HeyAOBOJiBCTBie nojiflKOBi. ApecTi BHKTOpa. 
Pascji'bAOBaHie 6yHTaxi. IlHHCRafl Konrperai^ia. MafiCKaa KOHCTHTyi^iH. 
BiitmaTeJiBCTBO PocciH h IIpycciH. Biopoft pasAtjii IIojiBniH. Boscrame ea 
noA'B npeABOAHTOJiBCTBOM'B KooTwniKH. Tpeiifl pasA^JiB. 06n;ee saM-ibHaHie 

rH6e;[H IIojiBniH *). 



HcTopia ^0CJIi;^HHX'b BpeMent pyccKO-nojBCKaFo Focy- 
'.apcTBa cocTOHTx Hsi AByx^B, coBepmeHHo (yrjiihjhuwi'b h 

*) nocjrbAHHX'B BpeMeHaxi noiBCKaro rocyAapcTBa: HcTopia naAe- 



. HenpHmpBHHXi i cropifi. Bo-nepBUXi, ncropia 
(MOA 9Toro rocyAApci''iS) HCiopia UM^iercBO- 
■ricBO CBHsannax cbohmb ajeiieHraiiR cb HCTOpiel 
EBponu a em/si licH^ ci a^' ^■i(U(!ii''c3 coc^ai 
MpCTBB. 3Ta nuflxercRO-no.'. .eitaji Hcropia m 
BpeKCHi pyeCKO-nojBCEaro r jcy^apci r.i ji^^bbo 
. pa6oTUBaeTCfl h uHoro pasiiaCtoxana, oco6eHHo 
KyxBEXi co^zHeni^s'L, loi Eoropux'B fiojiinieii 

SHaKOMHJOCb CI HBD HaiUB o6p33OBaHH0e 06ll(( 
3T0Hy HeyJtHBHTeUIIiHO, ^TO OBO ^aCTO npOHHE 

xarbaieui a coHyBCTBiem Kt no-ibm^ 6earb h 
BHHuaHia El CTpaAaHiAMi sanajtHo-pyccnaro sa 
TOfi ae HojibniH, — HeyjiHBHTejtHo iioioHy, tto 
il^scfiifl coHBHeHix o najisniH nojitniH — 9to 
calcaa ^a.xhiaBB&a, xots h o^euB yBJiejcaTeiBHa 
Xpyraa HCTopix pyccKO-i: utCKaro rocy^apcTB 
HHii BpcMeHt — 3T0 HCTopi;i Hapo^iiaa, sanajiHO-] 
Ha &Ty HCTopiiD aactaexa kak Bocce se otSpan;] 

ROrO BBHUaHifl, HJH BHA^^H Bl He3 jhihb UHT] 

CEaro npaBBTejfcCTBa. ^jsk nacB osa HH^eTi 
SHaqeHie h hu yBHABHi B:b Hefi cauoe JorHire 
BBTie npentaefi sanaAHO-pyccRog ucTopiH. 

HU'HoMibH C. M. CoJoueBa, B3A- 18C3 r. IIocjriiAHie loj 
cnoiBTofi noucRofi, co^. E. M. Kocioat^ osa, h3a. 1870 i 
cuiS ceftira, co^. Jt, H. Hjiosaficuaro, i.aj. 1870 r. Moe 
HcTopla BoscoeABBema aanaAHO-pyccKHxi jtaAtowh CTapH 
(t. e. xo 1800 r.), h8«. 1873 r. Hcropia SaHoficEaro c 
rasp. XpjciieBH^a, hbj. 1880. AnnejwaHia bi nan* Jlbs] 
losHHa HayMOBHTO, nei :B0jfB ci jniHHCKaro, aai. 1888 i 
*) He roBopHHi no. .csaa BapoAHan, hotoh; ito ex i 
cxifi BapoAi ci rpoCmon MoauBicnt npscyTCTBOBaxi' a 
Tloatmm, 



— 267 — 

Asyufl HCTopiflHH nixeHia pyccEO-nojtB- 
Tta, HCTOpieK) nojOiCso-niJAseTCBofi h sa- 
HapOAHofi, ecTb o^enb h o>teHb seuHorie 
I TO He nyHKTii ca^jikh uesmy sanaAHo- 
DiTb H mJiflxercEOB) I loJibmeu, Kasi ■ hu 
)^pi, npii Xu^bHEn,KOirB hjih en^e 6ojrJ^ 
. H Maseni, a nyHRTu fiopb^u, caKoS p^- 
syTOMHiiiifi, npH KOTopoft o64 CTopoBH yae 
so .HJitiUb. in^HxercESA nojbtna niza Ha 
-pycijiiifl sapoffB Kt Poccih. Mh Cyaei!^ 
H np^iSAfii Ty H spyryio acropiio, ho rjiaa- 
tiie ojAeHi ofipamaTt &a nocjii^HKiro. 
ceofi oSinee nojoacenie pyccKO-noibCEaro 
XVIII CTOJriTia. IIoJiBnia oKpyaeHa 6uza. 
It CHJibHUHH rocyflapcTBa«H: Pocciefl, Typ- 
npycciefi. 06Hapy»HBaTf. efi Tenepb CTpea- 
sui, HAeaHt fiuio o^eHt ipyAHO. He,'i;aa- 
ie ea c^em ct Typii,iefi 6iuh npepeaHU, 
)copHJiH, Bi 1739 r. (iiJtrpaACKHirb hh- 

Typi(ied, no EOTopOMy Hojibma OKasaiacb 
ijieHHOio OTh BpuHa h Ha nojiosHHy orb 
' nojioeoK) seMJra. C* flpyrofi CTopOHH, on, 
iiecKoS fliiiiTajbHocTH nojibmy hcoaojuimo 
peHHee ea paacjafiJieHie. Hocji^ KoaaniKofi, 
,CKO& boAhh npH Snt Kaauuip'^, nocji'6 
o&lccKOH'b, HOCJii mBe^cBofi se boShu npn 
Jibma npHDiica m> cxpaniHoe BsneiroseHie. 
m, oTAux'B, HeoSxoAHHa dujia ho rpOHKaa, 
iHbHi.. HcTOpia EaEi fiyj^xo Hapo^Ho npu- 
I j^jH TaKoS »H3HH H rocyjtapa. Bi 1733 v. 
ibCKiS npecioji:b h yopaBJi^Ji hhi 30 j^fi> 



— 268 — 

BTopoS yse hsi GascoHiH (nepsHft npu IleTpi, toi 
rycTb) EOpojB, AfirjcTB III, HasicTHua HeofiuKHOiiei 

CHABHB cl'HSHieCKHHH, Heo6UBHOBeHHUH% pOSryjOUt, 

BepmeHHo secnocofiau^ si saMBHwh, BejiHEtHHt x 
rocyAapCTBeHHiiHi. IIojiflEH o^eHb twin aobojbhh t. 
rocyjuapeHi h jcep;iHO noApanajm eay Bt pocKomm 
cejoft XH3HH. no cjioBaH'& JlejefiejiA, o Cosbmi Tor 
BOpBJiH, TTO oaa cynieCTByen HejiaAom, ho ^ro 
aroMi nojioxeBiR xopomo h ^eaonacso. IIoiBiaf Tor 

HeSB CpaBHHBaJH Cl QOCTOflJIHH'b ^BOpOHt, B'B EO 

BOKHO npitxaiB, norayMtTt h ixatb flaatme. Ho hb 
o^tHaKo Gajo yaoCHo h CesoaacHO cpe^H 3TOro nej 
myiiy. Cefiuu cpuBa.raci> oahho^ sa ApyrHu-b, t. e. h< 
BHHaJiHc& BBsaKifl Hipu B'B yjyqmeBiAH'b, h, ^to oco 
6u30 BaacHo, He HaicasHBa^sHCb BasH^gmifl hijibsi 
npecTynJieHifl. Mosho nosTOHy npe;tCTaBHTB ce6i, 
CBoeBOjie, saBoe 6eziusie pacnpocTpaHBJtocB no 
nojiBCKouy KopoJieBCTBy. CsoeBOJiie CAi^aJiocB Aasc 

EHHVTO repOACTBOU'B. OpHrHHalLHUU'b TUHOITB TdSC 

podcTBa Chji B'B TO BpeHa jiBTOBCEig HarHaTB Kapji 
jtHBHJiJii, HSBicTHHfi HOj.'B HasBafiieiii — panie-kocl 
(ofiu^Haa ero noroBopKa). Ohi. hpohbbo^ihji'b pa3HU 
Kycu ua^fB BC^HH, ETo BOABepTUBajicA eHy noA'B 
BsAyMaen. y^apHTB nuaXTH^a sa o6'i?flii'h jioxkod h 
niJiaxTH^'L Hoiy^aer'B yjap's h ornpaBjaercx na cbc 
CTo. Hib BSAyxaen bh^to jomaAefi sanpe^b bi 
nasi ueAB'^ASB a*ij[fiTb erb koct&i'b, sy^a uHoro 
sajocB H ;ipyrBXi nasoBi. JIonia^tH naHCicia Sicatc 
uaDT'B 3EBnasB. Pa^HBH JJTB B03Harpas,i(aeTB y6uTKiL( 
fiojiBinofi HOHerog, EOTopyD sapoHHo ji^x 9Toro Bu^e 
flaera. IlaHu CTanyrB flijiHTB h nepeccoparea. Kih 



b CA^aTb noABpoKTE cocijiy, npHsasuBaeTi 

> KHAOBl, npHTHCHyTB HS% xepxiD, CBeSTH 

HBaaHTB Ha ;tBopt. 'Pa;iaBHjijrb, anpo^eHi 
ii HeotfyasaHHOM'B CBoeBOJia hm^i xo6- 
iHaTaibHO He A^jaJTb sjia H^cnpssHHaro. 
Tba ero, HAyii;ie no to& ae Aopori,- ao- 
oaxHUSt KpafiHocTefi. MsorHU'b hb'K.shsi, 
jroHe CTOHJO nonpoCoBaiL pyatteHsOHTt 
Ime cjiaCiHe, CeaaainHTHHe CTpaAaJnororAa 
KasAOHi mary. Ho oco<$eHHO T^nex^ h 
•b naHCKiK xecnoTHSifb sanaAHO-pyccicmfy, 
lapojiy. PyccEie npaBocjiaBHue Ouiutede- 
BBTOM'B H3o6p4Ta!rejiLHoft aeeroKocTHTaa- 
no^i^Eifi naHt npaBociaBHaro CBHiqe^Hr 
o6ate«. eay Oopoay, H36HTt h nocajfart, 
auy, a to BSAyuaerc^ euy orpiaaTb npa* 
!Ui, pyKy, H oTptaeii ci noiHUMi cno- 

syuierca, tto TasEHt ({taHaTmecKHHt na- 
^CKHxi naHOBX ciapajiBCb, sas'^ uokho 
sOBaibca jiaTHHCEie h ymaTcsie KceH,i(3U. 
Bpeua caHEiui jiy^uiBH'b BpeMeHeitb j^a 
HauaJiHCb CD Tas'B ycepAso, sasb HHEorAa. 

no y EWL-b CTOJBKO HHCCifi, KaS'B S!h 3TH 

U CTOJiiEiTiH. MhccIh ycTpoajraeB cjisyBJ- 
CocraBjajiacB ssCDeAHiUa KceHASOBt, ot- 
lasHa'^eHHoe h^to a Ha^HHaja a^jio npo- 
[poQaB^AiiBajia, HCDOB^AUBaja, o6paiii;aja 
9CTB0 Hiu yniK). M^bctEua BJiacTH ycepAHOi 
)e coA&ScTBie h npHHyacAajH napoAt hath 
!^, BCHOBiAUBaTBca, o(SpanitaTBC£ Bi za- 



— 270 — 
THHCTBO HJE JEiV). H^KOTOpDe 3aEJE>?aJBCL 

'Hepi;(Ro ]ioj(BeprajiHc^ BeB^poATHuirb hcta3 
reoprifi KoHHCCRifi bt, cBoeS s&Jio&b, iiojia 
npeeHHHBy AsrycTa, OraHHMasy IIoHaTOBCKc 
Baen, ito oahj npjiBocjiaBHyi) aenmBHy, JKCHy pyccKi- 

ro 231 FoGCiH, nOcaj^a^H KB TeHBHI^ CB ^BTATefi, H3- 

fiHBi nepeji Tbwb ^ly^Mk Tas'B tto oh'l BCBop^ 
Yuepjio B'B TeiiHHii'ib h ^a. Hec^aCTHyio seHn^im 
^aJiH oCTaBHTb DpaBOC^asie, DpHKaaas'B croposy ; 
^ pyKj s&Kh 3aaa»HH0H jy^HHoa. 9Ty onepaiti 
H3B0AHJH HBOPAa cauH KceH;(3ij. He xoneTCS B^pnr 

aTHlCb A^ail^, HO 00h_ EBXb TOBOp^Tl HOAJHHHB 
UeBTH H JIDXH, HSB^CTHLIti 6e3yE0pH3HeHH0D ?eC' 

HBsaKoe Tocy^apCTBo h^ uorjo cynteCTBOBaxB ci 
nopa^ilKaMH Ben^efi. Ho nojiBma Bce-rasH npo;iojii 
meCTBOBaTB, nqsa pasc^saHHiifl heuh xbjia. cobc] 
r^aBHUHi oSpaaoicL bi B^opycck. EaKi hh c 

3AiCb HapOAt OTB nOJIBCKaxi HeHCrOBCTBl, HO 

HHiero cuisafti. Ero pa36pocaeHOCTb, iipH MHOKei 
HOBi, piraHTeiBHo He AOSBO-iajia eMy npoTBBonc 
CBOB) CHjy. Jlpyroe r^jh), Kor^a noatCKk HeaeroBCTi 
paaurpUBaTLca bx MaJfopocciH. 

Majiopoecifl, hjih coficiBeHHO ©anaa ea OKpaHm.. 

1739 r. aaaam hobos iioJOxeHie. Xo itx* noptsTO fiiua, 
6oji>nieB3 ^ectId nyciuHa, o^esB Hej;to6Baa h oBacaaa fjui 
noeeieHia, BOTOMy »ito npHMHKajia e^ Kpimy h Typi^iH 
nepBa^ ooABepraiacb bx'b Hana;i;eHiBU'B. Ilocjiji fi^rpa^- 
csaro HHpa oBa 3acJiOHeBa 6ujia OTh axofl obocboctb F- 
cieft H otcasajiacb secbua yxofiHOio CTpaaoio. IIoJBCKie na 
ycTpemuHCb ryj^a x^s HOBUX'b aocejeHiS, cejHiHCb Ba 
Bijs.'b M^cTasi, xp^BBHX'B sesxsa'h BOJUiHaro £03a%eci 



i 



271 — 



H CMHKaJIR CO BCixi CTODOH'b IViJIfii. f^M EOitOHHSaAiH, 

opHBJieKaa nojh npHUanKoS pasHux'B BOJBHOCTefi, BoxopiiA 
noTOiTB 0THHMa;iH. CaHo C060K) pasyMi^ercH, hto sa naHaHH 
ycipeHHJHCB H Kcen;(8U jaTHHCsie h oco6eHHo ymaTCKie. 
Bcfl MajropocciA CiiJia Tor;(a sanpyacena hmh. IIo cnHCKaH'B 
THiaTCBHX'B ii.epBBeg bh;(ho, ^to b'b 9to BpeMA (c% 30 r. 
XYIII CT.) Hxi HacTpoeHo B'B MaJopocciH ctojibro, saB'B 
He CTpoHJCoci* HHKor;i;a b'b xpyria BpeMena. PeJHriosHaa 
nponaraH;i;a 3;(icB oahobo BCTpinajia ch^bhua nperpa^n. 
Majopoccia noTrn He snaja ^o t^xi nop:B jiaTHHCXBa h 
j^ase yniH. Btb tLx'b irtcTax'B, r^i yTBep3K;^aJ[acB yeia, 
yniaTCTBo 6iijLo tojtbko no Hiienii , a Ha ji^xk ocTaBaJca , 
BecB npaBoaaaBHMfi CTpoft pcjiHiiosHoft shshh, — npa- 
BociaBHoe ycrpoftcTBo itepKBeft, npasocJiaBHoe fiorocjyae- 
me, npaBociKaBuaH o;i;es;^ CB^u^eHHHKOBi. HcsaseHie vh 

ThIh npaBOCmBiil JaTHHCRUMIi H nOJBCRHHH HOBOBBe^e- 

HMMH npoHCXo;i;ii./io jio Toro BpeneHH coficTBeHHO b:b 6ijio- 
pyccBoS CTpaH'b, — coBpani;a.7acB h HSM^HAjiacB i^epBOBHaa 
eiys6a, HSMtn^jiBCB mepicoBHoe ycxpodCTBo, CBAiii;eHHHqe- 
cRoe o6jiaHeHie h o;^eac;i[a, u Bce dTO A^jajiocB BonpeKH 
Bc^M^B ycjEOBinMi) coe^HueHiA sanaAHO-pyccKod i^epBBH c^ 
pHMCKOD, no TiHCTOMy npoHSBOjy nojfl^HBmeigcA yniaTCKoft 
iepapxiH. 
Kb 1720 ro;i,y ara onojm^HBmajicji iepapxifl sa^i^yHaja 
^1 ysaBOHHTB dTH oTCTynjioniK B'B ynin ot% npanociaBHaro 
J I CTpoa H Ha cocToaBmeMca Tor^a cofiopi kb 3awtocTBi ysa- 
^1 KOHHjia vxh. ^(aaK3 tvm^ nana CHyTHJi&a orB TaKofi jraTHHO- 
j J nojiBCKoft peBHocTH yniaTCKofi iepapxin, ;^OJ^o ne yTBep»- 
A Aa^ nocTanoBJEeK X saHofiCBaro co6opa h Bor^^a yTBep- 
PJB, TO CA'tJiaj': oroBopKy, too 8th nocTanoBjenk ne 
AOJisHu HapyinaTB nocTanoBjieHift sacaxejiBHO Bceii;'!&j[aBo 






— 272 — 

coCjiKHfiEia Bi jfdu o6pAiioB% bqcto^hoB i^epKBH. O^HaKO 
ymaxcEaa iepapxis, npexaBmaHca jaTHHCrsy h IIoibiir6, 

P^HJiaCb BeSA^ BBOAHTb CBOH HCKaseHU BOCTO^HHX'b 06- 

jWAOBt, sepeA^uBEJia no hbvb iiepsOBHua KHarH h pit- 
nraiacb pacnpocrpaHHTii sth zcEasema BidtcT^ ci ysiei 
H Ra yKpafiay. 

?to6h noKOieCEaTb SA^Cb upaBOCjasie, yHiaxcEia aiacTH 

BpHHHUaJH OC06eHHfia ItbpH. Oh^ SaBOAHJlH KOHCHCTOpiH, 

ceHHHapiH, HHSHik ytajiainfl, jcTpoaiH hhcciu, BufiapajiH 

AJiiH iiponaraHAu camux^ AapoBHTUXi k ycepAHUS'& Ay- 

xoBHuxt. Ho ycn'&xy 6aso Bce-TaEH uaio. Tfj6aA a osa- 

HCH'^jLifi Bt cxH3Ht a&poffb, sas'b Bupa«aJHc& BTH npo- 

BOB^AHHSH, HO xoT^^JX SHaTB nponoBJ^AHH^ecBHrB TpyAOB^b. 

OnasaAOcb BeofixoABMUHi oGpaTarbCfl k'b ofiuiHOHy, aip- 

CEOny coAificTsin naBOB%. B% ciBepo-sanaAHofi ?acTH Ma- 

lopocciH yHiaTBH'B yAasajocb nojyvaTb Tasoe co^McTBie; 

HO Ha nrb, na yspaflHi, ohh bctp^thjh 6oj[i>iiioe npe- 

nflTCTBie. IIojBciEie naHU, nocejiHBniieca sa^cl, oco6eHHO 

IIoToiiKie, JlKXioHipcBie, h no crapEurb npeAaHiairb orBBpe- 

MeiTb naiia, H no 3EOHoi[HiecKHH'& pasc^eTam, HaxoAiuH 

HeyAO^HUHib rpeBosHTt h pasrooarii napo;^ ymaTCKos) 

nponaraHAOK). OcofieHHo Taaen 6uja> yHiaTaxx Kcasepifl 

JtE)(!oHipCBiS, HanHTaBmiftca BOJLHOAyHHUHH BAeaitH h 

cuorpiBinifi sa B^py ex npouuniJieHHofi to^xh sp^Hia. 

yfliaTcaia BJiacTH noAxoAHJH sb seujch pasHHXi cropoFs, 

5to6h npoCyAHTB bi HeMi paaHTioaeyi) .pesHOCTB. Eert 

nepenHCKa hxi o&b 9Toirb niii, toitb Kasi ohh 

imcb, saE'B npHAyiuisaiK pasHiia cpeAcrsa ofipasy- 

[»6oidpeitaro. Jtojroe Bpeira hbi Bee ne yAaBaioct, 

»HeiVB apeACTaBHjca yAoGHufl cjynafi. Y Xs36ow.p 

juepsa xena. yHiaTU yBHA^tiH, tto 'renepb cauo 



^ 



— 273 — 

y^ofiHoe BpeMa AofiHTtca y IroSoMipcKaro eoAificTBiJi. Ont 
orop^eHX, peJiHrio3Hoe ^yBCTBO b^b bom's oshjo. Ohk pi- 
inHJHCB noeecTH a^o Tan's: J[K)6oHipcBiS[ ^ojiroe BpesiA h 
B'b pasHim M^CTax'B coBepmaj^b naHHXH;i;u no CBoefi meui; 
yHiaTd Baac^uft pas's, 6e^'h npHrjameHm, nocujajiH ot's 
ce6& Ha 9TH TopicecTBa n^k^usi rpynnu MonaxoB^s, KOTopue 
ycep;^HO mojhjchgs h njaRaiH o6's yMepmeS xewk JIjoCo- 
aripcKaro. 9to ecrecTBenHO o6paTHJO BEHManie pacxporan- 
Haro nana. Tor^a oahhx onuTHuS yniaiys noji,CTYnvui'h jvh 
JiDfioMipcKOMy fijiHae h y6i;i.Hjrs ero OKaaaTs co;i;4ScTBie 
yniH. ysiaTCKaa nponaraH^a BHeprn^Ho orjiacHjiacs h b*s 
yBpaHHi. npaBOCjaBHUJi i^pKBH CTajH npeBpaiii;aTS b'b 

JHiaTCBia, UpaBOCJiaSHUfX^ CBAIIi;eHHHKOB^ HSrOHATS BOB'S. 

Eapo;^'s BCTpeBo»Hjici[ n Bjijkch^ RaKi b% E^opycciH. Ho 
OTRyji;a n s^ics mofjih BaaTscfl cHJisr ji^jia. 3a,mjiThi Hapo^- 
naro ;^'6Ja? 

Mu snaeMi^ ?to npeAmecTBOBaBiniji CMyTu CHecjH c% 
jEHi^a seMJH, CMOJiH Bce Bepxnee Kosa^ecxBo, sapasHsmeeca 
HJiH nojiscBHMH Ha^ajaHH HJEH TypeniKHMH. CneceHBi 6hijm 
H Rosai^idfl rpynnH BpoMOH's Ilajiia, npeA^^HHsra Hapo;i;y. 
OcraTKH HX% TOJESKO coxpaHHJiHcs B'B hojisckhx's ropo;i;axx 
H naHCBHXX noH^CTSflx^, T. e. noon's hojesckok) BjacxiK) h 
noj[scsHHG& ynpaBJiemeH's. OcxaBajc^r, kohohho, npocTofi 
HapoA's, HO, Ba3aj[ocs, 6e3!S bcsbex's cpe;i;cTB's HanxH ce6i 
o6ie;i;HHeHie, pyKOBO^HTejieS. 06'seAHHeHie o;^HaKO npoH30- 
mjio; HamjiHCs h pyKOBo^HTejEH. 

' Ha^ajo dToro noBaro oaHBjeniH sana^noH Poccin t-j^cho 
CBHsaHO ci HMeHOM^ pyccKOg rocy;i;apHHH EjEcaBexu lie- 
xpoBHH, a HeofiHHaHHoe paaBHxie ero — ch HMeneMi ;i;pyroH 
pyccKoft rocy^^apHHH EKaxepHHH 11. PyccKoe, npaBocjaB- 
Hoe HanpaBjenie »h3hh, o6Hapy«HBineecs b^ Poccin cs 

18 



— 274 — 

caitaro na^axa n^pCTBOBaHia E^HcaBeru Ileri 
TOCi ate crajo oTpamaTbca bo Bcefl sanaxHot 
BOSlSya^iiajo oxHBjeHHua HaAeacAU Ha ly^mee i 
a c^^aoHO BH3BaHHoe kl EjiHcaBeri (FasjHOBt 
HBHie Kb uajfopoccau'L npoHSBejo toiho saBoes 
B0& PocciH, ocofieHHo yBpa&HU. Pyccsit sapoAi 
rocjABpcTBa HpHSHaBaji EsECaserj UerpoBa; 
xapuHefi H caaiiieHHflKH ero — rpaxAase Torc 
CEaro rocyA&pcxBa — cuiio noKHHaiH ee bi ce 
Baxi. Bi 1755 Toaj, npe HStJpasiH pesropa sii 
XeuiR Feopria KosHccsaro sa xoriueBCsyn ei 
KaecApy o5Hapy»HJOCb, ^to h B-feiopyccia, a b 
aanaAHafi Ma^opoccifl cocraBjann eABHoe ii,& 
Hie 9T0 6uio BcesapoAHoe. X^^^> sorxa bx 
EaaTepHBa II, npa BCTynjeniH Ha npecroji, o( 
itaHHi})ecTi, HTO BucTynaen Ha san^uTy npaBocj 
CKog Hapo;^BOCTa on> HHOseHHHX'B nocaraTejibCTi 
iiaHH<{)eCT'b QpOHSBeJii Bt s&uajiflok Pocciz bi 
CHjhHo CMyTHBinee TaMomHia yHiaTCida bjbcth, 
KohhcceLS opHBi^TCTBOBaj'fc EsaiepHHy 11 Ha 
tJLKh rocyAapuHR), H'e iojileo ot'£ csoero hubh 
HueHH BljopycciB. H ji^a Bcixi Tor^a 6hjio o 
TTopyceaaa rocyAapumi pacnopaaafiica Hojlhii 
ca^HJia Ha nojiLCKift npecTOJii HessaTHaro h 
HO yroxHaro eS ^ejoB^Ea — CTaHHCJiaBa IIohj 
Tpu rjaBHUX'b pyKOBo;(HTej£ sanajtHO-pycci 
BsaJiHci. Tenepb o6^uuBaTb h npHBo^HTb Bib 
cpe^cTBa cnacTH aiOTB Hapoji'b on HeBUHocHH 
eiefl Ho^bCKaro nra. 3to— ceflqaciynoBflHyrufti 
9Toro Bapoja fiijiopyceKift enHcson'b, Feoprifi 
sai^Hib nepe^ciaBCKifl enacKOirb PepBaciS, kotc 



275 — 



peHH 6ujrH irpaBOGJiaBHHe yRpafiHH h EOTopuS san^rji^ no- 
JoseHie ncTHHHaro naxpiapxa x^^ Hapo^a 9Ton CTpaHii, h 
HaKOHeztt, — HryMeHi MorpeHHHCKaro MonacTHpa (okojio 
^HrnpHHa, y ^Hinpa) MejitxHce^jjeKt fieopcKift, — caMO- 
oTsepseHHufi coTpy;i;HHK'b 9thx:e pyKOBo;i;HTej[en h 6jrH- 
acaSmiS ABHraxejiL yMOB'B bo Bcen YRpagH^. 

HapoAHoe pyccKoe oacHBjenie h pa;^T» KpynnHxi co6h- 
xit, o6paTHBiiiHx% Ha ce6A Bceo6n];ee BHHMaHie, ofinapy- 
2SHJIHC& o;i;HOBpeMeHHO H BT> B']^jropycciH, h bi YKpafiHi 
ct 1765 ro;i;a h ^iMt ^aJiBnie, rkwb acHie CTanoBHJiHCL. 
B'b 8T0H% roAy Hdi Toft H Apyrofi cTopoHu uocjrkjifimjsli 
3SLSBJieBia pyccEofi, npaBocjaBHod chjtu, osajna^HBiniA h 
nojTLCKoe upaBHTCJiBCTBo, H nojBCKoe o^niiecTBo. Feoprifi 
EoHHccsift CEasajTb b'b BapnTaB*]^ EopoJK) BHaMeHHTyi) pi^h 
CTpa;i;aHiflX'& pyccEaro napo^a b'e IIojrBnii, cjijbjhBmymcii 
HSB^CTHoft H B'B sana^nHoS EBpon-l, h dSiniwh nofljipbjniJi% 
9Ty p^^B CTOJB se ciiJLhuuwb no ^oraxcTBy 4>a.ET0Bx Me- 
Hopiaj[OH!B 06% o^H^ax^, TaH'B ace no^aHHUMi sopojis). 
B^ TO ace speMA MejiBXHce^nesi npHHOCHJi fb IleTepfiypr^ 
3Raj![o6y Ha ctojtb ace TAacEm o6n3;ii npaBocjaBHux^B kb 
YBpafiHi. ^ajo^a nepe^ana b'b BapmaBy bx AonojHenie 
K'B acajio6aH'B Feopm EoHHCCEaro, EOTopoHy h nopy^eno 
BijsjBLTh Bce js^ijio Bceii npaBocjaBHon 3ana;i;Hod PoccIh. 
Kasx nimijoi b'b 3ana;i;Hod PoccIh aToro o6ni;aro 3ana;^Ho- 
pyccEaro xo;i;aTaH, aTO Moacno ;i;ocTaTo^HO BH;i;iTB hsx cjrk- 
;^ylD^^HX'B BLipaacenift ri neny ^yBCTBi 6jiaro;i;apHocTH. 
nlloMHHM'B BaHiH anocTOJBCEie Tpy;i,H", HHcaji'B eMy Pep- 
Bacift, ToiYB ace PepBacifi, H3Bini;aa EieBCRaro MHTpono- 
iHTa ?jbjiSLX% Peopria bi BapmaBi, Meac;i;y npo^HMX, 
BHpasaj[x: „H3i9 BapmaBH ot:b anocTOJBCEaro Tpy;i;HHEa, 
npeocBffni;eHHaro Peopria... hhcbmo npHBe3eHo". 

18* 



~ 276 — 
9thmh cjoBaMH TepBacii B^pHO Bupasaera He tojbeo 

CBOH JTHHHHa ^JBCTBa Kl Feopriro KOHHCCKOMj, HO H BO- 

o;i;ymeBj[eHie cBoefi nacTBU, BOTopoe Tor^a ase CEasaJocb ci> 
HOBOK, nopa«a«,me>D chzoid. B* toh,. ae 1765 roAy, a*- 
TOMi, TepBacift, Tor^a y»e rjiyfioKift CTapen;*, npewpa- 
hjiji^ caMoe o6H9Hoe m> HamH BpeHena a'^jio — nocini;eHie 
CBoefi nacTBu na '^aanaAHod cropoHJ^ ^H^npa; ho aio npo- 
CToe ]i,^jLQ 6hj[o TO^;^a BejrHKHMt, hctophtcckhitb ji^owh. 
Owh ^^BHHyjica vb ^yacoe rocyj^apcTBo h wh TaKyro ^acxB 
CBoeg nacTBU, ROTopaa okojo noJiycTOJi'&TiA He BH^iaJia y 
ce6ji apxiepea. IIoxhhjocb CHjBHoe ^cBHsenie npasocJiaB- 
naro yKpaHHCKaro Hapo;^a kb fieperam ^ninpa, y eoto- 
pELX'B (no sana^HoS cTopont ero) FepBacit od^E'issaji'B mo- 
HacTHpH, H yBJieKJio ero Ha sna'^HTeJiBHoe pascTOHHie Ha 
sana^i, BHyxpL CTpanu. TpoMa^^HUJi tojihu napo^a, jo^ase 
OTpfl;i;ii naHCRHXi BosaBOB'B' conpoBos^ca^iH FepBacifl. Eny 
Ha nyxH ycTpo^rjH TpiyH(|)aj[BHUH BopoTa n bhxoahjeh na- 
BCTpi^y ct xopyrMMH. 9to 6mo TopaecTBenHoe, no6i- 
^oHocHoe mecTBie cMHpeHnaro, j[H)6Beo6Hj[BHaro npe;i;cTa- 
BHTejra caMofi Heo;i;oj[HMOH chjth 3a^a;^HO-pyccKa^o napo^a, — 
npaBocjraBifl, H nepej^'B neS Bce npeooHflJiocB. 

B'B CHyiD;eHiH 3aEononiHj[HCB Bucniifl yHiaTCBm BjracTH 
H sacijH 3a Tpy;i;HyB5 pafiory onpoBepatenia (j^aKTOB'B Me- 
Mopiajra Feopria h ^lipyrnx^B acajio^'B npaBOCJiaBHiix^. Bx 
eni.e 6ojLhmQWh CMymeHiH co6paJiHCB b-l TejienHHi na co- 
B^nnanie ;i;BHraTejiH yniH b'b YEpafin']^ h e;i;Ba cna(UH cbod 
aH3HB OT-B HapoAHoS apocTH. IIoJioaeHie hx^ CTaao eni;e 
Tpy;i;Hie wh cj[i;i;yH)iu;eM'B 1766 r. Eor^a H3t BapmaBH 
B^ YEpafiny npHnuio HSBicrie, ^to MejBXHce^eEi, naxo- 
^^HsmificA y»e bi» BapmaB*]^, ;i;o6hj[ch yTBepjE^nenm EopojieM'B 
npaB-B H B0J[BH0CTeft np^BocjiaBHHX*B. Bo Bceft YEpaflHt ynia 



— 277 — 

H3B^Tifl Ta^ja, s&BTb BOCKX. HapoA% e-b oco- 
cepAieu'B cTajii o?Hii];aTb on Baa cboh i^epEBH 
jToro roAa, ?to6u coBepminL '3TorB sejiasiA 
Be8A§ DO npaBocjaBHOuy. H Bt E'kaopjcciH n 
% YspafiH'i Ha nouon^b yniaTairb iipainjiH no- 
i&sa EeiicroBua u^eczinoEa.B\a npaBocjiaBHuxt 
jOTou-h ycHHpeHifl 67HTOB1. Bi yspafiHj Bcry- 
Koe BoficKO H, npH coa^SctbIh ero, npHCjaSBufi 
f, yspafiay BejBKiS 4>aBaTBKG^, yfliaTCKid oiji<j>H- 
paitaifi erajii BoaciaHOBjaTb jhibj, — nanajtaji 

IflB^eHBHSOBt, SOBC[lHCEOBaJr& R'HCTpe6jiaj'L BX-b 

, a caBHSi satinparb Wb cbob) pesiiAeHiiiio b% 
HpaBBJTb H sai^st ynopHuxt npenpoBoxAOJi^ 
uyKB m, cpeAOTO^ie jBiaTcaaro yopasjieHi^ b'b 
a-h PaAOHHCJib. 
[ Botcsa, fiuBDiia uon% Ba^ajacxBou'B BoposBqa, 

IHJlHCb 3THH% COA^iCTBleUl yBiaTCKHU'B BJia- 

I piniBJiBCB npOBSBecTb noAaBJiaioniiee 11 yae 
IcTBie Ha caHOe npaBocjuLBHoe sacejeHie h bb- 
aroro Bpeaexe BCero canyD BUAaK)DijE>c« m^i- 
HepriB BpaBOCJKBBara HaceieBis, bbcbbo, Hep- 
h, Hocji^ OTKasa npHBATL yaie), boiakh ctojb 
t, paSABpaiB pru, BUBopa^BBaJiB hofb b pyKB. 
enymeHO iShjio HsstcTie, ^to bcc Hac&ieHie 6y- 
Bo Bt He^ajieKO orcroflBniifi BOJLCEit jarepb. 
H sesn^BBB wb yxac^ paBtJirajBCB bo lican'B 
ocraB^B Ha bpobsbojtl cyjifiCa BHyn;ecTBo b 

i. Bl apyrOH, TOKe CHJBBOa CBOeBJ BpBBep- 

Ei opaBOCJtaBiio b^tboctb — b% ^afioTHB^, 
'yfiBJiB Heo6uBB0BeHB8ro fibsrejia, BpociaBJieH- 
BapoABoft naiuTB, corBBsa Xapbita, APjra h 



' — 278 — 

oxpaHHTejA ovb onacHocTefi MejiBXHce;(eKa. £ro Boponnqi 
noTpe6oBajrB vh nojihCia& JiarepB h 6e3B cy;^a npHKasajTs 
otpj6htb rojOBy, a BCBopi nepej^B npas^^HHSOHB npeodpa- 
senifl rocnoAHJi BCTynHJO b% ^afioxHH'B noibCKoe BoftcRO 
H saABHJO, ?T0 Bupisera HapoAOHacejesie. ^jea 6ojiBnieft 
eiii;e yfiiAHxejiBHocTH, nojBCKie bohhu CTajH npHPOTOBjiaTB 
opyacie, OTra^HBajiH ca6jiH, hosh, n sa6oTHHi]^]i nojiy^HJK 
npHEasB yxpoMB b:b ji^eHB npeo6pameHiji co<5paTBCa bo ;i;Bop^ 

HaHaJEBHHB^ BOfiCKa — BopOHH'ia. HapO^^B OpHrOTOBUJCA SI 
CHepTH H, ABHBniHCB BB BopOHH^y, SaABILI^, ^TO TOTOKB 

yHepeTB sa npaBocjiaBHyD B^py. IIojrBCBig bos^b npHmej'B 
BB HeHCTOBexBo; HO Be pimKJiCA Ha ysacHoe jsjkjo — hc- 
Tpe^jieme Bcero HacejeeiA £Ka6oTHHa. Ohb npHrposHJi'B 
aca6oTHHi];aMB npHsecTH na hhxb dojBine BoicKa h npo- 
FHajiB CO ;i;Bopa. Eni;e T^seji^e npnnijiocB samejiAWb caicofi 
HenaBHCTHod yBiaTaM'B ifl^cTHOCTH — MtcTeHsa TejeoHna, 
T^i Hapo^B He^aBHO paaornajiB co6paHie npe^^cTaBHTejefi 
yBpaHHCKog ymn, bb hbmb h XapBKO xot^jb hphhatb 
y^acTie, ho o^o3;^aJIB. MoKpHii;Kifi Hs^ajiB ^OKpoTB, koto- 
pKHB Bci 2KHTej[H TejEOUHHa, H CTapHO H Majue, ocyas^a- 
jiHCB na cMepxB. GoMH^nie napo^a, ?to6u mosho 611JO 
coBepmHTB TaKoe BOBtpojiTHoe ji^bAO, CHJiBHO paspymajEOCB 

TiMB ofiCTOflTeJIBCTBOMt, HTO Kb TOJienHHB fllMCTBHTOJBHO 

BCTynHjo naxbcoTB cojr;i;aTB, KOTopae saaBHjH, hto npH- 
cjiaLBU fl^AB. Ka3HH Hapo^ija. TejienHHii;ii bb yssaci nocjaJH^ 
BB nojiLesoMy botrjijo M0j[B6y noMHJiOBaHiH h , hompbh, 

H nOBOpHJHCB MoBpnniBOMy, BOTOpufi H npHHJIJIB HXB 06- 

paTHo Bx ynii) h npo^HxaJiB naji.'h hhmh pasp'j^niHTejiBHyK) 
MOJiHTBy. Ho yHiaxu h hojabh ho orpanH^HBajECB xasHM^ 
JierBHii'B saBoeBanieMB yBpaEHDjOBB ji,jLa yniH, a pimHJiHCB 
]s,jui 6oj(Binaro yxBeps;i;eHia«HXB bb bqA, cosepniHXB xop- 



— 279 — 

B-b TOMt xe 1766 r. (cjrfifl;. bo BTopofl nojio- 
II B.) Ea3Bb, KOTopaa CBoeio JnorocTiB) xbbo aa- 

I Be TOJBEO BpeHesa HHKBE3H^iK, HO H BpCMBHa 

h HHnepaxopoB'b, HepOHa, JI|ioRjieTiaHa. ^htcjih 
MrJiiesa hjh MrjiieBa, ; Koropux'B cBAmen- 
lorjamajicfl 6poCHTb yHia, pimHJHCL jHmHXb 
iHOCTH cosepmaTb cjiysdj h xpefiu no-yHiaxcEH. 
ME H3i aepKBH aepBOBHua Beu^H H cQpaxajiH 

jwa 9Toro efl^aHHHft cjaiQish. Ho k* ;iapo- 
sifit^ ch sanacHHHH japavH hhkto ne marajFb 
lit npHBocHyTbca. Ha npHxo;i;cKoirB athinnasm 
QOBOAY p^meHo 6ujio safipaTb caHaro fijaro^e- 

racToS »H3HH npHXoauiBHHa H BopyqiiTi. euy 
ipecTOJta H cnpaiaTb lapoxpaHHrejibHHity. Ba- 
■ Ha CTapHEa JI,aHHJiy Kymsepa. J^aHHJO hobh- 
loioxHJx ufexh HpecTOJioH'& TpH sevHUsi no- 
tpHyj-B CBOH pysH i^epKOBHofi saB^cofl, 6jiaro- 
aarb jtapoxpaHHTeatHHay h HocTaBHJit bi cyn- 
taTu HosaJioBaJiHCb BoeHHUU'B BjacTam, sa- 
■0 ^aHEJo He AoajcTaA-b jHiaiCKaro cujimeH- 
BepmeHia o6^ahh, paafipocaji'L CBHO^eHHua Ben;a, 
[amy h cDpaiaji ee, t. e, oCbhhhjh ero bi ko- 

1 CBaTOTaTCTBi. nojbeKia BJiacxH BocnojtsoBa- 
i ofiBHHeHieu'b, 4To6u HaBecTH ysaei na na- 
iOFAa ^aHHJio oTKasajicA npHHaxb yniK), ocy- 
Ha ysacayio cnepTb. Ji^sa 6oji4e BHyniBTe.ab- 
Hiqa OHH coraa^H sapoAt hs'b pasHUX'b ceJi'b rt, 
repB) noji OjibmaHoK, a sA^^Cb ii6BWJtu y A** 
a naoeft, oCjihjh cbojoA a aaatrJiH. Crpajta- 
BejtHKoS 6ojia BosonHJii k'B Bory: ^TocaoAa, 
t qio cie H0Aa:i% ua eca: ho BOjra Tbo« cbbt&h 




— 280 — 

xa 6yAeT£ Ha hb^I IIpiHHR jijs.% HOfil" IIotohi, 
Tp^Bi Ba HapoA'B, CKa3a:ii>: ,upaBocjiaBHtie xpacr 
vbpj&Te Bu ym&T&wh. Obh npoKJam h B^pa e: 
EJIflTal" DOJ^KH CHjrtHJIHCb H XOT^JH 6ujo Bpe 
sasHb H ornycTHTb cTpaxazLi^a. Ho yfiiaTcsifl ap 
FAUfliHiucili BacTOAi'b, QTo6a ^asHJi^ 6Eija otc^^ 
Jiosa, soTopan saT^ut (iiua Bo^pyseaa Ha ctoi&& 
ero npeAaBO coxateHiio. 

Ho TBiaTU H noJisKH cejibBO oiiiH6jKCb m> p< 
Borjta oatHAajH noAaBjasan^aro a^ctbia otb 9toj 
CnycT£ H^BOTopoe Bpex^, npaBociasHHe laKHO 
roJioBy HyneHHica aa ^tebaph a BanpaBiuHCB Ki 
cjiaBJK>. HapoAi co Bc6x:b ciopoB% yCTpeuHJcs i 
Bi IlepeacjiaBJ:^ 24 0ETfl6pfl 1766 r. BpoHsomii 
Bajoe TopsecTBo. EnHCEOD'b TepBacifl erb oCja^ea 
xopyrBdUH, sfb cottpomxufima MBoro^HCjeBnaro j 
CTBa H HapoAa, Bumeji. Ba BCTpi^y uyqeBHKy, bi 
rojOBy Bi KaeeApajbByo i^epKOBb h sxbch Boxopc 

Sa JltBUHl EJIHpoCOMl, 

HoHflTHO, EaEia HyBCTBa r'b nojiAEairb r vb ^t 
rb yHiaxaHi BU3HBaj[0 9to TopxeciBo b'b co<5paBBi< 

pOA*, H Ttsil CHJbfffce fiUJO 9T0 ^yBCTBO, TTO ) 

TorAa ate fiujo OBacenie sa Apyroro a caMaro bz) 
yspadB^ ^eioB^sa — MejitxHceAeKa, xaBHo yse ( 
Haro BOJiaicaifH. Ero AasHo DOACTeperajB bojihsk 
am, Eoi'A OHt Kh BecB'6 Toro xe 1766 roAa 
TEica HS'B BapmaBu cb kopojqbckhuh rpaHOTaui 
Baxi H Bo'jibBocTax'b BpasocjiaBBaro sanaAHo-pycc 
poAa. Bi oAHy aai nofeAOia ero aa ^Htnprb s,i 
ciK), sb Ba^ai^ iiojta, ohh ero cxBaiBJra h 31 
CHa^aia hheto aaib npasocjiaBBUX'b He sbojo,, 1 



— 281 — 

Ttirfc ysHOJiH, ^To ero BaTovHjra wb ^lepHaH- 
)b Ha BojUHH H xoifftib xHBoro saA^aib 
yb eniRi; HasoHeifb, npamjEo oTryxa 0T:b 
iopy<]Ho HanHCaHHOe nsBicTie: „GinBQ cipas- 
iojieffb, Bii sejiisax'b acecTOSHxt''. Saro^eHie 

COI!pOBOS;(aJOCI> HOBBUH fi^XCTBiillH AJIA 

i3hu. Ehoeh ciajiH pasGiraT&aa.HSi npH- 
uoeaCTupefi, ta^ sapoA'b To^bso h saxo' 

!i^[IIi;e H BQ31[0»H0CTb yAOBJeTBOpHTb CBO- 

lawb Q0Tpe6HocT£irb, 

BUI, ITO Hft TOpxeCTBeHHOITb upocjiaBJieBiH 
BJH 61LIH cotipaHU Bi fiaibinoiii msczi chjiu 
I sanaAHofi MaiopocciH. OS'BeAHHeHie sro 
BUSUBaJio 3a6oT7 o6iQEHa CHJiaHH noKOib 
6flt. JlMcTBHTejiLHO, TOPM y«e npoHCXO- 
a yEpaSHqeB'B c% sanopoxcBOD GkHhE> h ot- 

HCb SaniHTHHEH YEpa^HEI. npOHCXOAHJIH CHQ- 

1. AOHCEHHH EosaKaHH. 06o3HaiajHCb rpo3- 

Sufi II A^A BC^'L BpeAHLifi BSpuBi Hapo;^- 
i duA'b Ha HiKOTOpoe Bpeva orcpoMHi ipy- 
\a a MeJbutceAeKa. FepBacia opHEasasb 
rb ocxaBETiiC^ Ha cbohxi uicTAXi, teb sa- 

BCBHX'B HOHaCTUpaX'b H HCHOJIHHTIi CBOH 0$fl- 
b QpHSUBaJI'b BC^X'b E'b Tepfl^HlK) H yKa3U- 

, cjiaBy m> ucTOpiii. „%Aa BosjiDfijieHHiH, 
nucajCB owh b'b oitHoui no(iiaHiH, B^pySxe, 

:Tb, ^TO H HHHi IS BU BaHIHSH CBflTUHH H 

fH H peBBoCTHUHH nocTynjeHlH a tekobuhh 
OB^AHUUMH Tepn^HiAMH H cipa^i^HiauH n&- 
pHCTiaHCEHHi MipoMi oaBy eeie CTaaiajia 




— 282 — 

H HCTopii6, B^KaiiH HeCTepfleuyi)'' , HaKOseits, i 
o^HasesHBaji CEopuH'& sacTynHH^ecTBOHt Poc 
saxi oCpasi A^ttcTBift noaflBOBi HapjmaerB, 
oHt, BCi^ AoroBopH PocciH ci noflbmee. 

Bi canoe Tpy^Hoe sjta Tepeacia Bpeiw, t. 
nocjti norpeCeHu b% IlepeB&iaBJi^ rojtoBu Jl^ai 

OSHXaHHO SBHJICA Ha BOCTO^HOS CTOpOH^ ^wbu 

XHcexeKi. PyccKoe npaBBxeibCTso BciynejiocB 
Hs'L BapmaBH HajerjiH ea yBiaTOBi., h t^, ne a 
nosopHTb, AaJiii M&ibxaceAeKy boshoshoctl 6ii 
BiiCBofioABJR H31 saioieHifl saiue-TO pyccEie xy 
craBHJiH sa ^H^npx. Hst CBoero saTO^esui Mei 
BUHecB Tasace y&6au;eHie h pacnpocTpaHOJi'b ero, 
noJiflBOBt H yHiaioB'B ne Horyn He BUSBaTL sa 
cTBa PocciH. X^flCTBHraSbHO, co6uTifl BCKOp^ < 
cnpaBeA^HBocTb Taxoro y6§ac;i,eBia. 

^aBHo jxe Pocck A'&iajia b% aroirb cmhcj^ 
jiesk Bi BapmaBJt, h tHKh- saxh bi> IIojibdi'6 
He OAHU npaBocjtaBHue, ho h nporecTaHTU, to 
HpHHUxajH sauaAHO-eBpoaeficKui npoTecTaHTCxu 
CTBa, Aaace Anrjia, a t^hi 6oji^e (S^iHsafimaj 
IIoJtbiBH H Becbua HepaBHOAjniHafl Kb dojeci 
npyccia. B-b 1766 r. uojibCEifi ceSui oiBepri 
HUA xoAaTafiCTsa; na sorjia bx 1767 r. CTai 
jiflTfcCfl EOHc[)eAepai^iH: DpoxecTaHTCKaa — TopyHc; 
BocjaBHaH — cjyi^EaA, na nOHon^b xoropofi cia. 
AHTb pyccxia Boficxa, to yHiaiu pas&ibxajHCb i 
uaais, H HHorie npaBocJiaBHue ysHHSH, tomkbhi 
noJtyiOR CBo6ojiy- Tor^a ace npnmeji'B yKas-b t 
Ho^a o&baBHTt npaBOCiaBHHM'B, wo pyccxaa re 
CTapaerca san^HTHTb hxi. Qo Bcefi aanaAHofi Po 



"— 283 — 

CTajH cocTERiJiTLCfl npomeHifl o BosBpaniieHiH wb npaBO- 
GAaBie. 

O&k BOH<j^e;i;epaiUH npaBocjaBHaa h npoTecTaHTCBair, 

CJTHJBCB Bl OJIflJ — paAOMCByD, Kb KOTOpoS BUEJT&JSfiWh 
6aJL% IipHCTaTB KOpOJTL, H B'B 1768 T* 9SLKjm^eH'h 6uJUb 

TpaBxaTB, no BoropoMy npaBOCJiaBHfie h npoTecTaHTu wb 
nojiLm^ nOdSy^HJiH cBofio^y cob^th, xoth h HenojHyio 
(oTCTynjieHie otb ^oc^o;^CTByIDI^efi Bipn bi IIojeboi^ ^o;^- 
Beprajro HsrHaHiro h3i oTe^ecTBa), ho Bce-xaKH odesne^H- 
saioi^yiD cnoBoficTBie rhu^, bto He npHHaAJesaj'B B'B jia- 

Ho He AOJro npaBococaBHue sbhjh Ha;^esAaHH na jry?- 
mee 6yAyn^ee. Jl^aae npoTHBx Tasoft cbo6o^h coBicTH bos- 
CTEJH uHorie hojiakh 2 cocTaBHjH DaB'B HasuBaeMyEO 6ap- 
. csyD BOH<j[)eAepai^iiD, Ha3BaHHyD TaBi no m^cthocth, B'B 
BOTopofi OHa cocpe^oTO^HBajacB, t. e. no ^opo;^y Bapi, 
B'B DasHot YBpafint, na rpanni^^ Tofi nycTunnon nojrocu, 
BOTopaA OTA'i^jEajia Typmiio ovb Poccin h IIojibniH. Eoh- 
^eAepai],ia axa, Mesjiy npo^HM'B, OTBepraja BCAByio cbo- 
6oAy coBibCTH, H noTOMy wb YBpaHH'! no^n'B ea BJiiAHieM'B 
cenqacB se bo3o6hobhjhcb ronenifl na npaBOCjasHiixi. 
Ha &kfly emfi dapcBaa BOH^AepaB.iA CTajia CT^HBaTB B'B 
ce6% BoftcBa hs'b YBpafiHU, h b:b todcb micjrb nosejiaja 

CTAHyTB KT, Ce6i yBpaHHCBHXX BOSaROBl. HapO^^'B ACHO 

BB.^ijL'bf HTO 9jAimie ero nparn OTHBHasoTB y nero no- 
CAijifiioio CHJiy H Hajo Toro, ?to xoTjaiT^ nanpaBHTB ee 
na fljbjLO, BpaaAe^Hoe eny, ho npn duowb 6yja;yTi eni;e co- 
BepmeHHo desnaBasaHHo THpaHHTB napoA'B. yHiaTu, cHOBfa 
HaxjHHyBmie cb CBOeio nponaraH^od, BnojTH']^ wro uojir 
rBepsKAaiH. Meas;i;y t^m'b, HapoA'B 'SHaj'B, tto npoTHBi 
5apcBHX!B BOH^^OAepaxoB'B noABHrajoTCH pyccBifl Boftcsa, h 



/' 



— 284 — 

BDOJH^ cosHaBaj'b, ^rro ero o6A3aHHOCTL j^'ificTBOBaTB 3a- 
o^iiHO He ex 6apcKHMH KOH(|)e;i,epaTaMH, a cb ^o;^CTy^aH)- 

II1;HMH pyCCKHMH BOfiCRaMH. Bx 9T0-T0 BpeMfl EaKie-TO 

aiEie JD^H nycTHJH b'b napo^'B no^JiosHUH mslue^tb 
ERaxepHEfiE n, npHrjamaBmifi HCTpefijustTB naHOB'B, RceH^j^- 
soB'b H mjifljowh. HapoA^ CTpaniHO saBOJiHOBajECfl. .Sbhjhcb 
bo»;i;h, Mea^y npo^HMi, ToHTa — bh^uhhS h ^aae o6pa- 
soBaHHUH ^ejOBiR'b H3X H']^CTHuxi> RosaROBi^, H sanopo- 
ses.'b ^eji%3HAR'B. CocTaBHBiniecfl OTp^A^i CTajiH coBep- 
maTB CTpaniHKfl ^%jia, — HCTpe6juiJiH jss) Tjia Bce nosB- 
CRoe, RceH;^30BCRoe, an^noBCRoe. Ocofienno atecTORO HCTpe6- 
jLevLO nojBCRoe h SHAOBCRoe nacaieHie Wb ropOA*)^ YMaHH, 
oTb qero H caMoe B03CTaHie nojy^Hjio Ha3BaHie yMaHCRoU 
pi3HH. BoscTanie 9to paspocraiocB cb neodHRHOBeHHOD 
6iiCTpoTo& H no^cxoji^HJEo R'B BojiiiHH H B-ijopycciH. ' B03- 
CTame rpo3Hj[o caiiOMy cyiii,ecTBOBaHiK) IIo^Binn, RaRi nojB- 
CRO-pyccRaro rocy;i;apcTBa, h pa3;^iJl'B 3Toro rocyj^apcTBa 
cpasy Ha nojTBckyiD h pyccRyi) CTpany onaTB acHO 060- 

3Ha^HJ[CJS[. 

Hsi HCTopin ^ase noB'IfiniHX'B Bpenen'B hsb^ctho, ^to 
HHUfl rocy^apcTBa ne tojbro noJtB30Baj[HCL no;i;o6HUMa[ 
CMyTaMH y codkflfi% ho ^aae B036ya;i;aj!iH hx'b js,j[& cbo- 
HX'B n;']^jie3. TaRx, Hea^y npo^ioix, Ta ae Uojihrna ne 
TOJiBKO noJiB30Bajraci» HaniHMH caMosBaHHecRHHs^ CMyTaMH 
H npo6oBaj[a saBoeBUBaTB Poccis), ho HecoMH']&HHo h bo3- 
6y»;^aJ!Ia hx% cb caMaro Hanaja. PyccRoe rocy;i;apcTBo spe- 
MeH'B ERaTepHHu II, necMOTpA ;i;ase na to, ^to IIojBniy 
Tor^a pacniaTHBa^i'b pyccEifi ace, npaBOCJiaBHHt Hapo^x, 
QOCTaBJiflBniit hb'b ;i;peBHOCTH ^ocTOjiHie Poccm h TenepB 
aecTOEo CTpa;i;aBniift orB IIojrBniH, ne co^jio nosBOJHTejB- 

BUMl nOJ![B30BaTBCH A^H CBOHX'B Jljbjiei TaRHMH 6i^CTBiflMH 



— 286 — 

IIojiBniH. Oho, HanpoTHBi, caHo BoacTajo npornBi yHan- 
CKHX^b raftA^ufaKOBi. EKaxepHHa II ofi'&ABHJia, ?to MaHH- 
iffecThy ujmfiEKai wh napoA's otb ex H^reHH, noAJO»Hiii 
MaHH^ecrb, h npHsasaja cboemi BO^CRairb jckhphtb rafi- 
Aaifai^Eoe yspaHHCRoe soscraHie. TadAaMaKH 6iijh jckh- 
peHu; no;^aBj[eHa 6ujib, ^ase saDopoaKCKaa O&^b, npH^eirb 
9TH npocjaBjeHHse ysacnue jidah noxasajH HMeHHo pyc- 
CKyro ao6ji6ctb. Kor;i;a y hhxi nepe^'B npExo^OMt pyc- 
CRaro BotcRa no^HflJiHCB tojerh, ^to nysHO 6htbca h ch 

pyCCRHMH, TO <50J[BniHHCTB0 p^IIIHJIO, ^TO HefjKBSfl BOeBETB 

npoTHB!B pyecRod i^apsn;Ei. 

ErB BeJLsma&mevj npHCRop6iK), Bee sto a^jo no^caBJieniA 
Hapo;^Haro BOSCTaHiA vb YRpatni bcjlh xaRie pyccRie juojsfi^ 
ROTopne nuLR He HOHHMajra sanaicHo-pyccRHX'B HapoAHUx'B 
KbjTb^ Hjra js,Sixe 6uj(h npe^aHii nojHRaiTB. PyccRifi hocoj^b 
Wh BapmaBi, HaBO^HBniii ne pasi ysacB na hojbcrhxi 

RpHRynOB'B BOJKBHOCTH H SaCTaBJABHlid HOJIBCRiO COSmH 

A^aTB, ^To eny 6ujio yro^HO, rhabb PeuHHH'B, b% a'^S- 

CTBHTeJIBHOCTH ChLJll* ApyrOlTB HOJEAROB'B, He 6yHT0BaBHIHX'B 

npoTHBi PocciH, H 6uj[i '^cer^a BecBMa He;i;pysej[H)6eH'B 
K<B pyccRHDTB sana^Hofi PocciH. Oh:b noRasuBaji'B JiBHoe ne- 
BHHHaHie He tojbro R'b MejBXHce^^eRy, ho ^axe jpl Feop- 
riiD RoHHceROMy. Eni^e 6oj!iie 6}ijli> pacnojoseni r'b no- 
jiARaM^ ycMEpHTejiB rafi^aMaROBx renepajTB Kpe^eTHHROB'B, 
a ApyroS renepajri, IDhprobi^, 6uxh ^ase HecoMH'^HHO saji- 
rhh:b opyAieM^ hojarobi ^epes'B seny oboh) — nojiBRy. 

Bcjr6;^CTBie TaRHXi o6cToaTej[BCTB'B b% ycMBpeHin raS- 
AaHasoB^ cjsjkjLSLEO 6ujio HHoro BoniK)n^HX'B oniH6oR'B h ne- 
cnpaBeAJHBoorefi. TaR^B, ycHHpeHHue pas^^^jieHu 6hj[h Ha 
ABi rpynnu, h pyccRie no;i;AaHHiie npenpoBos^eHiii js^jlo. 
HaRasania na BocTO^nyro CTopony Jl^ninpa, ^t6 (Jhjio co- 



— 286 — 

BepnieHHO ecTecTBenHO, a ;^py^ie — noAm^tHEHe no;iBCsaro 
rocj^apcTBa nepe;(aHU nojiBCRHirb BjtSLCTowh. Hobhmh ysa- 
caMH nopasena 6uja yEpanHCRafl somja. Bhc^jehiei cb 
6oxraDiii;HHH&a Ha eex% TpynaMH Ra3HeHHiixQ& o6o9eb.^bjlb. 
rjaBHMmie nyxH coofin^eniA wb 3Toft CTpan*]^ Ha orpounoe 
npocTpaHCTBO. C'B oaBHQxrb bhhobhhkobi BoscTanifl, Ras'B 
ci ToHTH, HOJraKH c4;HpaJiH KO«y, ^ipyrHM'B o6py6ajiH pyKH, 
HorH, sajie^HBajH h nycRajiH vb napoj^i ^jih Ha^jesani;aro 
BHymeHia. nocTpa^ajiH oTt nojBCKHXt naB^TOBi h tjeb- 
HHe npefliCTaBHTejH YKpainH — repBacifi h MejiLXHce^eRt. 
05a OHH y^ajieHU 6ujlu ct* cbohx'b h^ct'b h ycTpanenu ote 
BCAKaro ^cajiBH'b&niaro BjiAHia na jsfbjia, 7KpaiHU. OcTajiCH 
HCTpoHyTHMt TOJBKO o^HHi Epe^ncTaBHTejTB 3ana;i;Ho-pyc- 
CKaro HapoAa, iepapx'B E'&iopycciH, Feoprift EohhcceIh. 
Majro f oro, noJTBCKie naHu, ne y^acTBOBaBnrie b'B 6apcso3; 
KOHij^eAepai^H, CTapajHCB o6paTHTB pyccsie BoficRa B'B cpe;^- 
CTfio AJfl BOSCTanoBjieHiH cBoeS pacmaTaHHcfi noHini;H?eS 
BJiacTH HaA'B pyccEHMH RpecTBAHaMH GBoefi CTpaHU H ne- 
pas'B AOCTHrajTH aioro. 

TaRHM'B o6pa30H%, ERaTepiiHa II He tojtbko xenepB 
ycTpaHHjacB, no^ofiHo Uexpy I, ovb paspimenia pyccKO- 
nojBcsaro Bonpoca no yEasaHiaM'B sanaAHo-pyccsaro Ha- 
po;i;a, h noMorjia nojiBnii noRopHTB ce6i 9Torb napo^'B, 
HO noCTynHjra eme ropa3;i;o cyposte, ^iM'B IleTpi I. Ho 
no npHM'j&py me IleTpa I, ERaTepHna He nanura bosmoss- 
Muwh OTCTynaTBCE ovb samiHTH BaxHMmefi CTopoHH shshh 
BToro Hapo;iia, — npaBocjaBia. Ona yBH^tjra acflo, ^rro hc- 
THHHBre CMyTOTBopii;H BT> yRpaftHi — yniaTCEoe ;i;yxoBeHCTBo. 
IIodTOMy eio;e ;i;o nepBaro pa3A%ja IIojiBmH, HHenno wh 
1771 ro^y, no »aj[o6i npaBocjraBHHXi yEpaHHi^eB'B, mho- 
ro^HCJieHHHe h3x yniaTCEHxi BJiacTeft 3a6paHH 6hj[h vh 



fe!: 



— 287 — 

yBpaiiHi pyccKHMH oTp^AaMH H sacaseHU wh Eep^gii^eB^, 
wh Epi^noCTB. 9to co^HTie hohato 6hiA0 Bi> YKpaAwk h 
^ase Ha Bojiuhh Tani, ^to xenepL KOHeu^'B h yain h 
BOJiBCKOH BJiacTH. IIpaBocjiaBHue AjxoBHue B3flj[HCB pes- 
HOCTHO onjiTB 3a BOSCTaHOBJEeHie npaBOCJraBk, h cHJiaMH 
Hapoj^a, H npH coAificTBin pyccKHxi OTpa;i;oB'B. HiKOTopHe 
H3% pyccBHX'B BoeHHuxi HaHajiBHHBOB'B ycepAHo noMorajH 

B'h BTOWh TyseMHUMl npaBOCJaBHUMB. 0C06eHH0 peBHOCTHO 

^McTBOBajEi BHflSB UeT^rb TojiEU^uwh. £:b YBpaSH']^ h 

3Ha^HT6jIBH0S HaCTH BOJIHHH, KasaJIOCB, BnOJHi H OBOH'^a- 

TejBHo BOSCTaHOBjTfljracB pyccBaa npaBOCJiaBHaA »h3hb h 
pyccEoe ynpaBjenie. TaBHM^B ofipaaoMi^ Hapo^'B onaTB Ha- 
BOfljiurh pyccBoe npaBHTejEBCXBO Ha pimeHie h rpaac^aHCBOH 
ero y^acTH. Xo^hjih cjyxH, hto TaB-B ? CyjifiTh, Bi to 
se BpeMA H nojHTHHecBk co6HTiA BMHy^CHjEH EBarepHHy 
B3HTBCA sa rpaacA^HCBoe pasp'^^menie pyccBO-nojiBCBaro 
Bonpoca. i 

ycMHpeme 6apcB0& BOH(j)eAepan;iH BMHyjo Pocciro b'b 
Typen,ByH) Boftny, BOTopy© h ^o;^^OTOBHJ[H nojraKH bi> coiDsi 
Gh 4)paHi(y3aMH, h He Majo saTpyAH^JCH PocciK) bo Bpeua 
caHoS BofiHU. EnaTepHHa no^cajiacB na aabhui h nacToS- 
^jiBus. npe;i;j[oseHifl IIpycciH pas^^JiHTB hojebcboo rocy^ap- 
CTBO, H npoHSBCJia B'h 1772 r. dTorh pa3;i;ijKb, Tasi* na- 
suBaeMun nepBQg pa3;i;']^Ji'B IIojBniH. Ho pas^^jio^ stotx 
npoHSBeAeH-B laEi, ^to Poccia ;i;ocTajracB caMaa He^J[o;^o- 
po^nafl "^acTB pyecBoS IIojBmH, BocTo^Haa B'^Jiopycm, a 
caMaa 6oraTaA no senLJii h aHepris Hapo;i;a YBpadHa, b'b 
HsyMJieHiK) H npHCBop6iH) pyccBaro nacejenifl es, ocTajracB 
noA'B BjacTiro HojcBniH; h, ^to e^^e 6oJite cTpanno, eb 9T0My 
pasA^jiy npMBASajracB ^epauiBa, ne noJoasHBinaa HHBaBHX'B 
TpyAOB'B ji^Jia ycMHpeflia CyfinoH HojiBinH, hmohho, AfiCTpia, 



— 288 — 

uoiy^HBinafl A&poitb, ki BeiHRofi (KSh^ pyecKaro e 
FajHi^iK), Be BH;iaBaBiiiyK)Cfl he aojbCKofi, sa ffia 
CKofl CNyTOg, xOTfl HecoHH^HHo TaroHsniyD h sb Vtt 
a EiPocciH mo6mfi. 

FyccKie xhtcjih yEpafiHu a vacrE BaiHHH sa^ 
6uso nonpaBHTb p^meme cobishuxi A^paaBx, npi 
iDHXi nepBufi: pas^tixb IIojtbinH. Bi 1773 roiy o 
craBHJiH a.Kn BejiHsofi HCTopn^ecEofl saxHOCTH, ei 
jrimn, ocTaBasniiftcn wh HameK sayE^ HeHSB^CTHi 

DOCJ^AHATO BpeHeHH. 3tO — HOJIBOHOVe BsCpaBBU 

nyTaxaici bi. nerepdyprx otb luieBH sHTeiefi BoeB< 
Eiescxaro, 6paiiJiaBCRaro, nOAoiLCKaro h Bo.iuhh, t 
BceS sanaAHot MaiopocciB, apocHTb EKaTepiiHy n, 
noTpeGoBajia y naaBiHH OTui^HH crbcsLmeshauTb c 
•^em& sh TpasTaT^ 1768 r. npasi cbo6oaii cosici 
upasa nepexoAHTb ffh npaBociaBie: n6jjs.e me a 
r^aBHufl cyAi He qosboji^ Ha xejcanie hxx 7?hhh 
BOJibCTBie, TO ohh (uajopoccu) cbohhi B^plOlI^Hirb 1 
f»Byrb flfiayT&mv.-b npaBo ii<i]iji,e.Th ax-b canOAepsai 
cificKOMy noflt si^Hoe aamameme h nOManCTBo". 
6ujia Hanpaenaa hjh, jiy^ine cKaaaiB, npeajeBpe 
no TorjiainHHurb coofipaseHiau'b nooKcriEa. Ei Kies 
AenyTaiu npexAe Bcero oiSpaiajBct cb cBoarb i 
pycCEifl BJiaciH norpefioBazH BuSpoCHTt no&rFt;tHe< 
Bie, H A^DyiaTU OTnpaBHiHCb vb nereptlTpri toj: 
npocB^oS o saa^B'T^ nxt npasi na cnoKoficTBie c 

HocJi^ nepBaro pas^^a HacTyQHJn sairL 6a 
jvia Uojibms OT-b xo-iroBpeHeHHUxi cuyvh h t 
Bpeua 3Toro OTAHxa npo;^jisajoci> XBa;^1;aTI> lifFb 
ueHOBaHO m. HCTopiH nocjii^Haro BpeHeHH HoJibi 
BOTopuuH nojesHUHH A^auH. nojibma Tor^a BCnir 



— 289 — 

ce64 cHjy coc'£;i;eS h y(J4^HjiacB, too nyaseo shtb CKpoM- 
Hie. Ct fl;pyrofi CTopoHH, ocBo6oa;i;eHHaji ovh ana^HTejiB- 
Hofif ?acTH jHmHHXx, cosepmeHHO ne nojbcsHX's o6.iacTeg, 
OHa T^M^ yjss>6Eie Mor!2ia sanflTLca cbohhh BHyTpenHHMH 
ji,%jraMH. HaKonei^i, TaEOMy uoBopoTy mhofo cnoco6cTBOBaj[o 
H TO, TTO nojiBCBLs napiiH, y6i;!i^BBinHCB b^b CBoeft Hecocxcji- 
TejLHocTH, Jier^e c;^BHrajHCB bi oj^ny h oxoTnie OKpyatajH 
CBoero sjionojy^Haro Bopojia, CTaHHCJiaBa IIoHflTOBCBaro. 
B'b cainiS ro^'B nepBaro pas^^Jia nojBina yflH^TO^Hja y 
ce6si no pi^meHiK) nanii iesyHTCsii op^i^en'B. TpoMa^cHBia 
HH^Hi^ ero H BanHTajH TeaepB o6paiii;aj[HCB Ha ycTpoft- 
CTBO y vj[HiBi;'B noA^ ynpaBjEemeM'B y^HJHii^HoS eohmhccIh, 

BO rJiaB*]^ BOTOpofi CTOaJlK O^eHB yHHHe AlOfffl^ BaB'B Eo* 

HapcBifi, ?aii;Kig, KojuoHTad. THseHrayseHi saHUMaaca 
npHBe;i[eHieMi b'b Jiy^mee cocTOflHie npoHunijreHHocTH, 
cejiBCBaro xosiiScTBa. KopojiB uoosupAji naysH. IIpH hgicb 
jmcsLJVh nojBCByio HCTopiro HapymeBH^'B, iii,e;tpo noompeH- 
HHt H pyccBoi HMuepaTpHi^eJI EBaxepHHoS U. IIoroBapH- 
BaJiH TOTjxjSL ^ase q6t> o6e3ne^eHiH noJEoacemA, xjiohob'b. 

Ho noj[BCRaa acHSHB ho TaBi cjioa^HjacB, ?to6h nojriLBH 
MorjiH B£[pa6oTaTB ^McTBHTejiBHoe HapoAHoe 6j[aro. Ero 
He 6hjio h b-b to, bh^hmo c^acTJHBOe Bpeua. BciMH yjiy^- 
HieHiaMH nojBSOBajocB tojbbo mjaxexcTBo, noj^HHMaBmee 
6ypH) npH o^HOMi cjiyx-i o npe^nojoaceHiax'B ofijeriHTB 
BptHocTHoe cocToanie. HoaTOMy xjohctbo h TenepB TaBae 
CTpa;(aJio, Basi h npeac^e, oco6eHHo xjtohctbo pyccKoe. 
nojflBH :bhbo uomhhjih ra&Ad'MaiJ^BiA ^^Jia, a pyccKin na- 
po;^^, ocTaBjeHHHH noA'B BJiacxiK) IIojebhih, bi cbok) o?e- 
pe;CB, BHA'fiJTB, HTO HacTB OFO yae ^ocTHr-ia njijeS raftjiia- 

MaTHHHH H HaXOAHTCA HO^l* B^iaCTBE) PoCCIh. 

KaB'B TOJtBBO yniaTCBie CBan^enHHBH 6uj[h Bunyni;eH£i 

19 



i 



— 290 — 

Hst BepAH^esa (1773 r.) h pyccKia BoftCKa crajH bhxo- 
jifiTh mrb pyccRo-nojn»CKHxx ofijacTed, Tas'B cefi^ac^ se 
Hajierjo na sth ofijacTH crapoe Hro — jma co bc^uh 
acecTORocTflUH CTaparo BpeneHH. IIpaBocjraBHHe CBJnu^eH- 
HHKH no;^Bepraj[HCB ouarb HsrHamiD, i^epBBH ofipam^ajHCB 
vh yniaTCBifl h saiiin^aJiHCB ymaTCKHMH CBJin^eHEHBaMH, 
soTopue cTapajQCL cyry6o otomctsltb sa ne^aBHrn cboh 
neBsro^u h HHor^a juase npeBOCXo^^HJH nojBCBHXB hcth* 
Tejeg 3a yMaHCByD p'^shid. Tasi^ vh 1776 r. vh toh'b 
caHOH'B ropoA^ Yusi^m[, Tjsjb npoHCxo;i;Hjia dTa p^sa, u^ijos. 
rpynna yHiaTcsHxi ^^yxoBHHxi saMy^njra BapBapcsHHi 
o6pa30M<B yHaHCBaro upoxonona, KnpHjrja 3ej[BHHi^Baro. 

nponOB^^CHHKH XpHCTianCSOfi HCTHHU H JQ[]D6bH BUjaMU- 

BajTH 3T0My npoToiepeK) cycxaBEi, ujL&cajLHL sa neiTB, h3J[0- 
MajiH rpy^^B h Bu^^asHJiH BHyTpeHHOCTH. Bhobb Hanyran- 
Hufi H ;i;aBHO yse HSMyieHHud Hapo^B no CTapoMy 6po- 
CHjcfl Ha BocTo^HyiD CTopoHy ^H'j^npa, »aj[OBaj[C<ff, h hc- 
KajEx B'B TaifoniHHXx mepBBaxi xpncxiaHCBaro yrimenifl. 
Ho noMKH ycTpoHJH CTpoacaftmyro cxpaacy y ^ninpa h 
nperpascAa.iH cuomBam. Bx oco6eHHOCTH ohh ssLupjfl^nsxK 

npHCUJEV OrryjlJBi CBflmjeHEHBOBB Bl npHxo^H, saHATiie 

yeiaTaMH. Tor;i;a napo^i CTajB nocHJiaTB cbohx^ KaH^H- 
;i;aT0B!B ji^LE. pysonojoseHifl B'B Moj^asis). HaMHosHJocB 

B'B YBpaHH^ ^esnpHXOAHUXl CBJin^eHEHBOBB, ^aCTO JSJdiJLeKO 

He BucoBHX'B Ra^ocTB'B HO o6pa30BaHiK), HO BaK'B crajB 
TBepAux'B vh npaBocjiaBlH h Hapo;i;HOCTH. Ohh np^TajorHCB 
no xyTopaMTb, iiejBHHDiaM'B; ho npoH3Bo;^HJiH TaKoe chjb- 
Hoe jo;McTBie^ Ha Hapo;^'B, ?to ofipasoBaHHifimie h XHTp^ft- 
mie yHiaTH co3HaBajHCB B'B cBoem 6e3dHjiH no((opoTB 

dTMXB 6e3npHXOAHUXB CBJiinieHHHBOBl. 

CjiyXH BX MoJA^BiH O SaTpyAHOHiflXB B'B 7BpaHH% AO- 



— 291 — 

6iiBaTB npaBOCJiaBHUXl CBJIIIi;eHHBKOB% BUSBaJEH OTTJAft Ha 

HOMon^B yKpaHHi^aHi 6uBinaro npH8peH;i;cRaro nHTpono- 
jiHTa (vh CTapog Cep6iH) EBceBiji, BejHKaro ncisLTejisi npH^ 
Kjoo^emft H CMyTOTBopi^a, ho b'b Tose Bpeica BecBMa o6pa- 
soBaHHaro ^eJiOB^Ka h BejHBara HeHaBHCTHHsa yniaTOB'B. 
EBceBifi KB 1778 r. npH^iUB H3rB Moj^^aBiH bi YjcpaftHy, 
yrsepAHJCA B'b HeMHpoBi, orspiijrB s^icB vh jfoffjb euap- 
xiaiBBaro ynpaBJiemA h vh conpoBoacAeHiH BOopysenHoft 
CTpasH H3% cep($OFB, BaJiaxoB^, b'b HeiiajioirB uacjA na- 

CaiflBmHXB HeMHpOBl, O&hidSSSLJllt CBOD, CaKOSBaHHO OT- 

EpHTys) enapxiH), h soctoro pacnpaBJijiJCH cb ymaTaHH. 
Mnoro xiohoto^ owb na.jsibJiBji'b h noiBCsoMy, h pyccRony 
npaBHTejBCTBy, h tojibro bb 1781 r. ero vawmai h3B 
npex^JtoBi nojBCEaro rocy^apcTBa. 

Bra HOBaa h coBepmeHHO HeosHAaHHaji CHyra, 6e8B co- 

MH^HUi, HM^ja H6 UBLJO BJ[iflHifl Ha TO, HTO ERaTOpHHa 

pibinHJiacB ycRopHTB AaBHee yse npeAnoJosoHie ycTpoHTB 
HOByD npaBOCJaBHyiD enapxii) bb pyccRHXB ofijacTAXB, 
ocraBiHHxca noA% BJiacTii) IIojBinH. npaBocjaBHEiM^B enH- 
csonoHi ji^a dTofi enapxis ^ujb nasna^eHB bb 1785 r. 
CJiyipcift apxEMaH^^pHTi, Bhrtopb Ga;i;ROBCRift. Ho h axa 
iribpa He ycTanoBHjra cnoRoficiBia, He chotpa na Rpafinee 
HHpoj[X)6ie pyccRaro npaBHTejBCTBa, ne cMOTpa ji,BMe na 
noAaTjHBOCTB' nepe^i nojHRaMH HOBOHasna^eHHaro eiiH- 
CBona, ROTopui gl paspimeHUi ERaTepHHii hphhajtb hojb- 
cKoe Ho^^ancTBO h bc^mh MipaMH cxapajCA shtb ^pysHO 
Ch soJABaMH H ji^ase yHiaxaHH. 

Ha8Hav[eHie npaBocjiaBHaro enncRona j^e pyccRHxi npa- 
BocjaBHUxi noAi^aHHuxB BB -nojBCROMB rocyAapcTB'fa co- 
craBjueTB j[K)6oiiuTHyio CTpaHHoy b% HCTopiH hojbcrhx'b 
noHJtrift cbo^oa^ cob^cth. Oho npoHSBejo BspuB^B ne- 

19* 



— 292 — 
roAOBEHifi' H Bonjet. Bi nepenHCsi Tora BpeHeHH ^oKa- 

SHBaJOCB, ?T0 dTO npOTHBHO H OnaCHO AJA SaTOJEH^eCROft 

ii;epKBH jiaTHHCKaro h ymaTCKaro o6pajsfiL h He jsfiJLjmo 
6ktb TepnHHO. E ne Kaxie j[h6o seB'isecTBeHHHe ^ana- 
THKH BUCEasuBajH TaKifl HHiHifl, a o6pa30BaHHMinie jlioajil 
nojBCRaro o6ii^ecTBa, OKpyauiBiiiie Bopoja, h b^.^hcjh^ ultb 
caMHe, noBHj^HMOuy, rynaHHue yniaTU — ymaTCRift m HTpo- 
nojHTS CHoropaceBCRifi h ero 6mssAlkmii noB^penHHS -spa 
najEBCROifB ;i;Bop%, RopojieBCRiS ceRpexapB, hotohi jymRifi 
ymaTCRifi enncRoni, JleBHHCRifl. 

y yniaTOBi, Bnpo^eMi', nero^^OBaHie npoTHB'B nasHa^e- 
m& vh IIojiBHiy npasoGJiaBHaro enHCRona nvkjLo oco6uiL 
xapaRTep'B. Ohh 6oaj[hcb, ?to BejEH^ecTBennocTB npaBO- 
cjaBHaro apxiepeftcRaro 06-ia^eHia h cjrf7&6u 6y;^e'PB no- 
;i;aBJiaTB Hxt — yniaTOBi, h cosnanie, ^to ohh, HCRasHB^b 
wb jEiii npaBocjaBHse o6pflW) yHH?HasHj[H h ee h ce6s^ 

6uJiO TSLJVb CHJIBHO, ^TO A^SCO TaROS HHCTORpOBHUi HO 

BOCHHTaniE) h mnsHH uojiakt*^ RaR'B CnoropsReBCRifi, CTaji'b 
Hsy^axB npaBOCwiaBHUA oco6eHHOCTH ycTpoficTBa xpaHOBOB, 
a JleBHHCRili, Ror;i;a ero c^^jajEH BHRapHHMi apxiepeeHib, 
CTajii npocHTB j^osBojieniA cjysHTB b'b caRROcb. Bi^ ^ncjrb 
Tor^i.ainHHX'B yniaTOBi^ 3ana;i;HoS Poccin oRasaJca eme fiojite 
chjbhhS h, ho BceMy BH;^Ho, HCRpeHHift pe^opMaTop'B yniH. 
9to CBHni;eHHHR% TypRCBH^i, sajnyHaBHiiS mnpoRiS nJiaH'b 
BoscTaHOBjEenlA b'b yniH Bcixi npaBOCJiaBHUx'B ofipfl^oBi 
ch ii;ij[LK) c6j[H»eHiH yniaTOBi Cb npaBOCJaBHHMH h bo3- 
CTanoBJieHifl Mess^y t£mh h ;];pyrnMH xpHCxiaHCRaro nHpa. 
Ho HJiaHK TypReBH^a He nanuH ce6i noAAep^SRH B'B Majo- 
pocciH, Tfli^ OH'B HX'B pasBHBaJi^B, H HOHHTHo HO^eMy. He 
Morja ycTanoBHTB HHpa ;^a»e npeo6pa30BaHHaH yniH TaHi, 
Tfl,i ee oTBeprajH vh caMOfi cyni;HOCTH h acejajH npHHo 



— 293 — 

npaBocjraBifl. npeo6pa30BaHie jhIh b% CMUcjii c6jmsKemA 
c% npaBocjiaBieM'B Morjo hm^tl cmhcj'b h »h3hb TaM<!b, 
Txb HGKaseHie yniH cjHBajio ee hohth Bcei^^jio ch Jia- 

THHCTBOHl H PpOSHJO eft Cb 3T0ft CTOpOHU rnfieJILH). TaK'B 

9T0 6ujo B'b 6ij[opyccRoft cTpaH^ H dTo A'&jo Tor^a ase, 
£aK:b jBH^^HM'B, noAHHMajti HOBHft H nopBuft Bi PoccIh 
yHiaxcBift enHCKoni, JbcofiCEift. B% MaiopocciH njiann 
npHUHpenifl yHin c:e npaBocjiaBieMi Ha^iiJiajH jtHmL 6iflfii 
H npaBOCJiaBHtiM'b h yHiaiaMx. 

nojAKH HHKas'b He uorjiH ce^^b npe^cTaBHTB, ^to6u npa- 
i^ocjaBHUft apxiepefi, xoxa h npHH^Bmift nojbCKoe no;i;- 
AaHCTBO, He Cuji'h npe;v;aH:B Pojccin h ne X'^ftCTBOBajii b'b 
nojiLm'& vh pyccKHXi HHTepecaxi. Ohh oBpysajH ero 
n.'&nBH) sopBO cjii^^HBmnxi sa Kaas^niiirb ero niaroMx na- 
6jK)AaTej[e3, Kh neuj npHSBaHU 6iijih, Mes^y npo^Hsi^, 
6c£ HOHaxH yniaTCKaro 6a3HjiiaHCBaro op^ena. 9th Ha- 
6jK>;i;aTej[H o6paTHj[H oco6eHHoe BHHMaHie na to, ?to Bhs*- 
Topi HHHierb ;i;oHeceHia bi cb. chho;i;'b, h en^e Cosie na 
to, hto ohi noMHHaerb pyccKyio HMnepaTpHniy H npas^i;- 
Hyera pyccsie TopmecTBennHe ;i;hh, h A^xe TaBia co0£iTia, 
saB'B pyccBia no&bjiji 3% hoboS Typei^soft bohh']^ (1787 r.)- 
Bee dTo iswh BasajiocB o^ohb noAospHTejBHUMi. no;i;o3pi- 
Hie eme 6ojiie ycHJiHJOCB liMi, ^to Tor;i;a, no cjy^aro 
BoeHHUx^ ^j^iftCTBift, B'b pyccBHX'B o^JiacTflx'B Tor;i(aniHefi 

nOJBHIH 6IIJIO OnaTB HHOrO BOeHHHX^B JLJOJSfiA H ToproBUjea^B 
HS'B PoCCiH, BOTOpue B'B CTOJIBHOBeHiflXl CI nOJTaBatfH He 

3aTpy;^Haj[HCB rpo3HTB hmi hobod pacnpaBoft cb IIojiBniefi 
pyccBoft HMHepaTpHu;!!. UojiatBiWb npe^CTaBSJiocB, hto ro- 
TOBHTca HOBuft 6yHT!B Hapo;i;a, a o6ii3A'b Bhbtopoh'b b% 
1788 r. CBoefi enapxin npeACTaBjiajiCA hm% pimnTejBHUM'B 
ci ero CTopoHU maroMi» B'B BU30By SToro 6yHTa. 



y 



— 294 — 

noJibcEoe npaBHTejbCTBO, HaxoxHBineecfl nojTB c: 
BiisHieiTb HaQaBmaroca yxe TorAa, toki nasuBae 
THpeu^TEaro cefiHa, nocTanoBHio npHHSTb frkmt 
Hipu npoTHBi BooGpasaeHaro 6yHTa h ctojib x< 
acaeKHXi pyKOBOABT&ieft ero. CefiHOBue iiapnia^ 
npex^^e Bcero yHHBepcajrb, npe^nBCUBaBinifi acbu 
ttfiWb H31 Poccia, — ToproBqavB h uoaaxaiTB y, 
H3i npejt^JOBi DojiLniH bi Te^enie abjx'b bba^ 
CTpaioiTB noABeprHyibCA 33B.JEiTOHiH) Bt spinocT 
HicTHHe AyxOBHue ao-i«hu 6hjIH npHHecTH npHcar 
HOCTb UalLCKOHy Eopojn H -pbHB noCQaiRTOfl H B 
noHHHaTb Ba fioroaiyxeaiH itapCEKXi ocoiS'b hhoi 
B% Tose BpeHS jiflsi, Guxh npHEas'B apecroBarb 
Ohi h 6ash apecTOBaHi ei HtKoxopuHH (uen 
cjiyitRofi EOHcHCTopiH, BO Bi> Baijajti xe apecra ' 
Topa B ero KOHCHCTopia norpeCoBaiH bsastb jiji 
yKasu, corjacBo BmneynoHflHyrutrb Tpe<$OBaBu 
6ujo HcnojBeao, b Bbktopi saiim BpenpoBox 
BapmaBy i^jLa ct^CTBifl H cy^a, rxh b Bpocs 
TjaBBOHt saun^eBiH no 1792 r. 

IIpHBOAHTb Bi BCHOiseBie ysasu BBKTOpa b ei 

CTOpiB VSHIBCh CaMB BOIBEH, H CTaiB BpBBOAHTl 

Boft QpBcar^ Be TOJbso AyxoBCBCTBo, BO B Bapc 

BTOVB HBOrie H31 BHXl paSBepByjIH BOpaSBT&Ibl 
CBOC06bOCTB BQSUBaTb (SyHTU H, BO BCflKOITb ciy 

paBBTb fieBHBBUX'S JtBDjefi. TaKi, B% EJkiopycciB 
OTJHTOJCA BoiLCldfl oopy^BSB MBpoBCsitt. Obi : 
CBon BpBCBFj, TpeSosaBBiyi) b^pbocth ee tojib 
CKovy EopojLH) H no-ibCEouy rocyAapcTBy, bo h i 
naay b ero npeeHHHKaui, b BpBSUBaBBiyD ra^ 
a KasHB Ba npHCarasmaro a ero Aom, ecia ow. 



— 295 — 

HHTB 9Ty npHcary. Ho KpoMi Toro MHpoBCKifi u ;^py^ie 
HcnojHHTejiH ceftMOBaro pacnopjuKeniA EacaTeocBHO npneAPH 
npe^^araiH npHcaraBinHM^b noAnHcuBaTB RaRie-TO, nena- 
B^CTHue HMi nyHRTH. OTRasi) BHSUBajii Ra3HH, j^j[n ^ero 
sadjaroBpeHCHHo npHroxoBJcajHCL posrH, uajiRH, a Mhpob- 
csiH BomJVb Ch co6oE> jsjBiXG naja'^a h ofixaBjAJH, hto 
HirfieTB HaA'B bc^mh upaBo shbhh h cxepTH. 

noAo6Hufi o6pa3% ^McTBifi oco6eHHo 6ujn» ouafiewh wh 
MaxopocciH. Hapo^i TaMi Ch xpy^ioM^b npHBjeRajm ri 
npHCflri; ho ch noAHHCAMH na KaRie-To nyHRTH a'^jo 6ujio 
emfi TpyOT^e. Hapo^^t jsjuaj^b, hto euy npe;i;jraraK)Ti no^;- 

HHCUBaTBCfi Ha yHiiD H pimHTeJBHO OTRaaUBaiCA otg& 

jLOfljmcKa. Bee pyccRoe Hacejieme IIojiBinH npHBe^eHO 6ujo 
arot npucflrod b% CTpamHoe 6poaceHie, ROTopoe pacnpo- 

crpaHHJiocB A&se na yniaTCRoe HacaieHie bojuhcroS o6- ^ 

jiacTH. no RpaSHeS whfi^ hhhei noJBCRaro iipaBHTejrBCTBa ;:| 

6hjh Bi dxoM^ yB^peHu, nponsBOAiiJiH pa3Gjr6AOBaHie, j| 

apecTOB£[Baj[H h yrposajH CTpainHuiiH HyRaMH MHorHicB Jil 



1 



Aw 



E^ijaa ROMMHCciH pa6oTajia HaX'B pasfiopoH'B jsjBLBUHTh 
6yHTi pyccRaro Hapo^a, Hanncajia h Hs^aja ji^kAoe co- 
"^nneHie o^'b stohi, h npej^CTaBHja ce&My, ROTopsig paao- 
6pajra ero, npHsnajii, hto aio aaxBaneno Bo^BpeMa h n 

2 anp&[fl 1790 r. Hapmajiu cefima ynHBepca^aMH npHrja- ^| 

CHJH rpas;i;aH'B noJiBCRaro rocy^apcTBa Bosfijaro^^apHTB Bora 
sa H36aBj[eHie ot'b yrpoxaBniaro (5yHTa. Bc4%;i;i sa t^m^b ! 

noJBCRiS ceiiMx npejosHJCB rniBO^ Ha mhjoctb, npHSBaJE^ 
npeACTaBHTOJEeS npaBocjiaBiji na coBiiEcaHie o6t» ycTpoficTB^ , 

^x!b caMOCToaTeJBHaro mepROBnaro ynpaBjienifl, cocxaBjeH'B 
ujTb npooRT^, saT^ifB coBBana b% 1791 r. nHHCXaa roh- i 

pera]](ia, ROTopaa hoa'b pyROBOjucTBOM'B hojbcrhx'b rommuc- I 



^ 



296 — 



capoBi> pimHja ycraHOBHTL ji,jiSL npaBOCiaBHnx'B IIojiBinH 

UaniOHaJIBHyD I^epnOBB C% SaBHCHMOCTiD OTTL KOHCTaHTH- 

Honojn»CKaro naipiapxa, c^b apxienHCEonoirB, Tpeira eiiH- 
CKonaMH H MHorocJOSHOD HHsmei) opraHHsai^iefi, HaDOHH- 
HaBinefi h npoxecTaHTCKlA o6in;HHU, h ymaTcsk soHrpe- 
rai^iH, H nOwiLCRie cefiMHKH, ce&MH. Ho 9to& nai^ioHaiLHoft, 
cjosHO opraHHBOBaHHOK i^epRBH CTporo 3anpeio;aj[oct» ca- 
noe cym^ecTBeHHoe b^ e^ shshh — o^n^eme c% e^nHHOB^p- 
HOD, pyccEOK) ii;epROBL]D. Bto nocjE^AHee saHpemieHie, npo- 
THBopiHHBinee caHUHX ochobhuhi» na^ajaiii DpaeocjaBiji 
Boo6ii^e, H 61M0 rjiaBHHifb bhsobomi eo scefi STofi cjios- 
Hofi pafioTi no ycTpoficTBy pyccEoft i^epEBH bi nojEBio^. 
HaBOHei^'b, cpe^H Cojiie spadHHx:b peBEHxejefi BOSCTanoB- 
jesiH chji^e nojiLniH CTaja 6po;i;HTB flfis&e Hucjb o&b o6jrer- 
^eHia xjona. Ho aTo nojuHflJo oitJiyE) 6ypH> cpej^H nanoB^. 
Hs^ cpe;i;H nakoB's, nsi noJEoi^saro, nanpHMtp'b, BoeBO^- 
CTBa, nocJiaHi Ha cefim ;i;ase ;3;aHa 6ujia, HHCTpy£i(ifl, 

HT06U OHH BC^MH CHJTaHH CTapaJHCb He ;i,OnyCEaTb 9T0& 

nepoM'^Hu, noTOMy ?to xjohctbo Heo6xo;i(HMO ;i;ji£ 
HiJijeExeTCTBa, mjAxeTCTBo nornfiHeTi npn MSLJiifL- 
meft BOJii xjoncTBa. 
Ck)6HTiA noEasajH, ^to h cpe;i;H BHmeynoMAHyTuxi poB- 

HHTOJeft HIHpOSOfi HOJIBCEOd CB060AH EpeCTBflHCEaa BOJJi 

npe;i;cTaBj[Aj[acB jhhib Eas'B cpe^CTBo noBpe^^iiTB Poccin. 
Ohh bh;i^'&!ih h HHue hs^b eiixi> npflHO BucEastiBajiH, ^to 
Poccifl Bjia^'^eT^B yMaMH h ^yBCXBaHH pyccEaro Hapo;i(a b^ 
nojtmi. HoaTOMy ohh ;i;yMajiH, wo ecJH j^axB cBofio^y 
pyccsoMy xjony b% IIojbhi'I, to uoacHO He toibeo OTop- 
BaTB ero ot'b Pocciu, ho hath c:b hhh:b BoeBaTB cakyK) 
PocciH) H paspymaTB ee. 07eBH;i;H0, ohh xyMajiH hobto- 
pHTB nyraHCBCEyH) HCTopiro. 



— 297 — 

BoTTB, noA^miHHaA HCTopk nojBinH Toro BpeMeHH bhesj, 
B^E pyccROM^B Hapoj^^ SToro rocy^apcTBa. Hs'b neA mo»ho 

BHA'&TB, KaKOBH 61IJH Sa^aXKH CjlBT'h »H8HH ;^Ji dTOPO 

Hapo^a H Basie wb neft 6uj[h HacToi^Hsue mh PoccIh 

BJEI30BU BSATBCfl Onjn*L Sa ;^^a IIOJBniH H piniHTB HX'B 

no yKasaHiflH^B 3Tofi HCTopiH BHHsy, B'B caHOMi Hapo;^^. 

Ho KpoMi dTofi flCHoS H yKasuBaiDimeS fiesnoBopoTHoe 
P'bineHie pyccBo-noJBCBai'O Bonpoca, 6ujisl emfi Apyraa, 
nojiBcsaji HCTopifl naBepxy, B'B nuAxercEoft cpe;i;'&, koto- 
paa H Tor^^a ocjiinjiflia y mhofhx'b rjrasa a^a Ha6jiK)Ae- 
hIji sl ypasyMtom A^ficTBHTejiBHaro xo^a A'^ji'b, h ;^o chx'b ! 

nopB ocjinxaeTi. | 

Bo BpoMA BBrmeonHcaHHuxi co6uTid npoHCxoAHJii ^e- {^J 

THpexj^THii, ^pesBn^aSHLiS cefiHX, saBepniHBniiHCA Had- ;^ 

CBoS KOHCTHTyi](iefi 1791 r. H sariHi BTopiiMi pas^'^jOM^B '^ 

nojLBniH. \^ 

IIojtBina, 3Ha?HTeJiBH0 o&hefljmeEiiSia. wb cbohx'B nap- ;| 

Tkx'B, sna^HTe JBHO osHBinas b^b cboom^b injtaxeTCTB']^, ecTe- ' ^| 

CTBOHHO noseja^a saBepniHTB s^aHie cbohx^ yjij^memiky .^ 

H ptmHJiaCB BUpa60TaTB HOByg) OOJIHTHHeCKyK) aSHSHB. B'B \^ 

1788 ro;i;y cocTaBHJca wa 9toS ii,ijiH ceftM^B, KOTopHft ■ % 

npoBpan^eHi B'B descM^HHufi, h qoTupe ro^a pa6oTaJii 

HaA'B HOBOIO CBOeS) BOHCTHTyi^ieH, KOTOpyE) HaROHei^'B B£I- 

pa6oTaj[i H npHHiiJi bi 1791 r. 3 vlslsl. Ho dTofi koh- , 

CTHTyii;iH UoJiBma A^jiajiacB MonapxH^ecKOH) cxpaHofi cb ,' 

yCHjieHHod BJiacTBK) KopoJA H ero npaBHTOJiBCXBa h c^ 6ojLie 
npaBEjiBHUHi napjaMeHTapHHM'B ycxpoficTBOMi, t. e. Ao&y- 
meHo pSmenie ]s^jli» no (5oJiBniHHCTBy rojiocoBi, a ne no oah- 
uorjacHOMy corjaciD, KOTopoe A^BaJio bosmoshoctb caMOuy 
Hero;!i,HOMy h ;^aa£e noABynjrennoHy nuflXTH^ saBpn^aTb: 
nie po^walaml (ne ^odBOJEAio), n bocb cedu'B pascrpaHBajrca. 



1 



— 298 — 

UojABH npesosiiocjiTi cbok) MaficRjE) KOHCTHTyn;iiD. £o- 
ne^HO, OHa nwb&rb ^nocTOHHCTsa, oco6eHHO vh cpaBHe- 
hIh ch npe^KHHMH nopa^KaMH nojBCBOH rocy;i;apcTBeHHofi 
acH3HH. Ho CHHTaxb ee ofipasu^OH'B coBepmencTBa HoryrB 
TOJELBO o^HH nojiBCKie mjuiXTOJivL. B'h nefi cpasy fipocaiOTCA 
B^b rjasa ^Ba KanHTajBHHx^ He^ocTaTBa. Bi nefi whirh 

CB06o^ COBiCTH. JIaTHHCTBO B% HeS UpHSHaeTCfl TaRse 

(j^aHaTHqecBH rociio;i;cTByH)iii;HH:b, BaKi h bi CTapHJi spe- 
Hena. HHOB'&pi^airE ;i;aeTCfl tojbbo ^acTHaa, JtHi^Hafl cbo- 
6oAa B'b npe;i['kiax'B B^poTepnHMoeTH, o^bh^iiho, no no;^* 
pasaniH) BipoTepnHMocTH b'b PoccIh, ho ropas^o y»e oa, 
T. e. 6e3i pasHonpaBHOCTH wb rocy;i;apcTBeHHO& cpejffb. 
Sa-rifeMi, Bt Heft wkrh CBo6o;iiH xjoncTBy. ^onynteno tojibko 
ofijrer^eme, nanpHuibpi, b'b todcb, tto xjona nejiBSA 6ujio 
y6nTB 6e3HaBa3aHHO, BaKi bi CTapuii BpeHena. Ho h3- 
BicTHO, HTO 9X0 nocTaHOBJOHie cA'^jaHo 6ujio emfi Ha pa- 
^OMCBOH^B ceftifi H CA'^^aHo no HacTOAHUD npe;^cTaBHTaiA 

PoCCiH, BHfl3H PeUHHHa. 

Mil BHaeMTi, B'b BaBlA G'bjsfiTBui HOBeprjH HHoro'iHCJeH- 
Hue ceftMOBHe co^HHHTejiH EOHCTHTyi^iH pyccBaro uona 
H BC^xi pyccKHxi nojTBCKaro rocy;i;apcTBa nepe^'B o^na- 
poAOjBanieM'B axoft KOHCTHTymia h c% KaEHM^b sasoHHHirB 
npaBOM'b pyccBaa HMoepaTpHi^a juojitrusl 6uja TenepB bo3- 
CTaTB npoTHB'B IIojBniH, He CMOTpfl HH Ha BaRiA ea boh- 
CTHxyu^iH, H ocBo6o;^HTB orb nefl pyccBift napo^i 3ana;^Hoft 
FocciH, BOTopnft IIojEBnia xenepB ne tojbbo OTpisuBajra oitb 
PocciH, ;(ase B'B ^ijiax'B sipn, ho h co6npaj[acB hoahatb 
ero npoTHB^ nea. 

PyccEoe npaBHTOjiBCTBO BnoJHi TO^;^a cosnaBajo h 9to 
CBoe npaBO n ero o6A3aTej[BHOCTB. HHBorji^a npes;^e EBa- 
TepHHa U He A^ficTBOBaia no OTHomeniE) Kb HojBnii c^ 






^ 
/ 



/ 



Taso83 p^mHTejibHOcriD h vh lOEowb pyccsoKi, Hapoa;HOir& 
HanpaaieHifl, sasffb Tenepi.. Osa fiiicTpo aaHHJia pyccKia 06- 
zBCTa nojibinH jtiH OEOHiaTejiBHaro apacoenfi^ems zx-h Kh 
PocciH. EorjMt no&ii,i(OBafb bb 1793 r. raxh HasuBaemuft 
BTopofi pasA'krB IIojibniH, to EsaTepHHa Bei&ia oxqesa- 
HHTb Bce^ajib ch B3o6paa[eHieHi eapru oTHaTHxrb ofijaciefi 
H (TL Ha^nHCbi) spyroHx es; nOTTopxessoe BOSBpaTBXi". 
8Ta HaABHCL 6uji& ciipaBe;i;;iHBa bx tohi ciiucii, ?to 
ffb 0TH£Tux% Tenepb y IIojbniH ofijiacTas'b He 6hjio hh o^- 
HOfi MicTHOCTH, HC npHHa^weKftBBieii KorAS jih6o PocciH, 
K HTO Bi 9Tax* otSjaeraxi, saEi yaHflHiii, shshl bos- 
CTaHOBjaiacb ct TaKon fiucTporofl b CHjoft, tto He uor^o 

BOBHBRaTb HHKaKOrO COHH^Bifl B'B npOHBOCTH OliaHifl <VB 

ocrajbHow Pocciefl 3THX1, ntitorja oTToprsyTHEb h lenepL 
BosBpantaeMHXi o($JiacTefi. Ho 3Ta Ha^iiHCb se B^pna bi 
Tou'b CHUCjri, ?To BTopofi pasj^j'B Be BOSBpanta^i Foccin 
BGbx'h pyccltHX'E ofijacreS naibmH. Ho BTOpOHy pasA^y 
St. PocciH oTomjH TOJibKO H&ffcb E^jopyccu uo JI,HHa- 
6yprB, Mbhcbi h IIhhck'S, h nacrt. sanaAHoft Majiopoccin 
OTB HBHCKa AO EaHeHeitb-IIoAOJbCKa boqtb no up«uo3 
jiBHiB. OcrajtHaa ^acri. BijopyeciB ao H'itvaHa h AaJi>iBs. 
B BoJiuBi. AO FajiBiiiB b xojiucEofi oQjiacTH ocTajiBCb sa 
Qojbnie3. He roBopHH'& yxe cefliacB yiiouHHyTOfi Ta- 
AHi^iB, a Tasate lacTH xo^hceoA ofUacxH, ocTaBaBmHXca emfi 
on nepBaro pasA^^ sa ABCTpieg. 

HeeciecTBesBocTb BToparo paSA^a HoibiBB eiii;e Gojibme 
ysejiHieBa 6ujia caHBHH DOjasaHa h AHnJiouaTiefi toto 
BpeueHH B yB&iBTOHa ao Toro, ^to cobc^hi saKptua co- 
(ioS KHBoe, HCTopH^eCEoe A^0| — pasp^meHie pyccKO-noAb- 
CKaro BOnpoca. , 

UottJii o6HapoAOBaHla HailcKot KOHcrxTyniH vHorie no- 



— 300 — 

uaa, no<$opHHKa crapurB aosicaan nopaXKc 
saiOBaTbCfl coc^AHHiTb npBBHTejibCTBaiirb Ha flet 
flpeoiSpasoBaHiS, npOHaBexeHHUXi Kb llojbni^ ie 
EHiTb cefivoui, H npBS&iB&jra Hz% BoaciaaoBBTb 

pufi nOpflXOKIb Ch BCTOpH^eCSBlTb QOJLCKHirb DpC 

^aTi>: Die pozwalami Krb qecTHuiTB noSopHHsaH'B 
orapHHU ceft^aci xe npHCoe^^HHiKCb noiasH n; 
AJia aoTopux't ;(eHbrH saHisajiH h bce> HpaBCTs 
Bce, ^To ecTb Aopororo vb poxhhIi. ^RiuoHaTU 
CTBesDo npjccRas, Tim 6oiie oGpaAOBuacb 9ti 
Cam, HTo ente bi 1768 rofly eft y^ajocb HaBaaai 
TarocTHoe h 6e33aBOHH0e oGasaTeiLCTso — ne hshj 
ero BHyTpeBHflTO ynpaBieaia. 9to xaBaio npeuoi 
ciH H AacTpiH HosBBHTbca Tenepb aa c^eti n 
TaKBiTb o6pa30H'b, Bce a^o BToporo pasj^iii 
nepeseceBBoe bi oeaacTb nuAxercTBa h xhO'Ioi 
pecTaBaio 6uTb HcsjioqHTejibHo pyccKaitib a'^^ou 
' eicy cji^AOsajio 6uTb, o6paiiiajocb bi o6ii;ee ^ 
nojLmH, H pas^y DOAseprajacb yse h ^hctc 
seHJifl, CL noJbCKHu^b HapoAOH'b, aa HCTopHqeca; 
Bi nyxowb, repuascEOH'b uipl. IIoHOTao, ^TO [ 
BaeuuA Cb arofi miaxercEoft h ABQ.iOHaTB?eci 
spi^uiji BTopofi paa^c^'b IlaibinH npexciaaujc; 
usirfeBH jijpaUTh noiHEOB'b a en^e fiaitnie ;('ijo 
Haia^eCKHXi aaTparb a aeapasA'b. 

IIojaEH socjii 9Toro pasA&ia npaauni b'l xpi 
CToqeaie a cxaia m, aojioseaie JiOAet, soTOpue, 
Tepa£, caHB BUSHBanToa aa A&itaitfiaiia noi 
<iaaBao san^aniaKirb docj6;ibkii) aeioib. Bi : 
OBa cofipajia ocTaBndacA j aaxi cbjei, jBJieKJiii 
Eopo^a CraaHCjaBa, a aoacTaja npoTHBi Foccia i 






— 301 



• J 



nsB^CTHHfi KocTionrRO cra.jL'b bo rjas^ BOSCTaeinHX^ h 
^ase EJHRajE'B kjih^'b, ho HanpacHBrfl, ki> nojibCROMy npo- 

CTOtfJ HapOAy. G0K)3HHBH OHflTB no;i;aBHJH nOJIAKOB'B, npH- 

^ewh oco6eHHO MHoro CA'^^aix ^nami sHaHeHHTufi GyBO- 

POBX. 

Uojbmai ^o;^Bep^JIacB b^ 1795 r. TpeTBOMy pa3;^i;iy, h 
Ha dTOTh pas'B pasA^jieHa yse bc^. Pocciji nojLjuiuia. 3a- 
naAHyx) ^acTB B'i^JopycciH h BOCTOHHyio JIhtbu ;i;o H^Hana 
H Bhjibhbi h MajopocciH) no 3ana;(Hu& Byrb. Ilpyccia 
npH^aBHja ce6% sa-HiMaHCByio JiHTBy, Oojbmyio nacxB 
c^BepHoS no^ioBHHH nojBHTH Cb BapmaBofi, h cByH&ia 
BopBaTBCA ;i;aae bx npeA*JH SijopyccKaro njeneHH — 
no;p^Be H BpisaJiacB jsjAxe jijaijie Ha dfo-boctok'b, b'b 
HUH^niHid 6ij[0CT0KCBifi y^SA'B rpoAneHCBoi ry6epHiH. 
ABCTpia npio6p*jra rori. Hojibhih — KpaKOBCKyio o6jacTB, 
pa^^oMcsyiD ry^epHiH) h TO«e en^e 6oj[£e BpisajacB b:b 

pyCCKyiD SGMJIK) — XOJMCKyK) otfjacTB. 

nojBHia KOHHHJia CBoe CTapoe cyH^ecTBOBanie. CaHoe 
HMH en 6injio yHH^Toaceno. Ha^^ nei coBepmnjica hcto- 
pHHecsift npHroBopi, AaBHo sajifBJreHHafi Hcropieft h a^bho 
TpefioBaBHiift pa3;^iJ[eHia ea, KaKi noJiBCKo-pyccKaro ro- 
cy;^apcTBa, na jsfii Hacra: pyccKyi) h nojitcKyro. 9to 6HJ[Tb 
HeHHHyeHHi npnroBop^. Ho b% dTOiry npnroBopy, boto- 

pHg MOri 611 H He BaCaTBCfl nOJEHTH^eCBOfi aSHSHH ?HCTO 

noJiBCBoS ?acTH IIoJibHiH, Bpyccifl npH6aBHjra cbod aab- 

HDD CTpaCTB SHBHTBCfl Sana^HHO-CJTaBHHCBHMH SeHJHHH, a 

npHMipy HpycciH nocj[§;i;oBaj[a h ABCTpin, BOTopaa, BaB'B 

HSB^CTHO, BCa CJI0»eHa H3rB paSJUH^rHUXl ByCQ^ROB'B H JS^JLO. 

BOTopofi Bce paBHo, EaBie nojy^aDTCH Byco^BH Hy»oft 

SeMJlH, JHHIB 6u nOJy^BJIHCB. 

norH6jo HOJiBCBoe rocy^apcTBO, ho ne norH^i noJBCBifi 






*c^ 






:i 



— 302 — 

Hapo;[;%, xota h 6e3HOJBHO npHcyrcTBOBaBmifi npn nors- 
6ejas, CBoero OTe^ecTBa. Bi cj-iAyioniiii pas'b hu yBH^HM^B, 
RaBfb BupatfaTSBajacB CHOBa nojtBCBaa rocyj^apcTBeHHocTB 
H BHpa6aTHBaJ[acB jh ona h3i> nojBCsaro Hapo^a h Ha 

nOJLCBOfi JIH 3eMj£? 



^EHIE XVI. 

noioseme pjccKHX'b o6jiacTefl, oTome^tnrarB orbHoAmH nocjit pasAtiOBi* 
SToro rocjx&pcTBa. OisHBJieide pjccKHX'b chjii wb napoxi. BoaeoexKHenie 
jmsLiowb Bi B-liiopycciH. HcKyccTBesHoe npenaiCTBie dioiiy. TpoKaAHoe bo8- 
coeASHenie jHiaTOBi b-b Majiopoccin. CHCTeMa ynpaBJiemfl npH HMnepaTpHi^^ 
EsaTepHHik. PyccKaa KOJioHHsai^ifl. IIojioseHie o^Jiaciett hhcto nojiLCRHX'b 
noA'B BjacTin ABCipm h IIpjcciH. PtmHTejiBHaa hobosmoshoctb pasBHBaTBca 

B'B HHX'B HHCIH BOSCTaHOBJieHm nOJBCKOft rOCyAapCTBOHHOCTH. "UbiCSb »Ta 

pasBHBaeTCJi Ha pyccKoft noiB'fe. nepexi^HU b:b ynpaBJiemH sanaAHoft PocciH 
npn HMnepaiopi naBA")^. AAaH'B HapTopHficsifi. Ero Apy»<^a cb HunepaTo- 
poiTB AjieKcaHApoiTB 1. HoBUfl nepeH'i^HH B'B ynpaBJiBHiH sanaAHoft PoccIh. 
HayHHoe npeoCpaaoBaHie bi BOcnHTaHin vHoinecTBa B'B aanaAHoft PoccIh. 
nojiBCKifl nojiHTHHecKlfl HaAexAu Ha HimepaTopa AjencaHApa I-ro. HaAeft^H 
Ha Hanojieona. Fepi^orcTBO BapmaBCKoe. IIojBCKoe i^apcTBO. BojiHemfl nojua- 
kob:b, saKOH^HBmiflca BOSCTanieMi 1681 r. HapoAHaa ncTopia 3anaAH0ft Poc- 
cIh Toro BpeHeHH. nojioseme ymaTOBi hocjA EKaiepHHu. B-lbACTBia hxi ot'b 
jiaTHnHHi. UapTifl ymaTCKaa, CTapann^aHca -san^n^aTB ymx) ot'b jiaTHHCTea 
H c6jih3htb cb npaBocjiaBieH'B. Mhtpohojiht'b Hpaiuiift JlncoBCKifl; 6nHCKon:B 
KpacoBCKift. HeyAa^H nxi. AtaTe^BHocTB IocH4i)a CtMamKH. HoBoe bobcooah- 

Heme yniaTOBi. 3aiumHeHie *). 



Bi saBJiD^eHie Hamero HCTopH^ecsaro o^epRa sanaAHoii 
PocciH, pascBaaceM'B, KaBi BQSHHBJia h cxajia ocyn^ecT- 



*) lesyHTH B!B PoccIh cb i^apcTBOBama EKaiepHHH 11 h ao Hamero 
BpeMeHH, ABa Tona, co^. CBan^eHHHRa M. MopoHisHHa, hsa. 1867 h 
1870 r. HcTopia BasHjdaHCKaro opA6Ha. (HcjriAOBaHie I. U^ep^Hnt- 
Baro). XpHCTiaHCs. HTenie 1864 r. Hciopia i^ipcTBOBaHia HKnepaiopa 






— 303 — . 

BJiaTLca MHCJiB B03CTaH0B^eHiH nojBCKoS ^ocy;^apcTBeH• 
HOCTH eogjA pasA'^JOBi UozhmnL. Ma jBujsjswb, ^to btb, 
HHCJib pasBHJEacB Ha pyccKod no^B^, wb sana^^noS Poccin, 
no^eny aTOirB BonpocB h EacaeTCfl ^jihsko 9to& CTpanu. 
Bi HacTOflimeMi HameH'B pascsaai, BaK'B h vb npe^^HAy- 
meMX, MH onaTB jbewm^ A^ HCTopiH, — nuraxercKO- 
nojBcsyK), KOTopan pa3pa6oTaHa b'b ^esHHCJieHHm'B cohh- 
Henkx'B, H HapoAHyK), 3ana;i;Ho*pyccByiD, CBp£iBaE)ii]^ys)ca 

JSfi CSLtb nop^ B'B apXHBHOg UUJLVL. 

Tasj^^u IIojiBinH 6uJiii ji^sl Hea CTpamHHM'B, noTpa- 
caromHM'B yjnapoMTb. norafija rocy;^apcTBeflHocTB, nocTpo- 
eHHan B^BaMH, ho, ^to 6hj[o em^e xyme, 6ucTpo cTajo no- 
rndaTB bu;&ct£ cb rocyAapcTBeHHocTiio h to, hto AABajo 
eft acHSHB, — 6ucTpo CTajTH HornfiaTB hojohhsitb h Jia- 
THHCTBO 9Toro Focy^apcTBa. Oco6eHHO JEerso h 6hctpo dia 
norH6ejB npoHCxojcHjEa B'B o^jracTJixi, npHCoe^HHeHHUX'B 
Ki pyccKoft HMnepiH, — b^ sana^^Hoft Poccia, ^;^i Hapo^r;- 
Hoe H pej[Hrio3Hoe e^nHHCTBO abjlo pyccKony npaBHTeJB- 
CTBy TBep^yro onopy ju[a ^hMctbIS. Cjii^yroinie <j)aKTH 
no;(TBep3c;i;aE)T% namy mucjib. 

E^Ba nocj[i;(OBajia& nepsHft pas^'fi*!^ IIojibieh, t. e. 



AjeKcasg^a I, co^. ren. BorAaHOBH^a, t. Ill, m. XXII h XXXVII 
T. IV, ra. XXXIX, t. V, m. LIV, oco6eHHO m. LVI (ycxpoHCTBO 
i^apcTBa nojtbCKaro), LXIVj LXV h LXVl (aanncKa KapaMSHHa o 3a- 
naxHOH FoccIh), h t. VI, m. LXXH. HcTopk nojiLCKaro BosciaHifl h 
boShh 1830 IT 1831 r. Tpn TOMa, coh. $. CMHia, nepeBe^eHo ch h4- 
KeipEaro Kbhthhi^khmi, hs;^. 1863 — 4 r. IocH(j«., mhtpohojihtb jihtob- 
CKifi H BoscoeAHHeme yHiaxoB'L ci npaBocjiaBHOio i^epKOBBD B'b 1839 r., 
co^. rpa4>a J^, A. Tojicioro, nzji,, 1869 r.; noHHBineM'L MHTponoja[T:& 
iHTOBCBOMi IocH(j)t — Hoe coiHHeHie^ ndfl,, 1869 r. 3anHCRn MHTpono- 
jiEra IocE4)a GiMamKH, HSAaHHHfl Asa^^emiefi HayEi, 3 xoMa, 1883 r. 
CyxB^H ynin vh pyccKoi xoJOfCKOu enapxiH, H. IIonoBa, H3x. 1874 r. 



— 304 — 

e;i;Ba npncoeAHHeva 6usa, ri Poccin c^Bepo-BOCTO^HaA 
^acTb BijopycciH,' kesi jjlie bx axofi CTpan^ cra^a ec- 
^esaTB 6&3rb BCflRHXi ycHJiifi co cropoHU pyccRaro npaBH- 
TaiBCTBa H 6e3'B BCSKoA 3a6oTH coxpaneHlH 6a cp cto- 
poHH yHiaTOBTB. Ona, ^es'B BC^Raro coHHtniA, h coBep- 
inoHHo HCHe3jia 6h, ecjH 6iL rinCexb ea. ne 6iija sa^ep- 
saHa caMHHX HeosH^^anHuifB o6pa30Ki co CTopoHH Eit^a- 
TepHHH. IIpHCoe^^HHflA R^ PocciH no nepBOHy ^ecdjs^isj 
?acTL nojBCRaro rocy^^apcTBa, ERaTepHHa HSAajra cBoft 
SHaMeHHTuS yRas'B o BipoTepnHMOCTH, no ROTopony Bci 
cnoRofiHO juojLTBMu Cujos. ocTaBaTBCfl B'B CBooft vkpb. 9toitb 
npocjraBJ[eHHuft bc^mh yRas'B noBeji'b JVb BoniH)iii;eS He- 
npaB^i Bi B'&JopycciH. Oh'b HacHjBCTBenHO sa^epaRajTB 
BTb yniH AecaTRH racaqi napow, ci BeraRHM-B neTepn*- 
HieM'B ^j^osHxaBinarocfl pas^iJia IIojiBinH, nTo6vi tfpocHTB 
yniK), a TenepB oh'b ]if)Jixewb 6ujn> ocTasaTBCJi bx Heft. 
BoceHB jiiTt Feoprift KohhccrIS yMOJiajPB otbophtb xBepH 
vh npaBocjasie diHifB ysHHRaifB ymn, o5paii^aBinHHCfl Ri 
HeMy cb npocB6aMH jsfkjmmi npHxoAaMH, h tojbro b'b 
1780 r. ^BepH 3th 6ujih oTBopenu. B'b toso BpeHa ERa* 
TepHHa II c^ijaja j^pyrym offlH6Ry, eme Tpyj^nie noupa- 
BHMyD. HtoCbi Ha^esHie npHBJie^]^ r'b PocciH hojijirokb 
Bi JopycciH h otejc^b hx'b oti nojiBCRaro ^anaTH^ecRaro 
;i;yxoBeHCTBa, ERaxepHHa ne ynH^Toaaia b'b otoS CTpani 
lesyHTOB'B, a, nanpoTHB'B, sBipHJia HSfB BocnHTanie 6ij[0- 
pyccKaro ©HomecTBa, a ocTajrBHyro jraTHHCRyH) iepapxiro 
BijopycciH CTapajacB nanpaBHTB na nyTB caMocToaTejiB- 

HOft, HesaBHCHMOft OTB HanU »H3HH HOA'B pyROBOACTBOM^B 

HSBicTHaro, ryMaHHaro jiaTHHCRaro MHTponojiHTa, Cecrpen- 
ii;eBHTO. leayHTH — 9th BceiiipHHe pasBpaTHTejiH B^pyro- 
H^Hxi jaTHHCRaro saROHa — CTpaniHO pasepaTHJH 6iJio- 



— 305 — 

pyccRyH) HHTejMureHi^isD, npHroTOBHJH <{»aHaTnKOB'L h ja- 
THHCTBa H nosoHHSHa, a ryHaHHud CecTpeni^eBHH'B CTai'B 
CHjioH) saroHATB B'B jraTHHCTBo yniaTOB'E. G^aBJieHHiie co 
Bdbsrb CTopoHi yniaTU caiiH crajH 3aii];Hiii;aTb ce6ji. Meac;i;y 
HHHH o^HapysHJOCB jiBHoe CTpeHjenie ri o^Hn^eHiio ynia 
oTh jEaTHHCBHX'b oco($eHHOCTe3 H K% cfijHmeHiio e^ c% 
npaBOGjaBiemx. YnpaBJusBmid stqio rpynnoio ymaTOBi h 
pyKOBO^^HBinift sthm^b HanpaBjreHieirb HpaBjii J[HCOBCsifi, 
cnepBa apxnMan^tpHTi, noTOM^B enHCson'b h, HaBonei^'B, 
HSTponojcHTi yHiaTcsi&, c% botopkm'b em;e noBHaKOMHHCA 
6jH»e, BOd^Cjsijifijcb B'B jaTHHAHax!b H ApysHBionx'B (yh 
HHMH ysiaTax'B ocTajBHoi ?acTH 3ana;i;Hofi PoccIh acecxo- 
ByiD HeHaBHCTB. Ohh BujijuuBauLu npoTHB'B Hero CaHUfl 
yTOH^eHHUA BHTpHrH. Tas^ Hanp., ohh nepenHCHBajHCB 
nexxy C060K), RaB'B 611 noM^niaTB JlHCOscKOMy nojiy^HTB 
enHCRODCKifi cani, h npHAyicajiH BucTaBHTB cjikAJv>m,ee 
npen^TCTBie. SnaA, ^to JiHCOBCRii ne HMiei^B nurflxer- 

CTBa, OHH AyMaJEH y6'6AHTB pyCCROe npaBHTeJTBCTBO, ^TO 

HemjflXTH^!B HO uosoTX 6uTh eHHCBonoifB no ^^peBHHMl 

o6uHaHHi yniaTCRofi i^epRBH h ^to nodiOMy pyccRoe npa- 

BflTaiBCTBO He AOJSHO AonycRaxB JlncoBCRaro B'B enncRon- 

CKOMy cany. 

HanpaBjeme a^^ vb bocto^hoh BijEopyccin, no;(BjacT- 

Hod yase Poccin, hpohsboahjo CHJBHoe BjdflHie na Ha- 

poA'B ocTajTBHUXi o6jKacTefi 3ana;i;H0& Poccin, 6iiBniHX'B eni;e 

noA'B BiacTis) IIojBniH. Hapo^'B B'B axHX'B o6jacTflxi, oco- 

doHHO B'B MaJiopocciH, pBajCH Tose hs'b ynin bx npaBO- 

cjaBie^ PyccRoe" npaBHTejbCTBo, cTapaBineeca, o^eBH;^HO, 

He pasj^pasaxB hojehrobo^, chjbho cjcepacHBajro axoorB no- 

psBi Hapo^^a, o6cTaBj[HJ[o npHCoe^^HHeme pasHMMH ^p- 

Ma^BHocTAMH, ROTopHH TaR^B HyrajH HpaBocJiaBHyE) iepap- 

20 



— 306 — 

xiio, HTO, HanpHMipi., mhhckIh enHCBOui Bhktop:b, npn- 
coeAHHHBmig o^Has^i^Ei ^exBrpexi yniaTOB^, no Heo5xo- 
;i;hmocth, co cxpaxoMX nHcajtt b'b neTepfiypn, ^to6h ero 
3a 9T0 He ocyAHJTH. Ho Hapo^^t ae xoTftjii snaTB jsjul- 
j[OMaTH?ecsHX'& pasc^eroB'B h TpefioBaj'b npHCoe;(HHeHiA 
K'B npaBocjiaBiK). CoxpaHHJocB MHoro nporaeHift, no^an- 
nuxi> Hapoj^osTB b^ dxoM'B CMMCJL'fa. B'b npomoHmx'B ^Tisrh 
TBJVh no;i;po6HO pa3CBa3UBaH)TCA bpoma h cnoco6'B nsLCWLh- 
Haro o6paiii;eHiA Hapo;i;a b^b jnm h ero HeHSM'i&HHoe ace- 
jraeie 6pocHTB ee, ^to coMHiBaTLca wb BipnocTH hx^ ne- 
BosMomHo. B'B dXHX'b npomeniflx^ Hep']^;i;EO BUCBasuBaDToa 
o'^eHB BaMi^aTejBHHA Beiii;H. Bx h']^kotophx'b roBopHTca: 
„Kor;i;a ace h ji,jia naci B30H;i;eT'B cojiHUje, Bor^a ase h mm 
6yja;eM:b npHCoeji;HHeHH k-b e^HHOBipnoH Poccm, HsfiaeHM- 
ca oTh Era nojTBCKaro**. 
Kor^^a me, naBoneiJ^'B, axo sejianie napojca c^ujocb, no- 

CJli^HOBaJH BTOpoft H TpSTift pa3;i,'fej[H, TO bo MHOrHXl Mi- 

CTaxi ynia HC^esjra MrHOBOHHo. D^'fejHe js^cht^vl thcah^ 
Hapo;i;a B^cpyri npHCoe^niiHHJiHCB b'b npaBociaBHot i],epBBH* 
He ycniBajiH npncHjaTB npaBocjrasHHX'B CBameHHHKOBX. 
B% Te'ieHie nojryTopa ro^a, b'b 1794 h bi> Ha^ajii 1795 ro;i;ft, 
npHcoe;i;HHHjiocB b'b npaBocjiaBiH) fiojBine Tpex'B Mnjjiio- 
hob-b yniaTOB'B fies-B BOJiHeniS, 6e3t npojHTia KpoBH. Bto — 
6e3npHMipHoe aBjenie B'B ncTopia! Tyi^ 6e3CHJbHH bc4 bos- 
paacenixf . TaKx MrHoseHHO ne coBepmaroTca Kpynnne ^aKTH 
nyTCMt HacHJiift, iipHKa30Bt. Mu 3thm'b, Kone^Ho, ho ot- 
BepraeM'B MeJiKHX'B 3jioynoTpe6jieHift h nacHJiiS, Ohh npo- 

ULCXOflJiJlJiy HO nO^TH HCKJirO^HTeJEbHO TOJTBKO B'B K0HIi;i 9T0rO 

nepio;i;a Kpynnaro BOSCoe^HHeHia yniaTOB-B, HMenno B'B 
1795 ^OJ^y. B'B 9to BpeMa ^hcjio atejraBDiHX'B npHcoe;i;HHHTB- 
ca npaxoAHJo i&i> KOHu,y, ocTaBaiHCB 6ojrte yxBep^HBrnieca wb 



— 307 — 

jhIh; a Me»;^y TiMt Hasna^eHH 6ujivl noBua jsjxob^uh npa- 
Bocj[aBH£Ka BJiacTE) EOTopua ecTBecTBeHHo asejraJiH B3JiTBca 
3a js,^o ycepfliHo* BnpoHejuPB, TaK'B' KaKx pyccKoe npaBjienie 
TOTjifl, em;e ne 6hjio sesA* opraHHaoBano h ji;yxoBHHMT. Biac- 
Tawh He Morjio fiHiB oKasHBaeMo TBep^oe co;^McTBie, to 
aloynoTpeSjieHia hxb no aMj o BoscoeAHseHiH yHiaxoBi 
npiiHHMajiH o^eHB opHrnHajiBHUH xapasiepB, :khbo nano- 
uEHaBmiH A^jisi sana^Hofi PocciH bo BpeMena nojiBCsaro 
rocy^apcTBa, Bovh kslki* odnKHOBenHo npoHCxo^HJH nacHJB- 
CTBeHHHfl B03coe;i;HHeHiA: npaBocJiaBHHe ysnaBajTH, nanpn- 
MipTb, ^To wb TaKOMB-TO npHxo;i,i ecTB atejiaromie npn- 
HATB npaBOCJiaBie. GocTaBjjiJiacB dRcne;i,Hii,iA hsb CB^mieH- 
HHKOBB, npH^eTHHKOBB, OTHpaBjajiacB Tyj^a H npncTynajia 
fiesB ;i;ajiBHHX'B OKOJinqnocTeft k% 0CBflin;eHiK) yniaTCKoft 
i^epEBH. Ec.iH aieJiaBinHXB npaBocjaBia 6uao 6oj[BinHHCTBo 

Vh dTOMB npHXOA^ HJIH OHH 6UJLVL CPpynnHpOBaHH TLOJi^Jli 

AepKBH, TO npaBocjaBie BoacTanoBjajiocB; ho ocjh 6hjio 
HaofiopoTB, TO yniaTH nporoHflfjiH 9Kcne;i;HB;iH) h ocTaBa- 
jiHCB BB ynin. ^o KaKoft npocTOTH HHor^a j^oxo;i;iiJro ^4jio, 
MoacHO cy^HTB HOTOMy, ^To BB o^HOMB M^CTi npasocjaB- 
HHe CBam;eHHHKH, yace npHCTynHBHiie kb ocBan^eniBD yniaT- 
CKOH D;epKBH, npHHyasAGHH 6um cnacaTBca 64rcTB0MB h 
nepenjiHBaTB nepesB p-feKy. 9Ty cnieHy ycTpoHJH hmb nojrt- 
CKie naHH, ho cy;i;a ne 6hjio HHKaKoro h D;epK0BB ocxa- 
jacB yniaTCKOK), Ynia ocTaBajiacB tojtbko Bt 3ana;i;Hoft qa- 
CTH 3ana;i;HoS Poccin, bb ofijacxaxB, fiojrie onoja^eHHtixB 
H ojiaTHHeHHHXB. Bcfl s&Q MaJTopoccifl H BocTonnaa HaCTB 
BijTopycciH KaKB fiy^TO ne 3HajH yniH. Hapo;^Haa pyc- 
CKaa CHjia BOCKpecja 3;i;4cb B;i;pyrB, cSpocHJta cb ce6a cb 
nopa3HTejiBHoiD jerKOCTBio ne tojbko rocy^apcTBeHHoe, ho 
H ityxoBHoe HOJiBCKoe Hro, 

20* 



— 308 — 

OAHOBpeiieHHO ci> ozHBiemeHi Hapofta iSucrpo i 
raxocB OHHBieHie sanaxHofi Pocciu h bs Jipyrnx's 
pan. HHnepaTpHi^a EsaTepBHa II yHH^TOXHJia zxb 
TOBcsift craTyrb, 3aKJD?aBHii& wb ce6b, npaBj^a, He 
ApeBHHzi pyccKHXi Ha^ajx, ho sauD^aBmifi rasxe 
HHoro H jiaTHHO'repHaHCKHX'L Ha^ajTb. BHicTo en 
BBeA6H0 fiiuo pyccEoe npaBo. HasHa^ajHCb pyccEie < 
HBKH H, H^pa ocoCeHHO BasHaA, 6mE paSAasaeHU 

CBHHl IV)S,aVb BOpOJieBCKia H SOHtjIHCBOBaBHUa HI 

TaKKHrb o6pa30H'B, OAROBpeneHHO c% pyccEHHi yn] 
Hieut, noiaraaocb npo^Hoe na^ajio oGpasoBaniD p^ 
o6ni;eeTBeHH0lt chjei. Hirt covH^HiH, ^to bccb 9toi 
ps^COKt Beni,efi fiucrpo nOBan 6ii ri tohj, tto noio 
Bi saiia^oft FoccJH HC^ea^b 6a l5e3Cji;iHo, h 3to 
riHt jer^e uoiso coBepniHTtca, hto MHorie Torji 
sanaAHO-pyccsie uosasv Chjh aoinn&uz tojibko n( 
BH H no niJi,azeTCKBux npHTAsaHiaiti, a Ha fjiii 
pyccKHUB, A^^K Gaibmen ^acTin He snajH noi: 
asHKa. 

Gauo co6oK> o^eBBABo, ?to npH Tasoui Banpai 
fjkin, neBOSHOXBO 6uj[o noJiBEairb aaflaAHoit Focci 
HaTb BOBcraBOBJieBiB naiLCEoft rocyxapcTBeBHocri 
Kofi Hucjm npeACTOAJio paSBHBaTbca paSB^ Ba tbcto 
CRog 3eH.ii, cpeAH noii.CRaro BapOAa. Ho sra sei 
STOTB BapoA^ TorAa yaaxbiesH Gaza sesAy xsyau 
AapcT^auB, AscTpieft h npyccieS, soropUB sa bca 
EOHi HapoAHoS onopu Bi najn-CRHXt cbohxi sjaA^ 
rbm, ch Siyzbmaia. ycB^siaUB crapajiHCb npongo o] 
soBaxb «h BBsi CBoe yopameHie. Obh ABBHyiB bj 
HoitcEaro aicMeHTa CHjy HCRyceoft caoet rocyAap 

HOCTH B CBOeS BUCOBOfi l^HBHJHSailiH. UoiblHit DOX 



309 



BjacrifiD 6»J0 necpaBHenHO Tjisejrite SHTb, ^^wh noAt Bja- 
ctId PocciH, H eii^e Tpy^H^e (Shjo BOCKpemaTb d^tcb cbod 
rocyAapcTBeHHOCTB. CraiH ohh BocKpemaTL ee ne Ha CBoefi 
9HCTO-noj[BCKo& 3euJ['&, noA% BjacTiD H'ibMi^eB'B, a j cbo- 
EX'S cocTpaAaTejBHux'B 6paTBeB:B — pjccbhxx cjraBJiH'B, na 
pyccBofi seiLii. 

Oiiih6kh EsaTepHHU II bx A^ax^B sanaAHofi PoccIh co- 
xpanajiH ^oi^ro cbod CHjy, a yMHafl cropoHa en ynpaBje- 
Hifl npocyin;ecTBOBaja He^ojiro. Ona 6hctpo Ha^aja hsh^- 
HflTBCfl CO BCTyajreHieMi na pyccBifi npecTOJ'B IlaBja lie- 
TpoBH^a. GaHUA 6jiaropoAHiiA h caMUJi TR6eJihBua aja 3a- 
naAHoft PocciH no^ysA^Hia sacTaBHJiH h8m%hhtb yMHyD 
CHCTeMy ynpaBjenifl ERaTepHHM. Dojabh Bos^y^HjE b^ 
HMnepaTop*]^ IlaBji CHjLHoe cosajiisie k'b hxi ne^aiBHoft 
y^acTH. Owh CTSijvh ocBo6osAaTB hsi HarHamA bi^ Ch6hph 

HHOrHXl H3% HHX'B H BOSBpaill^aJL^B HM:B K0H4)HCB0BaHH£IA 
HM^HiA, H3!B BOTOpHX'B BUBOJ{,VlJn> pyCCBHX'B IIDA^S, B03- 

Harpaac^aA hx'b HH^HiaHn BHyxpn HHnepin. TaRMMi o6pa- 
soM'b, Poccia ABasAH oRynaja tfjiaropoAHoe cocTpaAaHie k'b 
nojaaaifb. SaxiMi, HMnepaxop'B IlaBej'B BOSCTaHOBHj'B Kb 
sanaAHofi Poccin jiHToecKift cTaxyirB, ^to 6e3cnopHO paAO- 
Bajo B^ o6j[acTAxi, neAaBHO ero ocTaBHBinHxi, ho b'b bo- 
CToqHoft EijopycciH BBOAeme cxaTyxa hphboahjeo b'b ot- 
^a^Hie, — Tas^B xaifB otbubjih ot% nero. 

YAa Jeflie hs^ sanaAHoit PoccIh 6ojie b jiATejBHHX'B pyc- 
CRHX'B JiDAefi H BoscTaHOBjeeie hojbcrhx'b nop^ABOB'B sua • 
HH, ecrecTBeHHO, cano co6ok), bojo k'b xoMy, hto6£i axa 
crpana oqyxHJiacB CHoea noA% hojibcrhm'b BJiiflnieM^B h b'b 
nojiBCRHxii pyRaxB. ^ea oficxoaiejBCTBa cpasy ynpo^HBajm 
TO h Apyroe en^e npn HMnepaxopt IlaBji. IIojarh npn 
Hem BBeAeHU bi pyccRoe abopahctbo h pyccBoe hhhob- 



— 310 — 

HH^ecTBO *). UepeAt hhmh OTKpHjact Bca niHpoTa npaBrs 
pyccKaro ^^BopancTBa h CTpeMjenifi pyccKaro ^HHOBHH^e- 
CTsa. Hxt BJEacTB Bi 3ana;i;H0H Poccin na jijkjrk CTaja ro- 
pa3;i;o CHj[LHie, Kpiirae, n^wb bo BpeMeea nojtcKaro ro- 
cy;iiapcTBa. Bx btom-b ne Tpy;i;Ho yfiiAHTBca, ecjiH bchom- 
HHTB, ^To Tor;i;a 6hjio b'b PoccIh KpinocTHoe npaso, . ko- 
Topoe AOJaKHO 6hjio jeb^l hobojo TarocTiro na 3aiia;i;HyK) 
PocciB). UojEBCKoe xjoncTBO — HeocnopHMo xy;i;niee cocToa- 
Bie, liiwh KpinocTHaa saBHCHMOCTB B'B PocciH; ho npn 
cjafiocTH nojiBCKaro rocy;i;apcTBa, oco6eHHo npn ero pa3- 
jioaceniH, xjroncTBO b^b 3ana;i;H0H PocciH ^acTO 6hio o^eHt 
CTpamHo nanaM-B. Otb nero ohh ^acTo fle mofjih cnoKofino 
cnaTB H noTOMy npHHyacAeHu 6bijih HHor^a npoTHBi bo:ih 
;i;aBaTB eMy JBroTKr. Poccia c^ c^oeft rocy^apcTBeHHofi opra- 
HH3aii,iefl, noJiHoft chjth h cnocofinofi Bcerjua BOscTanoBHTt 
nopaj^OK'B, H36aBjiajia hojibckhxi* nanoB^B ot^ 9Toro CTpaxa. 
Ohh MorjiH cnoKoftko ;i;aBHTB xjiona, jHmeHHaro BcaKoS 
B03MomHOCTH H ESij[,es!ijifii o6y3AaTB na/Ha. 

B^ ;n;oBepmeHie Bcixi fii^^cTBift 3ana;i;Hoft PocciH, Kt 
HMnepaTopy IlaBjiy Hamjia j^ocTjwh h jiaTHHCKaa iepapxia. 
B'B Ti BpeMOHa, b'b jneBaHocTux'B roiaxi ^po^Ie;^^Ia^o cto- 
jiiTia, (|)paHii;y3CKaa poBOJiroi^ia 6HJia bi pa3rap4. Upe- 
CTOJiH coci;i;HHX'B rocy^iiapcTB'B maTajiHCB h bcJm'b 6hjio 
acHo, ^To noAKanHBaeTi hx^ CHja, Hocamaa snaMa ne- 
Bipia. BonpocB o flipyacHOM^B coe;i;HHeHiH bc4x'b Bipyro- 
mjix'h 6631 pasjiH^ia BipoHcnoB4ja;aHift, Chjtb Tor^a ca- 
MHM'B ecTecTBOHHBiM'B H »HBOTpeneniyniiHM'B. HMHopaTopt 
naBej'B HsfipaHi 6ujL'b rpoCMeflcTepoMTb MajBTificKaro op- 



*) Ilpn EKaiepHE'l ohh bi> dxoM^b oTHomeHiH zQwmskjm ;(OBOjii>do 
CTicHenfloe nojioateaie,— BHcmia ;^6ji3khocth hmi He ^asajiHCB. 



-:■;«« ATI 



— 311 — 

Aena. JTaTHHane 6ijjrn hmi ofijacKanH. lesyHTH aafipajHCb 
BO ;i;Bopeiiii. IIpaBacjraBHaA npouaraH^a no A^jy 061 ynia- 
Tax^ npiocTanoBJieHa; JIaTHHCKifl enHCEoni^, h^ceojibro 
criCHeHHHa npa EKaxepHHi *), uojj^eau CTapaa jifcroTjj, 
yfliaTCKia enncKoniH h MHTponojiia BOsCTanoBjieHH. Cjio- 
BOM'B, sanaAHafl FoccIa e;i;Ba c^^^jiaja p']^niHTej[BHufi marB 

K'B BOCTO^HOfi PoCCIh, KB.Kb CTOJIB SO p'J^BIHTeJbHO ^IjOJIKHa 

6HJ!ia oTCxynHTB Hasa^.'B B'b IIojbiu']^. B'b 6jH2caflineM'B 
OAHaKO fiy^ymeMi ee o»HAa-io nojEoateme, KOTopoe npeji;- 
CTaBJiaeT'B HaM^ eme 6ojiie CBiTJHfi ofipaaei^'B 6jiaropo;i;- 
CTBa H eni;e 6o;iie Mpa^noe bjw) \fl;jia 3ana;i;H0H Poccia. 

EiD.e npH HMnepaTpni^'h EKaTepHHi npiixajo b'b Ile- 
Tepfiypn H3'B-3arpaHHii,H o^iiHo nojiBCKoe ceMeficTBo. no6y- 
;^HJ^a ero k^b 9T0My yrpoaa K0H(|)HCK0BaTB ero o6fflHpHH[a 
HMiHia, ecjH oho ocTaneTca 3arpaHHnie&. 9to 6ujio ce- 
MCHCTBO HapTopHficKHxi. Mojio^oft ^apTopLificKiS — A^aM'B 
nocTynHjn na pyccKyro cjiyaKfiy, Bpamajica npH pyccKom 

JifiOf^ H c6j!H3lIJ[Cfl CT> TOFAamHHM'B BOJIHEHMB KHASOMB 

AjreKca;^poM'B IlaBjioBHqeM'B, 6jji,ym,viUT> pyccKHMB HMne- 
paTopoM^B. Mea^y hhmh 3aBfl3ajiacB xicnaa ;i;pya6a. ^e- 
peBBfl TaBpH^ecKaro ca;i;a ^ain;e Bcero 6ujlis. CBUj^^TejLsi^n 
3a;^y^IeBHHX'B fiecifli'B mojio;i;hx'b ;i;py3e&. TjraBHH ^pe;^- 
MCTB 9THXI 6ec'fe;i.'B HSBicTeai; ohx nepe;i;aH'B caMHM'B 

HapTOpufiCKHM'B H 6^0 3KH3HeonHCaTeJiaMH. OflOJflHHBiniHCa 

BanaAHO-pyccKift khbsb, ^apTopaftcKiS H3JiHBaji'B CBoe rope 
no noBO^y 6i;i;cTBift noMKOB^B h HojcBinH. By;i;yn;ift pyc- 
CKifi HMnepaTop-B c^ 6jraropo;i;cTBOMT& h TenjoToro, koto- 
pHHH TaK^B nojina 6uj[a ero ^ynia, C03s.sijLiAi> 06^ bthx'b 



^■*4 



'^^ 



M3 

' ■ * • 

A-*.' J 






" ) H']bKOTopHfl jiaTHHCRiH enHCKOncKlH Raee^pH npn EsaTepHH*! 6HJin 
nepeBe^eHH hs*^ CTapHxt ii;eHTpoB'B a'^^atcjilhocth na hobha M'i^CTa, 



— 312 — 

&kjffiTBiAyi'b H BucnasuBajTb sejraHie o6j[er?nTB bx%. IIo- 
BHAHMOMy, HcspeHHocTB H coHyBCTBie coeAHHAJra Kp^nso 

060ETh APySei. 3th CBOftCTBa A'^&CTBHTOJbHO 6HJH H BU- 
CSEBUBaJIHCB BO BCed nOJHOT^ H 6jEeCK^ CO CTOpOHH iuie- 

KcaHApa naBJOBR^a, ho bi jsjtiA nojiARa HapropuScKaro 
ocHOBaJia CBoe th^ao caHaa fl;i;0BHTa& sm'^a. Oh%, eo- 

He^HO, HO Mora 6UTh COBOpHieHHO paBHO^J^yHIHHMl, oco6eHHO 

B'E MOJO^oCTH, Kb TSijsjouj ^ojoB^Ry, EaB'B HMHepaToprs 
Aj[escaHAP'B IlaBjoBH^'B; no h kb mojo^octe, a t^icb 6o- 
jcbe noTOM^B, ^apropnficKifi CByu^Ji'B cooAHHaTL npHBasan- 
HOCTB Kh pycGBOHy HMHepaTopy CI HenpHHHpHBcoK) nena- 
BHCTBD leh PocciH. C'B TaEOD ;i;pys6oK), BM^n^aBineE) He- 
npHMHpHMue npHHUiHiiii H He^ocTOHHOK) BCAEaro HecTHaro 
^ejoB'bKa, ^apTopuftcsift HaxoAHJi bobmoshum'b bh^bh- 
raxLCfl Ha rocy^^apcTBOHHoft pyecEog cjysfit, 6htb jifixe 

B'B nOJTOaceHiH pyCCSarO MHHHCTpa HHOCTpaHHHX'B Ji.ijL'b.' 

BjiflHie ^apTopuicsaro 6ucTpo hobojo £*& pacMHpeHiE) 
nojLCEHX'b npaBi vb 3ana;^Hofi ^PoccIh h Epyra A'^iCTBin 
nojBCKOH cuLsu. IIojiBCsoe ynpaBj[eHie BOSCTaEOBjeno b'b 3a- 
na^^Hod PocciH bo BceS ho^th cxapofi nojHOTt. ^osbo- 
jioho AajiBEMmee BoscTanoBJteHie jHTOBCsaro CTaiyxa ch 
cetMHEaHH ^s. BH6opa cy^ed h pasnuxi ^hhobhhsob^. 
Pyccsoe ynpaBjeHie wb crpaHi noAEanuBaJocB 3thm:b ny- 
Tewb ffb caMOM^B sopni. Bci^ Basn^finiia OTpacjra ynpan- 
joHm nepemjLH wb pyBH hojhsob'b. IIojiflSH 0Ba3aj!iHCB bosa^ 
naBopxy na^^B pyccEHHi Hapo^oMi. 

IIoHflTHoe jijkao^ ?to o^na dxa nepeM^na j^jbx'b BOsfiyAHira 
pocEoniH£iJi Ha^ces^tt hojiheob'b, a ;(pys6a ^apTopuicKaro 
c:b HMnepaTopoiTB AjeEcaHApoHi h aoJOSHTexBHUH yni- 
peHk ero ApyseS, tto IIojEBnia 6jA&n> BoscxaHOBJieHa, sa- 
sp'injAjiH HX'B caMUMi npo^HUM'B o6pa3oirB. OcraBaJOCB 



y:» 



— 313 — 

TOJBKO, B'B nOJHOfi JB^peHHOCTH H CnOKOSCTOiH, TOTOBHTB 

cpe;^CTBa a-s^ 6jji,jm,e& IIojiBniH. HapTopuficBifi aaHAJCfl 
STHH'B npHroTOBjemeMi vb caMHx^s mnpoKHXi pasiicipax'b, 
H pasBepnyjE^b ero na Bcen^ npocTpaHCTB'6 sanaAHoft Poc- 
ciH. Owh saHAJCA npHroTOBJieHieH^b js^a 6jff,jmfi1k IIojrBniH 
HOJo^arp noEOJi^HiH bi dtofk expand. 

Bi 1803 roAy B03CTaH0BjieHa 6uja BEjeHCBaa i&sjHT- 
CKaa aBaAemia no^x HueneM^ jHHBepcHTeTa. lesyHTCicaA 
cyn^uocTB — noAaBjenie bi cipani Bcero pyccKaro, npaBO- 
cjiaBHaro — ocTajacB bx hqbohi yHHBepcHTeri nenpHBo- 
CHOBeHHOD, TOjTbko o6cTaBj[eHa Cum coBpeMenHUMH Hay?- 
HUMH ycoBepmeHCTBOBaniAMH h Bonjon^ena 6ojLhme npes- 
BSLTo Bi nojEOHHsai^iH. nojBCKaa Hai^OHajBHaa naysa bu- 
CTynHJia b'b BHJieHCKOH^ yHOBepcHTexi wb xaKOMi Bejrn^H, 
vb BaKOMi* HHBor^^a He ABiajacB bo BpeiceHa nojBCBaro 
rocy^apcTBa. Tyx^ coSpanu 6uj[h jty^miA A^poBanifl, xyxx 
6ujL0 Bce pasHoo^pasie BHcmaro 3aBe;i;eHiA, coBMtn^eHa 
6uj[a js,SLS&e jiaTHHCRafl h ymaTCBaji aBaAeMia no^^ umo- 
neiTB rjiaBHOi ceMHHapiH, — h Bce B^H^ajocB bhahkod 
CB060AOK) H ryHaHHOCTlK). ^apTopudcBii CA^janx Bypaxo- 
poM'b axoro ofiMaH^iiBo-BejiHHecxBeHHaro saBeAema. 

Ha flfijTowb nyHBX'b saiiaAHOfi PoccIh, vb Maj[opocciH, 
uMeHHo, B'B KpeMeHi^'6, no^Ji AP^BHeg npaBocjaBHoft o6h- 
xejiH nonaeBCBofi, i^aBHO yse, BnpoHeMo^, saxBa^ennofi ynia- 
xaMH H 6uBinefi xor^a bx hxi pyBaxi, ycxpoHjacB rjaB- 
Haa BOjroHifl BHjeHCBaro yHHBepcHxexa — BpeHeHei^Bifi jih- 
i^efi uofl.'h jnpaBJieEiewh ^ai^Baro, rjaBHaro coBixHHBa Hap- 
xopiificBaro hjih, jyime CBasaxB, pyBOBOAHxeja ero. Ta- 
KBWb o6pa30Hi, ;'bc£ jy^miA chjei aanaAHoS Poccin, hc- 
BaBiniji mnpoBaro pasBHxifl nyxoM'B o6pa80BaHiA, nona^aJiH 

B'B OAHO HS'B BTim'h flfiJX'b pOCBOIOHUXX TH'&BA^ nOJOHHSHa 



s-fA 






— 314 — 

H BspocTajra vb etstl nojJOcaHH, veTraBinHMH o Boscra- 
HOBjemH noJLmH. 

HapropuficRifi o;^HaKO He orpaHHHHJCA jyHinHiiH hojio- 
AUHH cHJiaif H Bana^Hot Poccih. Ero CHCTeua oSpasoBaeiji 
6ujia ropasAO mnpe; ona saxBaTusaja Bce, ^to tojibbo kb 
sanaAHofi PoccIh CTpeMHJOcb jurb kslkomj 6u to hh 6iijio 
o6pa30BaHiK). BHjeHCKOHy yHEBepcHxery noA^BHeHQ 6uae 
"' Bcb yqiLiHima sanaAHoS Poccin. IIo cTapuM'B nojBCKHiTB 

noHflTieMi, ofipasoBaHie iDHomecTBa, oco6eHHO cpe^Hee h 
HHsinee, aOwIsho 6ujio HaxoAHTLCA b'b pyEaxi ^xoBencTBa. 
B^ dana^Hofi Poccia, KaB^s mu SHaeH'B, 6iiIjh onuTHue cne- 
i^iajiHCTH wb BTOM-B ;^4JIi — iesyHTH. Ho ieayHTH ho Hpa- 
BBJHCB ^apTopudcBOMy. Hxi Teopifl fiuja cjhpsom'b mn- 
poKa, Morjra BosBumaTBCA ^ame Ha^n'B HHTepecaMH noju>iiiH, 
Hero oco6eHHo Hysno 6uao 6oflTLCfl bi to BpeMA, Eor^^a 
iesyHTU nojLsoBajHCB TenjxiH'B npiKxroH^ wb PoccIh. IIpo- 
naraHja;y bt^ Poccin h, cjni^OBaTejiBHO, fijaroBOjenie wh 
PocciH OHH HorjH, no BpaHHefi wkpk, na BpeHA nocTaBHTb 
BHHie qncTo-nojiBCKHxx CTpeMjieHifi HapTopuScKaro. Hap- 
TopuflCKift OTBepHyjica ot-b ieayHTOB'B h onepca Ha ;i;pyroft 
BOcnHTaTejTBHHfi oprani jaTHHCTBa — op;i,eHB niapoBi, ko- 
Topue Tome A^tBHo jm,e saHHsiajiHCb b'b fiuBmeifB nojL- 
CKOM'B rocyjcapcTB'b o6pal90BaHieM%, B'B doaphb^b iesyHTaM'B, 
H nocjii HBFHaHifl iesyHTOBi Bes^i san'i^HHjH hx'b. He 
HM^A TaBHX'B BceMipHHX'B i^ijefi, EaK^B iesyHTU, HiapH 
dojiBine npHHUEajTH k^b naniioHajBHUM'B HHTepecaMib iIoJBniH 

H OHOHB HpaBHJEHCB HOJAEaifB 0C06eHH0 HOTOMy, HTO B'B 

CBoeft CHCTeifj^ oGpasoBanin oxotho AonycBajH naynHUH 
ycoBopnieHCTBOBaHiH, EOTopBixi He TepaijiH iesyHTH. ^ap- 
TopuficsiS BB^pHJi'B HiapaM'B cpe^nee o^pasoBanie h CTajTB 



k 




\ 



\ 

\ 



— 315 — 

iflTB AJiH HHst saBe^eHi^ s-h poA^ rHHBasiS no Bceuy 
'paBCTsy sana^Hofl FocciH. 

KOHen,!., nowitsHaa, caKaa ratiejitHaa jiipa ^apro- 
caro 6iu& crkfljamfla. Ochobhok uucjib) ero 6ujio 
ie vb saua^HOfl Poccia Bcero pjccKaro ct nojbCEHH'B. 

il^H Cosbme BCero hofah coA^BcTBOBaxb ynnjiniita 
Bi, HO OHB 'Be Tas'b yAo6BO HflriB saoaiUBaTb pyc- 

Haccy jiOAefi. EaKb uonazB jaTBoCKie, ohb 3Ha?]i- 
6uJiH HyxAu pyccKBH'B.Ha pyccBBsx ropas^o yA06Hie 
IH^e MOOB AMctBOBaTB HOBaXB yBiaicEoS itepKBB, — 
iaae. drort opAfiBi, BH^r^ cl ^Bcro-iesyBTCKBUB b 
KBUB Ha^aJiaHH, cospasAJTb, xora h bx HCEaxeHaoH:b 

BocToqHue, pyccKie o6paAH. Hapoflx pyecKifi jerne 

OTAaBaTbCA BBt, Be saii^iaa A'^ficiBBiejibBaro BXi 
iBJCHia. ^apropufiCEifi. bobhji'b 9to rpouaAQoe saa^e- 
asBJiiaHCEaro opAeaa h nosaCoTHJiCA o&b yHHOxeHia 
oflCTB^ ero y^iisam,!,. TaKia y^H^HHia 6ujih so bc^it. 
Mmax'L eaaBiiaacsBxt uoEacTupax'b. 
[HH'£ ofipasoH'B, Vb pyEaxi oapTiB '^apTopuScKaro 

cocpeAOTo^eao Biicmee ofipaaoBaaie sanaAHo-pyccsaro 
ecTBa B HHoroiTBCJieBBua cpeABia j^e6aua saBejieHia, 
eU h 6a3BjiiaHCKia. Bc^ 3tb saBeAeaia aociaBJieHU 
B-h o^eab xopomee DdJioseaie do cpeACTBaHi. FyccKoe 
T&ibCTBo Be aaJi^Jio seaer'B. HapropudcEitt, EpoH^ 

no yEasaaiiO HaBKaro, aameji'B h^cthub CoraTUa 
TBa. Ob'b BpaBejii bi HSuicxHocTii, KaKia soPAa Jifl6o 
,su 6azs pasuuMB jiHiiauH noxaioBaBui bi nojibsy 
DBaaifl, saHHCjeBHUa aa RH'ibHia kepTBoaaTejefi, b 
GoB&rb, qiofibi Bc/b noAo6Bua cyHKu 6uxa BUajaqB- 
I. ^sa flOBy»AeHi.a BeacapaBBuxi DiaTejibntBROBi 
e6.iajiacb pyccsaa CHJa. 



— 316 — 

Bjan>;tapa ■Bekm ynaa, lAptan ''lapToptiicKaro 
cxift xjTb «h saQaAHott Pocda craji oxHBatb h spj 
BO vcbicb ctt^epaxi o6ii^ecTBa, upOEJss&a 6uCTpo bi 
Hflaoqarae cjoh cozpaexsinefica aq Tfizi nopi p 
XH3HH. Y6ixsfime at, BoscTaBOBjeitiH IIojbinH se 
CEaJio jxe HHsaKoro coMffi^Hiii. Bci ysipeBu 6uj 
HMepaTopi AjeKCa&jipx ocymfiCTBHrh stj hhcjl 
uoHi CKopout BpeifeHH. EoPAa HunepaTopi bi 180 
oTDpaBjifljcA Bi Ascrpii) a^x (Sopbfiu ob Hanojeos 
npoissajit aBCTpiflcKyn IIoAiny, to noi^KH ci Heoi 

EUMl BOCTOprOH^t BCTp^VaJtH erO, RaKl BOCKpeCHTai 

HattiK. BnpoqeHi, b Torxayxe vyBCTsa bxi Ha^ajB ,vmi 
Ti xe flaxexjiH sosfiysAaai Bt bhsi h Hanojeoot 
ffixnu 9Ta cCeuhcb, no corjacin oGoBXi HMnepai 
Bi 1807 ro;iy, Qpa sajUB)>ieBiB TB^BBTCsaro ynp 
CTftBOBjeao 6azo mi, ^acreS npyccaofl b aBcrp 
IIojibmH BapmaBCKoe repiiorcTBO. Bt 1809 roxy n( 
CBOHy MBpy OBO 6ujo yBejB^eHO ea c^era ABCTpii 
KOBCKOB) o6jiacTi>i). XoTs HanoieoHi ji,taeao Be suno 
acejiaHift uoj^kobi, bo o6aBHie ero sa hhx'b cTa^o 
p^MBTejiBufi seprb Baj(i oSaHBieu'B, Easoe npoHai 
Bpe%a,e BHoepaiopi AjescaHJtps. Taaoft nepeiH^i 
catAyera ynfiBjaihcii. HapojiHHfl qyBcxaa iSjaroAai 

OHCBb p^XKO CuBaDTb AO^pOA^I'^J^Ei; OBB o6uEH( 

BepaapuBBo CBaaasu ct BHroAofi. Ho nojaEcn m, 
He6jiaroAapBocTH sb pyccsouy BUnepaTopy sanua 
Eovi AajeKO. Bi 1812 ro,!^ obu co pBOBieirb ebi 
Bh 6opb6y HanoieoBa eh Pocciett « se^sih AftsaJiB 

SBaxb pyCCKBHl CBOBHB ZeCTOKOCTHIfB. B'B MoCKB^ B 

ocotSeBHO BenaBB^i^^rb b iSoaioa rizrb ({tpaBKysoBi, so 
BOBBHa^H Bo-pyecEB H roBopBjB uo-pyccRB. 3to 6u: 



— 317 — 

juiKH. noxo^ii'L HanojreoHa na PocciD, nas^b h3B'Ictho, koh- 
HHjECfl Hey;^a^HO. Bi toupb »e rojij can't oh!b h ocxaTKH ero 
rpoHaji^Hofi apMiH notftasajH nasaA'b. 3a hhmh nom^H pyccKk 
BoScsa H saHAjH BCD nojLniy. Ohu nBrjajiH HapoAHOD ne- 
HaBHCTis) Kh nefijraroAapHofi CTpani h totobh 6uj[h npe- 
BpaTBlTB ee bi» nycTUHD. Ho IIojBBiy cnac!b orb dToro 
6iji,Q;£Bisi TOTb ace HHnepaTop'b A^^^BcaH^i^'B. Ero ne h3- 
M^HHia nojiBCBaji He6jiar0AapH0CTB. Oh'b ocTajicA ji,j[s. no- 
jiaKom> T^H'B se fijiaroA^Tejieui. B'b 1815 ro^cy, Ha b£h- 
CBou^b BOHrpecci, ofli npeo;i;oji^'& bc% npenjiTCTBifl h 
BoscTaHOBHjii Fopi^orcTBO BapmaBCBOO, 110?,% EUBEowb map-* 
CTBa noJBCBaro, (tb npHcoe^^nHenieite ero b'b PoccIb. B'b 
TOM^ ate ro^y HOBony i^apcTsy ^ana 6HJia BOHCTHTyi^ia. 

BeJHBii, BHA3B EOHCTaHTHHl IlaBJOBH^'b BOCTaBJieH^ BO 

rjaB^ ero no eoenHOMy ynpaBjeniH). Ha b^hcbohi^ boh- 
rpecci o6iii^aHO 6100 pacmHpeme ii;apcTBa. Bc^ bojuibb 
noHHHa^iH dTo o6%n^aHie taB^B, ?to bb mapcTBy 6yjsfiTh 
opHCoejtHHeHa sana^nafl Poccifl. CaMB HMnepaTopB Ajie- 
BcaHAPB BaBB 6u yTsepat^^ajTB bb dTofi mucjh uojabobb, 
H noA'^HHHJEB KoHCTaHTHHy IlaBJioBH^y npHj[eraE)ni;iji b'b 
IIojEBin'i^^sanaAHUJi ry^epniH, BnpoHOMB, bb boohhomb, a 
He bb rpas^^ancBOMB OTHomeniH. 
HoBoe noJBCBoe rocy^apcTBO Ha^ajo caMocTo;iTej|BHys), 

BOHCTHXyi^iOHHyK) aCHSHB. Ho, BaBB HSB^CTHO, SH3HB dXa 

CB Bas;^HMB roAOMB pasBHBaja bb nojABaxB 6bjibmjv> h 
6oj[BmyiD HenaBHCTB bb PoccIh. IlapTia He;i;oBOJEBHHXB po- 
CJia no ^acaHB, odpasoBa^ocB HeoAOJHMoe npoxHsoAMcTBie 
PocciH, (5HCTpo pa3BHBaJtHCB Ta&HUH o6ni;ecTBa. Bb 1821 roj^y 
npHmjocB pacnycTHTB coSmb, npnnLiocB sanaTbca noTOUB 
pascjri^;(OBaHieMB xanHEixB o6in;ecTBB. Bb 1825 r. cefiHB 
HJiB CHosa oTBpuTB, HO Heo6xo;i;HHO 6i>ijro cjai'&JiaTB ero 



— 318 — 

yase He rjiacHUMi>. Co scTynJieHieirb na npecTOJTb HMnepa- 
Topa HHKOJaji A'bjia He yjyHiHHjiHCb. Ha nojAsoBi He no- 
xMcTBOBajH Hu TopsecTseHHaa Roponai^iA HHnepaTopa b'b 
Bapmasi hojibcshm'b KopojeBCRHirb wbvufiwb b% 1829 ro^y, 
HH od'bni^aHie co6jfiDAaTB Bcb npasa JIojiBinu. B^ eohi^^ 
cxbfljv>mjBiTo 1830 r. Bcnuxnyjo nojBCRoe BOscTame. 

Bucrpoe oasHBjieme, 6jrecs'B h nryirB ho^bckoS napTiH 
B'B sanaAHofi PoccIh axoro Hoa^Hniaro BpeneHH, t. e. co 
BpeMeHi HHnepaTopa IlaBJia, coBepmeeHO sacJonnjiH co- 
6oH) napoAHyiD sanaAHO-pyccKyBo HCTopiro. * Ona Kas^B 6yATO 

KOH^HJaCB BTB dTO BpeiUi JIM HOTOMCTBa. Ho Ha fl,^i 6BIJIO 

UHa^e. HapoAHaa, 3ana;^H0-*pyccKaA MCTopia B'B 9to bpomh 
pasBHBaJiacB cbobh^b cxapnifB nyxeiTB h paseHBaJiacB He* 
cpaBHeHHO 6ojLhme h acHB^e, tI^m'b ji^yMaeACB mu — He^aB- 
Hie noTOMRH jiDAefi xoro BpeMeHH, saSuBmie Hsy^axB jsfyia. 
sanajD^Ho-pyccKiA noxh cjoeM'B hojbcshmi. PasBHBajacB dTa 
HCTopifl, KaR'B H B^ cTapuA BpeMena, bi <|)opui^ pejiHrio3- 
Hofi, — B'B yniaxcKOM'B Bonpoci. 

IIojuoaceHie yHiaxcEofi mepKBH, ch horhjbl n^apcTBOBaHia 
HMnepaTpHi^u EKaTepHHU II, 6ujio cjAjijJOiiifie, }i,JiH ynpaB- 
jieuia jiaTHHAHaMH pyccKoS HMnepin ycxpoena bx Ilexep- 
6ypr4 pHMCKO-KaTOJiH^ecKaH KOJijeria. 9toS KOJjeriH no;i;- 
HHHeHa 6ujia, h yHiaxcRafl i^epROBB. TaRoro Baacnaro ipara, 
?To6u yniaTCRa^ mepROBB ynpaBj^jiacB jaTHHCRoS iepap- 
xiefi, HHRor;^a ne Morjia j;ocTHrHyTB nojBma. Hohhtho, 
qxo nojioatenie sanaAHO-pyccRHX'B yniaTOB'B, npn xaROM^ 
yupaBjeniH, ^noJEmno 6ujlo c^c'i^JiaTBCH o^eHB 6iACTBeHHEJM'& 
npH nepBoft ocjafii, nonymeHHofi jaTHHCRoft iepapxin. Oc- 
jEa6a dTa, EaRi mu fobophjih, c^'i^jana npu HMnepaxop^ 
IlaBJii. Tor^a ace ona oxpasHjacB h na yniaxax^B. Hxne- 
paTop'B naeewii, RaRx nejioBi^R'B np^MOH h pimHTejBHufi, 



— 319 — 

He Mori TioHJiTL TaBoro AByjiH^Haro h HeonpeA'&jeHHaro 
BipoHcnoB^AaHiH, KaB'b yniaTCBoe, h 0T3UBaJiCfl 06% ynia- 

TaXl, HTO 3T0 — HH pilCa, HH MflCO, T, 6. HTO HjaHO 6hTB 

HJiH npaaoGJiaBHUH'B bjth jaTHHAHoifB, a He yHiaroH'B* 

dxa ^pa3a Ban's HejTBSfl 6pjrke orriHHJia Tor^a HCTopaqe- 

CKoe pasBHTie yHm. ynifl b'b t^ Bpenena abho nanpa* 

BjifljacB B'^ npaBOCJiaBiK). IIojrflBH, ecTecTBeHHO, seJiajH 

noBepnyTB ee K'b jaTHHCTBy. Ilpn EBaxepHH^ ynifl nomja 

no nepBOiiy nyTH. TenepB bojabh noBepeyjEH ee na bto- 

pofi, nycTHJiH Fb xo;^*B oSxacHenie, hto caMo pyccBoe npa- 

BHTejBCTBO sejaen^, ^To6ii ymaTU jsj^jLajmch jaTim^HaHH 

Hy He ;i;osHMACB hx^b corjacifl, chjeod o6pani;ajH bb ja- 

THHCTBO n^JiHe yniaTCBie npHxo^qj. YHiaTH BoaonajiH, Bo J 

rjiaBJi HXB,. BaB'b Mu SHaeMB, CTOfljB HpaBjifi JEncoBCBig, 

^ejOB^BB Hecnoco6Hsg noA^aTBCA BnynieHiflMi jaTHHAHB. 

Ob's CTajEB oco6eHHO peBHOCTHO ^liiftcTBOBaTB bb CJ[i;^y- 

©mee i;apcTB0BaHie, npn HMnepaTopi AjeEcaH;iipi I. Bb -f 

1803 — 5 rr. JiHcoBCBifi no;^aBajiB npomeHiji cb acaj[o6oft 

Ha yrneTenie yniaTOBB co cTopoHH jaTHHaHB. Tor^a ae 

OHB js^(mmsL paspinieHia npiixaTB bb IIeTep6yprB h ot- 

BpiijiB npaBHTejEBCTBy nopasHTeJEBHEifl Beni;H, hhohho, ?to 

jiaTHHane ycnijiH nacHjiBHO o6paTHTB bb jraTHHCTBO ABaA- 

i];aTB TUCAHB yniaTCBaro Hapo^a. jlncoBCBig yMOJ^JiB 

H36aBHTB yniaTOBB otb jaTHHCBofi oneBH h hoa^hhhtb 

HXB ynpaBjeniH) CBaTifimaro CHHo;i;a. Bb 1811 r., npH- 

6jiHaaflCB BB CMepTH, JiHCOBCBifi cjn;ijiajiB saB^mianie, bb 

EOTOpOMB yilOJflJB pyCCEOO HpaBHTOJIBCTBO cuacTH yflii) 
OTB JiaTHHCBOfl TH^eJIH, HO BpaHHefi M'!§pi, BB^pHTB yopaB- 

jenie ero nocjii ero CMepTH TaBOMy ^ejoB^Ey, BOTopufi 
6ez jih)6hj[b BB yniH BOCToi;Hue o6pfl;i;u h oxpaHHJB hxb 
OTi^ jaTHHCBHXB HCBaaenit. Ohb yBasuBaJiB bb aTOMB 









— 320 — 

cxfHsA Ha nojomsaro eaHcsona RpacoBCKaro. Focdoactbo 
HapxopHttcKaro, a dotom'b BoeHHua Bpeiiena c% 1812 r. 
A&iajiH HeBosMosHuiTB cepBesHoe HsyneHie ysiaTCBaro bo- 
opoca H naAJesam^ee BHHMaHie k'B neny. YHiaTCKoe ynpas- 
jEenie ocTaJocL npn pHMCRO-saTOJEqecBoft KOjrjeriH. 0(5pa- 
soBaH'B 6ujrh tojlko b'l BOjueriH oco6ui ysiaTCBifi ;i;e* 
napTaMeniTB, vb soTopoMi saci^^jrH o;qi;hu yniaTH. Ho 3th 
HJ[e^u yniaTCBaro ynpaBJienia ne mofjih hm^tb chjis. Ohs 
AOJSHU 6uj[H npe;i;cTaBjflTL cboh js^iia bi o6iHGe co6pa- 
Hie KOJJieriH, Tjsjb jiaTHHCBoe ^ojiliuhhctbo "^jrenoBi yHH- 
HTo»aio Bci yniaTCBifl pacnopAseHifl, HanpaBjeHHUH iipo- 

THB'b jaTHHJIH^. KpaCOBCBifi He TOJIbBO He CUJTh ejSJkJSiWb 

MHTponojiHTOM'b, HO ope^^aH'B cy^y h Hsf^fii B% JlyuBi, 
Ky^a 6ws% nepeM'bnieH'b nocji^ cy^a. 

Ho TOJto&h JiHcoBCRaro h EpacoBcnaro ne sanepi. 3a 
HHMH CTOfljra sna^HTejEBHaji yniaTCBaA napiiA, sa»A£tBinaA 
H36aBjeHi£[ ot^b nosopnaro JiaTHHCKaro h nojEBCsaro pa6- 
cTBa. 8to 6ujio jy^iee 6iJioe ;^yxoBeHCTBo yHiaTCKoft n;ep- 
KBH. jIhcobcbh h KpacoBCBifi paTOBaJH BBepxy; 6ijLoe yni- 
aTCBoe AyxoBencTBO paTOBaJo BHH3y, r^i oho naxo^HJio ce6^ 
BparoBOb, eni^e 6oxie onacHUx'B, ^iwh jaTEHflne, bi Mona- 
xaxi yniaTCKHxi — 6a3HjriaHax'B. Bb o^Hott hs'b or^^ajeH- 
HifiniHx^ Tor^a yniaijCKofi enapxia, fipecxcKoS, no c^acMH- 
BOMy cjyqaiD, ynpaBJienie 6hjio bi pyBax-B 6ij[aro ;iyxo- 
BeHCTBa. MoHaxH-6a3HjiaHe, nopa6oTHBmie ce6i ho^h Bce 
npocTpancTBo sana^nofi PoccIh, Txk tojbbo 6cuh yniaTH, 
CMOTptjTH o^eHB Bpam^nedso na Tasoe ynpaBjienie 6pecT- 
CKofi enHCKonin h xot^jih yHH^ToacHTB ero. ^chh 6pecT- 
cKofi KanHTyjH b'b 1819 ro^y no^ajH To^;^afflHeMy ymaT- 
CBOMy MHTponojEHTy ByjrraBy o6iACHeHie, b'b KOTopoHi H3- 
jLomajm ex HeofiuKHOBeHHKH'B snanieM^B fljbjiai. bcd Hcropiio 



— 321 — 

64j^CTBiS fiijraro jHiaTCKaro AyxoBeHCTsa otb MoeaxoB'B- 
6a3HjiaH'&. 9to HOBoe saaBjenie npas'B Ha acHSHb TaK»e 
nponajTO, RaKb h npesHi^, ho npon^je tojbro jt^JiK 6j[h- 
safimaro BpeMeHH. 06a npoxecTa: npoTecTb JEHCOBCsaroH 
npoTecTi npoTHBi paficTBa jyqniefi nacTH yHiaTCKoii n;ep- 
BBH, 6ijiaro jnyxoBBHCTBa, or^b HOHaxos'b (SasHJiiaH'B no- 
CJiyacHJiH ocHOBHEiMH npuHn;HnaMH js,jlh a'^atojibhocth ho- 
Baro jHi^a, BucTynHBmaro na ^6opB6y npoxuB'b sthx'b 
30JII, — fl^H A^ATejBHocTH 3HaHeHHTaro, npucHonaMATHaro 
MHTponojiHTa jHTOBCBaro, IocH(|>a CiMamKH. 

Ha^ajo A'^ATOJEBHOCTH IocH(|>a GtHaniRH, no Bonpocy o 
Boscoe^HHeHiH yniaTOBi, othochtch s% 1827 ro^^y. B'b 3To 
BpeHA Ioch4>'b OJ^ManiKO sac&AaJi'B b'b pHMCEo-RaTOJ[u?e- 
cRofi ROJiJieriH bo 2 (yHiaxcRoifB) ;(enapTaMeHT£ en, b'b 
KanecTB^ AonyTaTa otb yniaTOBi, RaR% RaHOHHR'B jiyu;Roff^ 
enHCRoaiH. HecnpaBe;(jiuB0CTH jiaTHHHH'B no oTHomeniH) 
B'B yniaTaHi, B'B ocodennocTH a'^o EpacoBCRaro n cospa- 
s^enie ^Ba^i^aTH teica^'b yniaTOB^, npHBejH ero wb nero- 
j^oBanie h CHJBHoe pasAyMBe na^'B HecnacTHOBD cyAB5od 
yniaTCROt i^epRbn. To h APyroe jiyiJ^Rifi RanoHHR^ BHCRa- 
saji^B TorAamHOHy ;^HpeRTopy AenapTaMenxa HCnoB^A^nid, 
EapTameBCROHy h, no coB^Ty ero, H3j[03Rtf ji'b b:b bha^^ ao- 
iU9,fl,Eoi sanHCRH. 3anHCRa duja npe^CTaBJieHa rocy^apD 
HHROjaiD IlaBJEOBH^y H o6paTHJia na ce6& Ha^jesan^ee 
BHHManie; ho ne jerRO 6ujio CA'^jraxB mdrb uea. npaRTHHO- 
eRoe npHj[o;KeHie, noTOMy nxo HHorie xor^ en^e naxo^^n- 
JHCB noA'B BJEiAHiesfB HanpaBjieHiH ^apTopBificRaro h c^h- 
TajiH HeyificTHEiM'B noMoraTB pyccROMy napo^y sanaAHofi 
PocciH BonpoRH HHTepecaM'B nojiBCRofi H jiaTHHCROH nap* 
Tin B% dTofi CTpani. noAo6Hoi n^OROTjiHBocTH ne nuijvh 
TOTAamniH ynpaBj(jiiDni,id HHOCTpannHMH HcnoB^AABi^HH, 

21 



— 322 — 
a noTOMi MHEHCTpiB BHyrpeHHHxi AiJthj Ji,. H. {buocjAmt 

pyccKHxi oHcaTaieft h pjccrhz'b ji>j(ei, KapaifSHHa, Xy- 
lOBCKaro H ApyrHTB. Ohi& npHHAJi Ha oe6fl ymaTCKoe 
A'ixo H Cb rtz'b nopB xo 1836 roxa hoctoahho pafioraxB 
BMicrt (TB locniffowh Ofiifaiincofi. Bi 1827 — 30 TOfj np^- 
HHTu 6iun ejAxjDmji& lApa: 

ymaTCKafl i^epKOBB orx&ieHa fiHja otb jaTEHCKoi jqpes- 
xeHiewE yniaTCKoS Koxieris, sanpen^emeiTB dribmeHiii kb 
cjiysemH h coBepmeniH o6pflxoBi xyii^oBeHCTBa Tofi h xpy* 
rofi i^epKBH, 7HH9ToaBeHieH!B nancKaro KTHTopcTsa na^^ 

JHiaTCKHMH i(epsBaMH. 

OcjrafiJieHO SHaiieHie 6a3HjiiaHCKaro opxena saspHrieM^B 
(SoJBDieft ^acTH 6a8HjiaHCKHX!B MOHacTiipet. 

IIojioaceHO Ha^ajro otfpasoBaidi) HOBaro ymaTesaro noKo- 
jAmsi KB HOBoiTB js^jxi ocHOBaHieiTB vh 1828 r. SHpo- 
BHi^BOft yHiaTCBofi ceMHHapiH. 

Bdb 9TH vbpu, BaB% ecrecTBeHHo 6julo osH^aTB, bh- 

SBBJLE CailHA yCHJieHHHfl HHTpHrH CO CTOpOHU nOJBCKOfi H 

jaTHHCBoft naprifi. ^epeai Bapmasy nyin;eHO 6wio bi ca- 

MHfl BHCmiA npaBHTeJBCTBeHHHfl C^HSpBT aHOHHMHOe HHCBMO, 

FB KOTopoM^B cTpexjieHie ymaTOKB jvb npaBocjafiiiD npex- 
CTaBjiajocB HexocTofiHoft HHTpHroft 6^aro xy^oBeHCTBa 
npoTHBi MonaxoB^B-fiasHJiiaHi, a ^asHjiane BSCTaBjieHH, 
BaKi HeyTOMHMue ABHraxejiH hcthhei h npocB^n^eHiA, h 
cpaBHeHu cb iesyHTaMH jaTSHCKofi mepsBH. IIo- 
cjAjijuisi ^pasa nory^HJia Bce x^o. PyccBoe npasHTaiB- 
CTBO TenepB acho noHHJEo, too Tasoe dasHjiane. B'b ot* 
^ajiHiH dasEjiaHe piniHjiHCB na HeBipoaTHys) nipy: ohh 
npe^JiosHJEH CBATiftmeHy CHHoxy bsatb hx'b opxesi vb 
CBoe ynpaBJieHie, tojibbo 6u ero He nox^HHXJtH fitjouy 






\ 






— 323 — 



■• J- 






yHiaxcKOHy J^yxoBeHCTBy, t. e. enapxiajitHOMj ynpaBjeHiD. 
IlaiaKH vLes&jsy Tkwb noACTeperaJiH peBHHTejei spaBociaB- 

UUSb 06pflJ!i;0B'B Me»Ay yHiaTCBHMH CBJiIO;eHHHBaMH H He- 

pi;pco pacnpaBJifljHCB cib hhhh caMtiMi 6e3i^epeHOHHUM'b 
o6pa80M^. CoxpaHHJiocL H^CBOjotLKO A^J^B o6:b HCTflSaniH 
CBJiiii;eHHHBOBab h KpecTBflHib sa npHBepseHHOCTB k'b Bpa- 
BOCJiaBHUH'b o6pja[AaifB. ymaTCBoe ;i;yxoBeHCTBo o^HaEo He 
jfiUBaJO. Oho Bcxpi^^ajio cs co'^yBCTBieM^ npeofipasoBank 
Bs ymaTCSofi i^epBBH. Ocjia6jieflie BJiacTH jaTHHAH'B, na- 
Aeme HeHaBHCTHUx'B 6a3Hj[iaH'b, HaAeacA^ yjy^niHTB CBofi 
CTpaniHO saJBift 6hiTh uaTepiaJUBHiiMH cpe^cTBaMH 6a3H- 
jiiaHCRaro op^ena — Bce bto 6uj[h TaEin nepeMins, eoto- 

PH2 He MOrJLH He B036y2BAaTB pa^OCTH Vb Ajmli T&Xl 
fi^AHHXl, SaAaBjeHHHXTb yHiaTCBHXl CBJini^eHHHEOBl, KO- 

Topue cTOJiJH CJOLxe ki Hapo;^ h k^ cBoeft joqpeBHeft pyc- 

CBOfi Bipi. , 

noJiBCKoe BoscTanie 1831 ro;i;a pisRo HSiriHHjio 9to 
ecTecTBeHHoe, nocTenenHoe npaBocjiaBHoe pasBHTie ymn... tj 

IIojBCBaA CMyta noicasaajt npaBHrejiBCTBy, KaK'b HejiBsa 
flCHte, BCD onacHOCTB jaTHHCBaro HanpaBjemA wh ynm n 
BCio 6jaroTBopHocTL fl,JiH Poccis B03coe;i;HHeHia yniaxoKb. 
Boscoe^HHeme TasnMi o6pa30M% nojiy^Hio b^ Bncmefi 
cTeseHH nojiHTH^ecBoe BHa^enie. lIpaBHTejiLCTBo ne mofjo 
He seJiaTB ycRopenifl yniaTCBaro js^jlb, h ne y^BOHTB cbo- 
ero co^^MctbIa eny. Rb btoitb ydis^eHiH npaBHTejBCTBO 
6iuo yTBeps;i;euo h npaBOCJiaBHHMH apxiepeAMH, Chbiuhmh 
Tor^a b:b h'^^cbojbbhxi nyHSTaxi Bana^nott Poccin: b% 
MorHJCBt, HojEoi^Ki, MnncKi, ffltHTOMipi. Bci ohh cji4- 
jsfiBSLJLii crapuMi o6H?aflM'B H BocTOiHod H 8ana;^H0& Poc-* 
ciH npHHo o6pani;aTB wh npaBOCjaBie, h saHHMajEHCB 9Thm:b 
AiJOiTB CB CbAhmnwh hjih MeHBHiHMi ycnixoMi. roTO* 

21* 



^a 






:^ 



•'J 



— 324 — 

BHBineMCfl ^ipyrOH^B, nocTenesHOM'b BOSCoeAHneHiH yniaTOBi 
OHH AOJroe BpeHfl se SHajH h ecTecxBeHHO naxo^cHJiH 
HHoro CTpaoHaro bi Tom's oacHBjeHin yeiaTCKoft i^epsBH, 
Rasoe B036ysAaJi'B b'e Hefi Ioch4>'b O&Hainso, npio6piTaB- 
mifi Be3A^ 65jiBinyE) h 6bjLhmyjo CHJiy. Bee dTo cos^i^ajto 
MHoxecTBO coBepmeHHo HanpacHuxi^ HeAopasyif&Hid h ^ase 
Bpa3BAe6H£ix'B ^yBCTB'B. YHiaTCRoe ;(yxoBeHCTBO ocsopfijA- 
jLoch BCflBHifB cjyqaeuGb npuMoro odpam^eHifl Hapo^a vb 
npaBociaBie. Ji^inTejivL B03CoeAHHeHifl nocTaBJieHU 6UJH vb 
HenpiflTHyD Heo6xoAHMOCTB havl bscth 6opB6y cb npaso- 
cjaBHUHH BjacTflMH Ko Bpe^y co6cTBeHHaro A'^ja, hjh 
ycTyaaTL em's k'b co6;ia3Hy Mes^y yniaTaHH. IIojiBCKafl 
jaTHHCEafl napTifl BOcnojtBSOBajacB 9thm^ paBoraAOH'B h 
yABOHja CBOH ycHjiia, Tro^u B'E jsjkA^ B03Coe;^HHeHiA bu- 
M'J^CTHTB CBOH HeyA^HH B'E BoscTaHiH 1831 F. Ofia cxaja 
3a6oTjrHBo pacnpocxpaHJiTB MHinie, vb cyinjHOCTH coBep* 
meHHO B^pHoe, ho HsypoAOBanHoe h chjibho CHyn^aBmee 
MHorHx^ ymaTOBi, qxo a'^atojIH ymaTCKie, o^Hii^aBniie 
yHiD OTB jraTHHCTBa, Tose A'&jaDrB, ?to h npaBocjiaBHiia 
BjacTH, ?T0 Bctx^B osH^aerB TO »e caMoe, roBopnjiH ohh, 

HaCHJiie COB^CTH, npH^OMl nOCTOAHHO BUCraBJAJH Ha BHA%, 

saKi rp'i^iuHo HapymaTB npHC^ry nant, ji^SLREyv) npH py- 
KonojoaceniH b'b CBjaiiiJ^eHHH^ecKiH can's. OcTaBiniecH 6a3H- 
jiane h oco6eHHO ^esM'icTHue B^OBue yHiaTCKie CBJiiii;eH- 
HHKH, BOTopuxi 6ujio o^eHB HHOFO npH 6ojLie 6oraTux'b 
yniaTCKHX'B i^epKBax'B h upn KOCTejax'B b'b aojshocth bh- 
KapieB'B, pascuuajHCB no Bced 3anaAH0& PoccIh ctb npo- 

nOB'b;i^BE) npOTHB'B BOSCOe^HHeHifl. IlaHU H KCeH;(3lI JlfiiBSLJlK 

HM'B y64aHm;e, nepecHJiajiH o;^HH k'b ^pyrHM'B. He roBO- 
pHMi* yme o6'b areHTax'B ?hcto jtaTHHCBoft B^pu h ?hcto 

U0JIBCK0& BpOBH. 



— 325 — 

Cauo C0601) pasyBT^erCA, ^to opH TaicoH'B nopji^K^ Be- 
meft A^T&iflH'B BOSCoejiHHeHia 6uio Heo6uKHOBeHHo Tpyxao 
pasBHBaTb uestxj jHiarauH oSntecTBeaHyio, apaBocjaBayn 
Cfuj. SjioynorpefijeHifl h HHTpHrz ciaHOBBincb HH'b no- 
nepCKi Ha sasAOm mary, Hhcjo juAeft, npeAaHoux'b 
jtjixj B03co3jiaHia vh yaiH jpeBBe-BoCTo^Haro cTpoa, npo- 
THBi KOToparo He KOrJta saroBopaib cob^^ctb bb ojiHoro 
qecTHaro yHiaxa, yaeHbrnaiocb caHUH'B HCKycc 
o6pa3oii(i>. A'^i'^-iB BOscooAHHeHifl iipamiH isb y< 
vTo ooqBa y bhxi BuxaaTUBaeTca hsi-bojcb hoi 
saTioERi&maifh cqocoSoh'b, bo b-b to ate Bpt 
HCBycBUHi, HID CBBToe, B^&OBoe A'^o sanaAQ 

SH3HH HOXeTl BOrHSByTS. UoXh BJILBBieHt 9TE 

Bifi, Koropuxt CHjy HoaeTi. bohhtb tojbko : 
xopomo SBaen BoibcsjE) Kpavojy Toro BpeHea 
oacBJiHCb Ba ycKopeHie Atia BoacoeAHHeHiH 
corjacBJiHCb AaTb eny (SesnoBopoTHoe BanpaB. 
dTBii BBAaz'B B-b 1834 r. cocTaBJieHi Cas-h co6( 
CKBX'B B^acrefl bi nexepCypr^, a na aeu-h pibme 
Bi yHiaTCByn BepBosii HeHeAJieBHa BpasocjiaBHc 
CTBO xpauoBi H yBorpefijieHie BpaBocjasBQX'b khbi 
CKaro HSAaEia. 

BTa H'bpa, npH Bcefl caoefi co6opHog caBsifi 
saaa caicoft fijiaropasyMBoft ocroposaocTB. E'b c< 
aTofl ocTopoxHocTH Be Tiuijii/i uHOrie Bnsmie hci 
yBiaTCKie b eui,e ueBbnie bh^b ee qHBOBHHEB, 
Bopy^eBo coAMcTBOBaTb yHiaTCKHHi iSjaroHHHBu 
CKafl jaTBHCsaA napTia BOCUOJibsOBaJiacb h stuv 

TeJIbCTBOM'B. nOAl. ea pyKOBOXCTBOlfL OJtaTHHHBBlil 

CKie CBan^eBBHicB cTajm Bosuyn^aTb cbohxi Cofi] 
iKeBBBKOBi, aapoAt b paanuuH BCKyccTBeBBMB 



— 326 — 

cocTaBJiHTB npoTecTH. TaRHX's, oco6eHHO rayiiHHX'B npo- 

TeCTOB'B 6UJ0 JlfiSLl O^CHH'b B'B HOBrOpO;(K'& B'B 1834 P., 

doJBinHHCTBO HJneHOBi KOToparo He SHaio, ht6 no^nHCH- 
BaeTB, H APyrod vh JJfifKOBwb wh 1838 r., tji,^ bi hhcji^ 
nojsjmceii HamjHCB Hicena jiD^ed, HeBjaA^BmHX'b pyxofi. 
EucTpufi pasSopi j^^ja na iri^cTi h HaKa^anie bhhobhux's 
B'B noACxpeKaTejiLCTBi HeMe^^jeHHo paBpymajH 8Th HHrpHrH. 
Ho ^opa3;^o Tpy;^H•fee Cujlo yjra»HBaTB t4 ;^iJa, m> koto- 
puA sairi^iiiHBajiH Hapo^n'b. Hapo^^'b stoti, KaR'B nsBicTHo, 
6iaj['B Tor^a Bt Ep'&nocTHOM'B coctoahIh y nojLCRHX'B na- 
HOB'B. B'B CHjy dToro npaBa nanu ci^RjrH Hapo^^'B 3a bcs- 
Koe co^yBCTBie Kh npaBocjaBiD h chjod nociuajH ero 
npenATCTBOBaTB nepeycTpodCTBy ymaTCKHX'B ii;epsBefi[ no 
npaBocjiaBHOHy, BcI^itb 6ujlo acho, tto napoA'B nacrpoflDirB 
H yBJieRaiorB B'B bto ^^-^jio nann; ho ho Bcer;i(a mo»ho 
6uj[o ;i,0Ra3aTB 9to, noTOHy ^rro nand rposHJH a^^CRofi 
RpinocTHoS MyRofi rkwh RpeCTBanaHi, Roropue 6u hx'B 
OTRpujH. IIpaRTH^ecRie pyccRie ^hhobhhre pa3pimajin 
■\ axH 3aTpy;i;HeHiA TaR'B, ?to h caHH HHor^^a HaRa3H[BajiH 
\\ RpecTBjiH'B, H RpecTBHHe HOJiy^ajH BOSHomnocTB y6imjijai.Tb 
CBOHX'B nanoB'B, ^to npHHHHaiorB npaBocjaBie hobojbho. 
Mu He MoaceH'B s^cicB B;i;aBaTBCfl Vb noji;po6HOCTH, roto- 
pHMH noJHH MHQro^HCJieHHaA, npo'^HTaHHUA HaMH A^ja; 
HO M£i yB'ipfleM'B HHTaTejieSf, hto HHRaRafl HCTopm ne 
npe^^CTaBjaeii TaRoro a;i;cRaro, ^yJ^OBHI^Ha^o cnjereniH 
HHTpHr'B, RaR'B npocTMnias HCTopia B03coe;i;HHeHifl 3a- 
na;i;HO-pyccRHX'B yHiaTOBi, h hto 3Tofi npocTOTH, a paBHO 

H a^ljCRHX'B HHTpHF'B HeB03H0SH0 EOHATB, OOyCRafl HS'B 

BH;i;y nojBCRig iesyHTHSifB h RpinocTHoe npano, 6HBniie 
Tor;i;a b^b TaRofi cjuii B'B sana^cnofi Poccin. ^^xejrflM'B 
^oscoe^HH enifl, cpe;^H bc^^x'b dXMxi o6cToiFTe4BCTB'B, npH- 



] 



— 327 — 

XOAB-IOCb HCnUTUBSTL UHOrO UJEh H iiHOro ayxHo 6UJI0 

EOTB Ruixb BHepriH, ^ToCu A^caTb past He naCTL xyxoiirb 
noAt TaxecTin caHHxi HCKyccTBenHuxi h Bi to ae BpeuA 
cawixt TAsejEuxt y^&pOBi. Ohh OAHaso He iiajH xjsovh. 
Bo rjasi hxi croot Ioch^i G'^HaniKO, o KOTopou'b b3- 
BtCTHbift CBoei) CTpacTto Ki'ocrpHKi woBa«x, Bwrejit ro- 

BOpBH, HTO 9T0 — leiOB^S'B, COSAaHHUfi pa3pyTn»Tt mM 

cosHAaib i^apcTBa, h o Koropoin uu, sa ochobi 
BOJbHO 6jiH3Karo JHTHaro 3HaEoucTBa, H en^e 
ocHOBaHiH HHOrojiiTHaro HSyveHifl ero x^jn, i 
BUWb xoitjueoTaM-b, cs&seu-i, •no 9to 6axT> san 
CEiii acEOBB/fimk, paspimaBmiS TpyAHiSnrie b 
A^a ct TOM npocToroB h jerKOCTiio, Kasifl, spi 
Basig H Aase upexAe AaposaHifi, AaniCH bi cai 

H KpOBH pOAHOfi SeHJieS 3 pOAHUUH HCTOpHieCI 

AaHiAHH. ^ijio BOSCoeAHseHU, xora ci TpjAOH'b, 
Kb soHiiy. Oho coBepntHJOCb, KaKi mekcmo, 
1839 r. 

SHa^HTejbHaB ^aCTs TorAaniBaro pyccsaro o(Si 
noHsjia pyccsaro, napOAHaro SHaneflifl BoscoeAH 
naABO-pyccKBKi yniaTOBi. Tojibbo bi boci^ahi 
CKyn CHyxy Bcbui crajio ^cho, '9to 3to 6usc 
A^Jio, Be TOJibKO i^epsoBHoe, ho u rocyAapcTBOE 
' Ts a Apyraa CTopona ero spinKO cto^tb sa och 
poABuxT. H SHBUxi HCTOpH^ecEuxi npsAaBlaxi 

npH BCABOHi BH'iniHeH'b c6jiHaceEnH saaaAHofi 
BoCTOHHoS cEasuBajocb H saEpJtoJiaiocb lira, ■ 
(JeHHUu'B H BHy-rpeHHee hxi cQasxeme a o6i 
TaBt (Syjo bi cTapun BpeneHa npH loaae^ 
BpeueHa XuijibHHQKaro. TaEi tSujro npa KnaTe 
HuKOJia'Jb I. To se ecTecTseHHO cjy?HA0Cb h b* 



— 328 — 

iioci^AHefi nojLCEofl cuyru 1863 r., sroro BejiH^aAmaro 
83% noibCEBX'b CesyHifi, no cosHaBiD caHHrt naisKOBi, h 
TiHi jicH'^e cnasajiocL Tenepb eAHaenie bocto^hoS h sa- 
naAHofi PocciH, ?to bi toA h Apjrofi yse coBepniHJocb 
TorAa BejHKoe pyccKoe r%zo — ocBoCoaAeHie KpeeiLflBi, 

H yxe Be OAHH QfipaSOBAHBlie JUAH HOriB flpHHHHaTb 

yqaciie, saaBJiBTi. h ciobovx h A'^Jtoin eAHaeaie 06^^0x1 

""" PocciH, a Bci pyccKie JiDflB log h Apyrot. Eah- 

H cEasaiocb b'b lasu^-h f,-bx&i%, Koropua he- 
aHjTCA BeiE^ecTBeHHHHK naHATHHKaHH n'bxb- 
>g CHJU. Rb 9Ty oocatAHDiD cuyry cosepmeHU 
oS PocciH cJ^AjDUiia, rJiaBa^gmix A^a: 
ycrpoeHO KpecxbaHCKoe, nosoHejibHoe xbio. Oco- 
KHOCTb Bi BTOu-b oTBOmesiH BH^DTi: o6a3a< 
uRyu'b KpecTLHHCEOfi seifiH H 3a6oTH npaBH- 
seuejbHOu'b ycrpoflciBt otfesseuejieHBUX'ii spe- 
tE'b HasuBaeiius'B CaTpasOBi. 

HJTU flSl paSBa^HHIb H BHOBL nOCTpOeHU HHO- 

ue npaBocjasHue spauu n xopomo ofieSDeveHO 

lOe AyXOBCHCTBO. 

CTpaH^ ycTpoenu MHorovHCjeHHUa Bapo^HHa 
I o6e3DeqeHO npasH^bHoe, pyccKoe BeAenle bi> 
lia yqpesAenieM'b b^ceojiiiebx'b y^HTejitCKHii 

B'b KOTopux'b 6yAyii;ie y^BTaia 6epyTCH rjaB- 
isoH'b HBi cauaro se npocioro HapoAa. 
u uipu H B'B lOMy, HTo6u BHAaioii^iecA, Aapo- 
CKie sioAB B'B sanaAHott FocciR hofjih Jier^e do- 
3AHee H Bucmee oGpaaoBame h Boo6ni,e jer^e h 
e pasBRBBTbca nyTem o($pa30BaBia, nyreHi 

peSABBU B:b STHXl BBAaX'L CTKBeH,;pB Bl CpCA' 

iciBHX'B yqeSBUXi saBeAeniax'B h yBOxpelSjenu 



rX'^A 



'-^:^^^ 



— 329 — 

6ojiE»mifl A€|HesHUfl cpe^CTsa a^^ pasBHTk b'b dana^Hofi 
PocciH KHH»Haro ;^%jia h yqenux'B pa6oTi. Buja A^se 
Mucj[b q6t> OTKpuTiH B'b Bhj[lq'& ^yxoBHoft aRaAeiiiH, Vh 
ROTopofi 6u coBifbin^aJiHCB rjaBHtfimia snaHifl, BysHUAH 

BoscTaHOBjeno bo Bceft aANHHHCTpaTHBHod, y^e^Hod h 
o6ii^ecTBeHH0H cpeA'i rocnoACTBO pyccsaro asuKa. 

^jfl npoHHaro pasBHTifl Bcix'b dthxi a'^jei h BOo6ii^e 
j[^& npaBHJbHaro Te^esiji pyccKofi skshh B:b 9to& CTpani 
ycTpoeHO A^^ficTBHTejbHo pyccBoe ynpaBJieHie hsi pyc- 
CRHxi jriDAeft H nojoaseHO Hanajo o6pa30BaHiH) pyccxaro 
seMJieBjaA^jbHecRaro, o6pa30BaHHaro xjiacca ysasoM^b 10 
AeBa6pfl 1865 roAa, KOTopum jljbluu oco6eHHEia jibroTU 
pyccsHMi jiK)A^H'b no npio6p'lTeHiEd seMJH bi sana^Hod 
PocciH H noJLOseHi^ npe^'i^Jii ^^ajbHMmeMy yBejiHqeHin 
B^b 9T0H CTpaH*]^ nojbCRaro soMJieBjaAiHifl. 

Ema 6EiBmaro, B'b Tpy^HMniifl H3b dTHXi BpeMOHi, 
Ha'qaJibHHBa d^Bopo-sanaAHaro Bpaa, rpa(j[)a MtixaHjia Hh- 
ROJiaeBHqa MypaBbOBa, RaR'b rjtaBHMmaro ABHraTeja no?TH 
BCix'b dTHX'b A^jL^b, 6yAeTi, 6e3'b covHiHifl, Bcer^a na- 

MflTHO H HTHMO B^b Cpe^i^ HCTHHHO-pyCCRHXl> JLJOJifii. By- 

Aerb, 6e3'b coHH^Hia, Toase naHATHo h no^HTaeMO hhh 
H 6jiHsafiinaro ero npeeMHHRa, EoHCTaHTHHa BeTpoBH^a 
Kay(j[»MaHa, BHecmaro h B'b sth a'^jia* h B'b hobua, hmi 
caMHifb ^BHHyTUfl (yRas'b 10 AeRa6pfl h Apyria A'^a, 
HHse HSJoaseHHua), Heo(5HRHOBeHHoe HpaBCXBeHHoe o»hb- 
jieflie H cep^te^nyK) fijiHSOCTb jsjh •Bapo;^y. By^eTi bcdomh- 
HaTbca ci yBasemeH'b h hmh RieBCRaro reHepaj[i-ry6ep- 
Haxopa, renepaJia BeaaRa, A'^^CTBOBaBinaro TaRsce B'b 
pyccROifb Ayxii H B'b ej^HHorjiaciH cna BUDieyRasaHHUMH 

JIUlJ^aMH. 






.•■•« i 






• •* 3 









■ 11 

• *.^ .• 

n 



■- > 



r 



# 



— 330 — 

PflAOM'b CO BCei) 9T0I) CHXBHOH), IipaBHTej[BCTBeHHOH> 

A^TejibHOCTiH) pasBHB&iacB vh eAHHCTBi cb HeD 6oraTa;i, 
EHKor^a 6*5 HOBUA BpeMOHa HeBHji^aHHafl, o6mecTBeHHaji 
A'^ATejiLHocTB pyccKHXi jiD^ed H BOCTOHHOft H sanajQ^Hofi 
Poccin AJfl 6j[ara Hapo^a aroi noci^AHed cTpanu. 

YnpoHena, Kax'b nocroAHHoe y^pes^ceme, h exaja pa- 
6oTaTB BHjencKafl apxeorpa^^HHLecEaa ROMHHcm. 

OTKpuiyb ciBefo-miiSLjiflu& oTjijhjvh reorpa(|)H?ecBaro 
o6in;ecTBa. 

YcTpoena no HayHHUM'B HanaiaMi BffjceHCRaH nygjaq- 
Hax 6H6j[ioTeKa h Hanaxo y^enoe onHcaHie ^cpeBHMniHX'b 

pyCCBHX^ COKpOBHIIJ^'B Ofl. 

HanaTo H dncTpo noni.10 pasBHBaxLCA Aparoui^HHoe no 
6oraTCTBy MaxepiajOBi HS^name ^BHjeHCKaro Apxeorpa- 
^H^ecsaro c6opHHBa". 

Cj3;^jiaHU 6uj[H jsfiixe neo^uKHOBeHHoft BamHOCTH ea- 
J^Eua OTBpuTm, — Hafi;i;eHO Tas'B nasHBaeMoe TypoBCKoe 
eBanrejiie, oxHOCHHoe hhophmh b:b XI b., h JiixonHCB 
ABpaaMKa, bx Boxopoi ecxb n 3ana;i;H0-pyccBajs j^xohhcb. 

Hanaxo ynoM^Hyxoe naHH BasHoe HSAanie jHxorpa4>iH 
H onHcanifl Bem.ecxBeHHux'b h pyKonHcnux'b ff,peBEJixi» na- 
MflTHHKOB^ sana^Hog PoccIh. 

Bet axH xpyABi cocpe;];oxo'9HBaj[HCL h o^ynieBjAjrHCB b'b 
BHJEOHCBOM'B j^e6E0Wh OEpyr'6, CHa^ajia npn 6HBineH'B no- 
neiHxeji axoro OKpyra, Knasi n. A. HlHpHHCKOMi-inHX- 
MaxoB* (ao 1864 r.), a noxoMi (1864 — 8 rr.) jipa Enasfb 
nexpoBH^i KopHHJOBi. npo;i;oj[aajHCB axn js,'kjia, 11 oco- 
6eHH0 paspa^oxuBajiCA BoapocB BujieucKoi aRa^eMiH h 
BaiocB acHBonHCHoe HB^^anie naMJixHHBOB'B npn upeeMHHB^ 
n. n. KopHHJioBa, IIoMnei HHBOJiaeBHq']^ BaxK)inK0B']^ 
(1868 — 9 rr.), h ^0 xoro BpeMenn BaHHMaBmeMca A^JaMH. 



— 331 — 

saiiaAHofi PocciH, HxeHHo, sejiteHieirE n^a o DocTpofii 
yspameHiK xpaiioBi bo bc6& sanaAHOt PocciH h BSAHHi 
B^poHcnoirbABiiro aTjaca arofi crpaHH. 

MHoroQHCieHHUH 3&avieaia h Got&Tua noacepTBOB: 

E3!b BOCTOHHOfl FoCCIH COUpOBOSA&JH tOTSfi BCHKOe ;iO< 

;^o B'B aanaxHoK noiosHHft ea, a vb sToft nociiAHeJ 
nopaSHTejTbHoi) (SucTpoToo oxHsajH h HaHHsaiH xb&c 

BaTL lliCTHUH 06lIl,eCTBeHHHfl CHJU, Bl OCO(!eHBOCTH, 

BajiH H Ha^HHajiH x^ficTBOBaTb ocraTEH CTapux'b 6paTc 

H B-b HHX'S, SaX'h H Vh ApyPHXl ;t£jaxi, CTftBOBHIHCb 
AOKb B BOCTO^HO-pJCCKie, H SanSAHO-pjCCKie JVAH AJta 

CHJBHaro Tpy^a bo hhs ^eiOBiEOJDGiA, npaBocJaBHofi b 

H pyCCBOfi HapOAHOCTH. 

Bo Bceft cTpairfe Cuio Taxoe oubaoe pyccxoe eosHt 
•no noAHfl^HCb cyxnenia, cocTaBj^jHCB h xaxe h 
HacTOifB ocyn^ecTBJHJiHCb npeAnojoxeHia BsecTH pyc 
asasb Bi jaTHHCKoe fioroc^yaeHie am- pyccsHsi Jia' 
csaro saKOHa k o saxisi BecbHa HeyAofiHot jaxEHi 
asCysH 6otbe npHroABon pyccaoft asOyEofi oh khhsi 
Aifl iHTBHEOBi sanaAHod PocciH. ,II,ase vb cpeA^ sh; 
BOssHua H crajia sansjATb ce6a rpynna idabA, Hcspc 
GrapaBDiHx&a ocboGoahtl uaccy npocTUX'B, (J^ahbix'b 
AOBi OTb TazHyAa h saraaa h poABHib ax'b a. Poc( 

CaMO C0601) pasyjiieTca, tto TaKoe ciuBHoe pyccKoe 
npaBJienie a'^^ « pasBHiie pyccBaro cosBaflia Be h( 
He BOBecTH, KaK'B BcerAa fiueaJio h npesAe, Kt Boscrai 
jieHiD npaBocjiasifl Bt napoA^ jsTHBcicaro saitOHa. 3 
yse Be tituo Tor^a bi sasaAHoft PocciH; bo huofo C 
laKHxi jWAefl HS'L BapoAa, Eoxopue naoaiH wb laiBB' 
DOCpeACTBon HacBJia npn KpinocxHOH'^ cocTo^Hiu u 
cpeACTBOicB pasHHXi xHTpocrefi, H BOHHHiH en^e c 



— 332 — 



f 



SH3HL Vh pyCCKOfi vbpi HIE SH3Hb Vb Hefi CBOHX'B OT- 

JifiVb. Ohh BOSBpaiE^ajiHCB Vb npaBocjaBie, a sa hhhh no- 
mjiH H MHorie hstb ;i;aBHHX'& jaTHHJiH'b, CMyn^CHHue no3op- 
Buwb yqacrieM'E b'e Mflxes'^ mhophxi hsi iri^THoi JiaTflH- 
CKoft iepapxis h noqyBCTBOBaBinie noTpe6HocTB 611TB e^^K- 
H0& B^pu CB BejHqaSmHU'B cbohm'b fijaro^'i^TejieM'B IJ^apeirB* 

OCBOfiOAHTeieiTB H CO Bcei) PyCBD. 

PyccKoe cosHaHie, BUSBaHsce h osHBjieHHoe bi sana^- 

HOft PoCCiH TaKHMH SpynHUMU, HCTOpH^eCRHMH ABJieHiaHH, 

npoHHRjio H aaroBopHJio Ha ;(aj[BHHXi sanaxHuxi onpaH- 
flax'B pyccBHX'B nocejeaift, — bi xojMCROi o6jiacTH, cpexu 
MaiopoccoBi H 6ij[opyccoBi» dTofi crpaHu, no Hej^opasyM']^- 
nil) ocxaBmefica b'b cocTast npHBHCjflHCKHX'B rydepnifi. 
Jlyqmie MicTHue pyccKie xoJHCEoft odjacxn noHiiJiH, hto 

OHH BOBCe He nOJIAKH H TTO liLWh Heo6xOAHHO CnaCaTB CBOE) 

pyccByio B^py oitb uocjvbjsfiaro paajoseni^ vh yfiin h npe- 
BpaHi;eHiA b'b ^aTHHCXBO. PyccKie rocyAapcTBeHHue jdah 
neo6uBHOBeHHUX'B ;i;apo6aHifi h HeofiusHOBeHHaro pyccsaro 
pasBHTifl,— H. A. Mhjidthhi h bhabb HepBaccsiS, ynpas- 
jiABHiie Tor^a ^(^jiaMH IIojibhih, cpaay uohajih h noA^ep- 
sajH 9T0 HaopaBJieHie. Ha noMon^B hh'b npHmjiH MHorie 
paTo6opn;H sa PycB hbx PajHiiiiH, — aroft Bipniftmeft pyc- 
CBofi cxanHi^u na pyccBOM'B iDro-sana^i^. XoJHCBafl yeia 
6ucTpo CTaja BOSCTanoBJiHTB b'b ce6i ocxaxBH npaBOCJiaBia, 
H wb 1875 r. nocj'bAOBajio B03coe;i;RHeHie cb npaBoc^asHOK) 
i^epROBBK) uocjiifljiiivh yniaTOBi b:b npeAijax'B pyccsaro 
rocy^apcTBa, — xojtmcrhx'b ymaxoBi. 

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^acTo H MHoro nyxaJH, HCsasaiH, H3Bpani,ajH Bci ysa- 
saHHUA naHH ^^jia h nanpaBjema, h cos^^aBajin mhofo 
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— 333 — 

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H HanpaBjieHifi. Ho Ha^'B bc^mh sthmh npoasjieHiAMH ^e- 
jfOB^HecRaro HOnocTOJiHCTBa h le^OB-j^qecRHxi cxpacxeS 
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sanaAHod PocciH, a oaa saBJiiD^aeTCA b'b tomi, hto bto — 
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BAopoBUX'B, ROTopHe HO MoryTi He jifiLBSLTh pocxy H Rpa- 

COTU H CBOHM^B CTapUU'B CTBOJaM'B, £ CBOHICB MOJO^UICB 

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HoacHO ($oApo CMOTp'bTB Ha BCJiBia npeBpaiHocTH wh shshh 
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HapoAa H ero TBepj^o cnjo^ennoe e^HHCTBO. 

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He HM'^iDiii.iA HapoAHaro sna^enm h oxBaqennuH co Bcixi 
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xase npAMo Bej^yvb Kb coaepmeHHo jfoxmarb saKJinne- 
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ecjiH He cocTaBjaiDTi i^tjBHOfi, BHA^HBmeftcji rpynnu. 

Ha Hameft BapT^ ''') vii CTapaiHCB HsfiirnyTB, nacKOJBBO 
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jiefi Mil HOCTapajHCB noBasaxB npeiB^^e Bcero pyccsifi na- 
poA% vh ero BopennoMi e^HHCTB^, nodTony Bce npocTpaift- 
CTBO ero HOBpuTO ojijiOJD (posoBOK)) spacBOX), TTO, Bnpo^eifBy 



*) OcHOBa dTofi sapiH, t. e. Tasis HasHBaenaA diKa h 9THorpa(()H- 
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r. HjiLHHa. 



— 335 — 

yse A&raeTCfl h na ^^pyrnxi BapTax'B. Majropoccu h 6£- 
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pasjiraie Meac^J 6'i^JopyccaMH h uajopoccaMH. Ho mu jBifijixBU 
saaBHTB, qTO TOJIBBO HaiDH onaceHifl ycjiosHHTB H3;i(aHie 
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HHX'B HeJBHXrB, HO ynopHO JBHBy^HX'B BenijaXlB. TOJTBBO c£- 



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sajtyuaTbca. Mu 3ji;£ci> nosBOJHvi ce(!i boBth b% h^ 
ina HOBEui o&bacHeHia, ByxBua, BopoveHi, h aih 
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ibHBUHt (hu ero yBasusa^H ah HameMi HsxaEiH), i 
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'H H s&H^^aTejbHuS no tioraTCTsy aihhhxi h pyc- ' 
' BsrjHAy Ha BHxi „yqe6Hufl aTJiacb Poccia" H. H. 
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vb, aasercA, He noHATa, a i^^HHocTb 3Ta o^eab bb- 

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BO BCixi y?e6Hux'b axjacaxi pa^oicB ci 3THorpa- 
yexm Baproi) Poccin. 



— 337 — 

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pyCCKOH HCTOpiH, ^TO pyCCBlfl HapOA'B Bl CBOeft HCTOpHHe- 
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;^HTeJiBHie. 9to Bapra Poccin noTOOHHaa, Ha aroft Bapri 
MOSHO BHA'&TB, MOSAy Hpo^HMi, HamH rpoMa^Hue ^epHo- 

22 









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CBOftCTBO. 

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n HanojEHeHu caHHM'b rycTHM'B, cnjiomnusTB naceJie* 
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